How to make an in text citation?
- On the References tab,in the Citations Bibliography group,click the arrow next to Style and click the style that you want to use for the citation and source.
- Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite.
- On the Reference tab,click Insert Citation and then do one of the following: To add the source information,click Add New Source,and then,in the Create Source dialog
- If you chose to add a source,enter the details for the source. To add more information about a source,click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.
- Click OK when finished. The source is added as a citation at the place you selected in your document.
- 1 How do you cite in-text MLA?
- 2 How do you properly cite in-text?
- 3 How do you cite a chapter in a book MLA?
- 4 How do you do in text citations with no author?
- 5 How do you cite a tweet MLA?
- 6 How do you cite a book in an essay MLA?
- 7 How do you cite sources?
- 8 How do you cite a chapter in-text?
- 9 A complete guide to MLA in-text citations
- 10 Where to include an MLA in-text citation
- 11 Citing sources with no page numbers
- 12 Citing different sources with the same author name
- 13 Citing sources indirectly
- 14 Frequently asked questions about MLA in-text citations
- 15 Library Guides: MLA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation
- 16 In-Text Citations: An Overview
- 16.0.1 Citation in prose
- 16.0.2 Parenthetical citation
- 16.0.3 Work cited
- 16.0.4 Citation in prose
- 16.0.5 Parenthetical citation
- 16.0.6 Work cited
- 16.0.7 Parenthetical citations
- 16.0.8 Parenthetical citations
- 16.0.9 Works cited
- 16.0.10 Citations (incorrect)
- 16.0.11 Citations (correct)
- 16.0.12 Citation (incorrect)
- 16.0.13 Citation (correct)
- 17 Research Guides: MLA (Modern Language Association) Style: In-text citations
- 18 MLA In-Text Citations
- 19 When to Use a Block Quotation
- 20 MLA: Citing Within Your Paper
- 21 Using MLA in-text citations
- 22 Citing books, articles, and other sources parenthetically in your paper
- 23 Formatting quotations according to the MLA guidelines
How do you cite in-text MLA?
In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.
How do you properly cite in-text?
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
How do you cite a chapter in a book MLA?
The basic format for citing a book chapter in MLA format is: Author(s) of Chapter. “Title of Chapter: Subtitle of Chapter.” Title of Book, edited by Editor of Book, Publisher, Publication Date, page numbers.
- Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
- When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style” capitalization, and the year.
How do you cite a tweet MLA?
Last name, First name [Username]. “Tweet Message. ” Twitter, date posted, URL. Note: When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation.
How do you cite a book in an essay MLA?
Works Cited List: Last name, First name. “Title of Essay.” Title of Collection, edited by Editor Name(s). Publisher, Year, pp Page range of entry.
How do you cite sources?
To refer to a source, you may quote or paraphrase the original text: To quote a source, copy a short piece of text word for word and put it inside quotation marks. To paraphrase a source, put the text into your own words.
How do you cite a chapter in-text?
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
- General Format.
- In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
- (Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], Year)
- In-Text Citation (Quotation):
- (Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], Year, page number)
- References (Quotation):
- Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], First Initial.
- or chapter title.
A complete guide to MLA in-text citations
Shona McCombes published a new article on July 9, 2019. On July 2, 2021, a revision was made. It is necessary to supply the author’s last name and page number in parentheses when using anMLAin-text citation. If a source has more than one author, provide the names of both. If a source includes more than two authors, just the first author should be included, followed by the phrase “et al.” If the section you’re quoting is spread across numerous pages, make sure to provide the whole page range. You can use commas to separate the page numbers of several non-consecutive pages when citing numerous non-consecutive pages at once.
|Number of authors||Example|
|1 author||(Moore 37)|
|2 authors||(Moore and Patel 48–50)|
|3+ authors||(Moore et al. 59, 34)|
Each in-text citation must be accompanied by a complete reference in the Works Cited section of the paper. With the free Scribbr Citation Generator, you can quickly and easily generate and store your citations. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
- MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
- MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
- MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
- MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
Where to include an MLA in-text citation
Placing the parenthetical reference immediately after the relevant quotation or paraphrase and before the period or other punctuation mark is recommended (except withblock quotes, where the citation comes after the period). If you’ve already mentioned the author in the sentence, all you need to do now is put the page number within parentheses. The phrase “and others” or “and colleagues” should be used instead of “et al.” when referencing a source with three or more authors outside of parenthesis.
- The MLA citation style is the second most common citation style, according to Smith and Morrison (17–19). According to Smith and Morrison (17–19), the MLA citation style is the second most used citation style. The American Psychological Association (APA) is by far “the most widely used citation style in the United States” (Moore et al. 74), but it is less dominant in the United Kingdom (Smith 16)
- Moore and colleagues state that APA is more popular in the United States than elsewhere(74)
- Moore and colleagues state that APA is
Whenever more than one source is cited in support of a single statement, the citations can be combined into a single pair of parentheses. Use an asemicolon to distinguish between the two sources. Livestock production is one of the most significant contributors to climate change on a worldwide scale (Garcia 64; Davies 14).
Consecutive citations of the same source
For the first time you reference a source, you can give the complete citation; however, for future citations, you can only include the page number. This is especially useful when citing the same source more than once inside a paragraph. Smith and Morrison (17–19) report that MLA is the second most frequent citation style. It is more prevalent than the Chicago style, although it is less popular than the American Psychological Association style (21). You are permitted to do so as long as it is obvious from the text which source you are referring.
It is necessary to match the first element of the Works Cited item to the in-text citation for sources that do not have a listed author.
It is acceptable to abbreviate a source title or organizational name that is more than four words lengthy to the first word or phrase included in the in-text citation, eliminating any articles (a, an,andthe).
Titles should be formatted according to the generalMLA rules: If the source is a self-contained work (for example, a full website or an entire book), the title should be in italics; if the source is a part of a larger whole (for example, a page on a website or a chapter of a book), the title should be enclosed in quotes.
|Full source title or organization name||In-text citation|
|Amnesty International Report 2017/2018: The State of the World’s Human Rights||(Amnesty International Report187)|
|“Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions”||(“Sources”)|
|“A Quick Guide to Proofreading”||(“Quick Guide”)|
|National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Academy||(National Academy 24)|
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Consider the following illustration:
Citing sources with no page numbers
For sources that do not contain page numbers but are separated into numbered sections (e.g., Chapters and Scenes in a Book of Mormon; Bible Books and Verse; Articles of the Constitution; or timestamps), utilize these numbers to identify the appropriate portion. It is sufficient to provide merely the author’s name as part of the in-text citation if the source does not employ a numerical system. Except if explicitly numbered in the source, do not add paragraph numbers when citing sources.
|Source type||What to do||Example|
|Source divided into numbered parts||Add a comma after the author and give a paragraph, section, or chapter number with a relevant abbreviation.||(Luxemburg, ch. 26)|
|Playwith numbered lines||Include the act, scene, and line numbers, separated by periods, instead of a page number.||(Shakespeare1.2.95)|
|Audiovisual source||Include the time range as displayed in the media player.||(Wynn 10:23–45)|
|Source with no numbered divisions||Include only the author’s name (or, if there is no author, the shortened title).||(Rajaram)|
It is important to note that if there are no numbered divisions and you have already identified the author in your sentence, no parenthetical citation is required.
If you have more than one item under the same last name on your Works Cited page, you must make a distinction between these sources in your in-text citations in order to avoid plagiarism.
To indicate which source you are referring to when you mention more than one work by the same author, use a shorter title in your bibliography. It is acceptable to cite numerous sources by the same author (Butler, Gender Trouble27) (Butler, “Performative Acts” 522) According to this example, the title of the first source is italicized, while the title of the second source is in quote marks since it is an article that has been published in a journal, respectively.
To indicate which source you are referring to when you cite more than one work by the same author, use a shorter title. Using numerous sources by the same author (Butler, “Gender Trouble27”) (Butler, “Performative Acts” 522) is acceptable. According to this example, the title of the first source is italicized, while the title of the second source is in quote marks because it is an article published in a journal.
Citing sources indirectly
It is possible that you will wish to mention anything that you discovered was quoted in a secondary source. Always try to locate the original source and reference it explicitly if at all feasible. If you are unable to obtain access to the original source, be careful to provide the names of both the original author and the author of the source that you obtained access to. In order to specify where you found the quotation, you should use the abbreviation “qtd. in” (short for “quoted in”). As an example of an indirect quotation in MLA style, Marx describes “the two major generators of wealth” as “labour-power and land” (qtd.
Frequently asked questions about MLA in-text citations
What is the proper way to reference material from a footnote in MLA format? Some types of sources, such as books and journal articles, may include footnotes (or endnotes) that provide further information about the source. The following are the criteria for referencing material from a note in an in-text citation according to MLA style:
- Write “n” after the page number and then the note number, for example, (Smith 105n2), to quote material from a single-numbered note. To reference information from several numbered notes, use the notation “nn” followed by a range, for example, (Smith 77n1–2)
- If you want to reference material from an unnumbered note, add “un” after the page number with a space between them, for example, (Jones 250 un)
In MLA format, how do I reference a source that does not include an author or page numbers? If a source does not have an author, the MLA Works Citedentry should begin with the source title. In your in-text citation, you should use an abbreviated version of the title. You can use an alternate locator (e.g., a chapter number for a book or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant part in your in-text citation if the source doesn’t have page numbers available.
If there are no numbered divisions in the source, only the author’s name should be used (or the title). There is no requirement for a parenthetical citation if you have already identified the author or title in your sentence and there is no locator accessible. For example:
- As Rajaram contends, “cultural, political, and ideological objectives” influence how people see migration. “A movement for fundamentally alternative news,” according to the website of The Correspondent.
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Library Guides: MLA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation
MLA style allows you to put the author’s name either inside the narrative body of your work or after the source’s citation in parentheses after the source’s citation. The following is an excerpt from the tale that includes the author’s name: According to Gass and Varonis, familiarity with the topic is the most essential factor in interpreting non-native communication in a foreign language (163). The following is the author’s name in parentheses: According to one study, familiarity with the subject matter is the most crucial factor in interpreting non-native language speaking (Gass and Varonis 163).
- The following is a direct quote: “The listener’s acquaintance with the topic of discourse substantially aids the comprehension of the entire message,” according to one research (Gass and Varonis 85).
- Note: For quotations that are longer than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, quotations should be displayed as an indented block of text (one inch from the left margin) and quotation marks should be omitted.
- In addition to boosting awareness, it has been demonstrated that practicing listening to accented speech can increase one’s listening comprehension.
- Even a little exposure to accented speech can assist listeners improve their understanding, which in turn can enhance the level of service provided to international customers in general.
In-Text Citations: An Overview
In-text citations are brief, unobtrusive references that direct readers to the works-cited-list entries for the sources you consulted as well as, where applicable, to the location in the source being cited. In-text citations are used to direct readers to the works-cited-list entries for the sources you consulted. When you use an in-text citation, you begin with the shortest piece of information that directs your reader to the corresponding entry in the works-cited list.
As a result, it begins with whichever of the following appears first in the entry: the author’s name or the title (or description) of the piece of writing. The citation can be included anywhere in your writing, including in parenthesis.
Citation in prose
Naomi Baron was the first person to break fresh ground on the issue.
At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Baron).
Naomi S. Baron’s “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media” is available online. Pages 193–200 of PMLA’s 128, no. 1 (January 2013) are available online.
Citation in prose
Female bhakti poets, according to the article “Bhakti Poets,” “experienced insurmountable problems as a result of their rejection of traditional norms and ideals.”
According to the author, the female bhakti poets “were confronted with insurmountable problems as a result of their rejection of society norms and values” (Bhakti Poets).
“Introduction to the Bhakti Poets.” Women in World History, Center for History and New Media, chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson1/lesson1.php?s=0; Women in World History, Center for History and New Media, chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson1/lesson1.php?s=0 . Accessed on the 20th of September, 2020. Whenever it is appropriate, an in-text citation must include a second component: when someone quotes or paraphrases a specific part of a work and the work includes a page number, line number, time stamp, or other method of directing readers to a specific point in the work where the information can be found, the location marker must be included in parentheses.
“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (194). One could even argue that reading is never complete until it is accompanied by writing. “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (3). It is also acceptable to include the author or title in parentheses next to the page number or other location marker.
“Reading is only half of literacy,” says the author. “The other half of the team is writing” (Baron 194). One could even argue that reading is never complete until it is accompanied by writing. The number of people who conduct creative writing, regardless of genre (and not just literary works), climbed dramatically between 1982 and 2002 despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period, according to the study (Reading3).
Naomi S. Baron’s “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media” is available online. Pages 193–200 of PMLA’s 128, no. 1 (January 2013) are available online. Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America is a survey of literary reading in the United States. The National Endowment for the Arts published this article in June 2004. All in-text citations should be brief and to the point. Avoid, for example, using the author’s name or the title of a work in both your text and your parentheses while writing a paper.
“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (Baron 194).
“The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (Reading3).
“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (194). “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (3). Only the component of an author’s name—typically his or her surname—that is essential to locate that item in a list of works referenced should be used in parenthetical citations (for more information on surnames, see sections 2.73–2.81 in The Modern Language Association’s ninth edition of the MLA Handbook).
At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Naomi S. Baron).
At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Baron). In parenthetical citations, use abbreviated titles to save space. To learn how to reduce titles in parenthetical citations, refer to sections 6.10–6.14 of the MLA Handbook, ninth edition, for more information. In order to save space, do not include the prefix p.orpp. before a page number in a parenthetical reference, as you would in a list of works cited (where such abbreviations lend clarity). You should precede any number other than a page number in a parenthetical citation with a name such aschapterorsection (commonly abbreviated in parentheses) orlineorlines (typically abbreviated in parentheses) (do not abbreviate).
Research Guides: MLA (Modern Language Association) Style: In-text citations
In-text citations are also referred to as parenthetical references, which is easy to recall because the parenthetical reference occurs in the same sentence as the in-text citation. Author-pagestyle is used by the MLA. In your report, you will cite the author’s last name as well as the page number from where you took your quotation. You will use the last name in either the phrase or the parentheses, depending on your preference. You can see both in action in the video below: “Our personas are really masks that we put on in order to sell ourselves to others” (Berger 87).
This is normally the initial word in the bibliographical item, followed by the word (name) that appears between the parenthesis.
Block quotations should be used for prose quotes that are longer than four lines.
- A colon should be placed at the end of the line that you write to start your lengthy quotation. Indent the long quotation by 0.5 inch from the rest of the text, so that it appears as a block of text. It is not necessary to include quote marks around the quotation. After the quotation, provide the following information: (author’s last name, page number)
- The period should be placed before your in-text citation rather than after, as it would be with standard citations
For example, near the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, the boys are confronted with the reality of their actions: “The tears began to pour and sobs rocked him.” It was the first time on the island that he really surrendered himself to them; he had big, shuddering spasms of anguish that seemed to rip his entire body apart. In the thick black smoke before the engulfing wreckage of the island, his voice soared over the din of sobbing and shaking. The other small boys were swept up in the emotion and began to tremble and sob as well.
/ is used to denote line breaks between stanzas.
as an illustration: (Donne, lines 26-28) Poetry quotations that are longer than four lines are cited in the same way as prose quotes that are longer than four lines are quoted.
Our imperfection is both a lovely fault and a horrible ornament. We have a savage and metal-clad little guy on our hands. (Brooks, lines 1 through 6)
MLA In-Text Citations
When you quote straight from a source and put it in your own words, or when you paraphrase someone else’s concept, you must tell the reader where you got the information from so that the author gets credit. When you mention the author’s name within the body of your article, this is referred to as an in-text citation. Citations inside the text are enclosed in parentheses and consist of two parts.
- This is the first word that appears in the entire citation on the Works Cited page (which is generally the author’s last name)
- Where the direct quotation or paraphrase appears (generally indicated by a page number)
If possible, in-text citations should be inserted right following a quotation or paraphrase, as well as at a natural pause in the text that will not allow the reader to become distracted while reading the main body of your work. For example, Watney understood exactly what he needed to do in order to keep his family from starving. I’ve found that potatoes are the most effective way to increase caloric intake (Weir 17). When the author’s name is included in a sentence, just the page number should be included in the parentheses.
Seuss to describe the Once-persona ler’s helps children comprehend what kind of character he is (6).
When to Use a Block Quotation
An example of a quotation is one that is contained in double quotation marks and is used as part of a sentence within a paragraph in your document. But if you wish to quote more than four lines of prose (or three lines of verse) from a source, you should arrange the extract as a block quotation rather than placing it within the text of a paragraph. The majority of the conventional rules for quotes continue to apply, with the exception of the following: A block quotation will begin on its own line, will not be contained in quotation marks, and its in-text citation will appear after the last punctuation mark, not before it, in the body of the text.
Spacing and Alignment
The full block quotation should be indented one inch from the left margin on the left side of your document. It is not necessary to indent the first line of the extract any more unless you are quoting many paragraphs, in which case the first line of each quoted paragraph should be indented 0.25 inches further. A block citation in MLA format should be double-spaced, just like the remainder of your document should be as well.
MLA: Citing Within Your Paper
It is necessary to add the author’s last name and the page number if you are quoting from a book or other work (if available). If the author’s last name and the page number are not included in your sentence, insert the author’s last name and the page number in parenthesis after the quotation to indicate who wrote it. There are no page numbers in the source, thus this can be left out of the reference. As an illustration: “The methodical expansion of literacy and schooling resulted in a new separation in society, between the learned and the uneducated,” writes the author (Cook-Gumperz 27).
- Always begin and end the quotation with a signal verb and an explanation once it has been read.
- It is not necessary to include a parenthetical reference when introducing a book that does not have page numbers because the author’s name is given as part of the introduction.
- And so access to learning resulted in the formation of yet another social hierarchy.
- While it is OK to summarize or paraphrase material from a source, you must still reference the author’s last name and the page where the information can be located in the source (if there are page numbers available).
- Some believe that leaning too much on the Internet for information may impair our mental skills as well as our capacity to read books and other lengthy pieces of writing (Carr).
- Your in-text citation will only include the author’s last name if the eBook does not include explicit page numbers on the title page.
- Using a location such as volume (vol.
), or paragraph (par.) would be appropriate only if the material is divided into chapter or section numbers that are constant across all mediums (Kindle, Nook, PDF, and so on) (par.).
If there are no page numbers, the author’s name is the only thing that has to be included.
When mentioning a web page, it is important to identify whether the author is a person or a company.
If an author’s name is not supplied, you may mention the organization instead. In general, the word(s) that occur first in your Works Cited entry should be the same word(s) that appear in your parenthetical citation, as a rule of thumb.
Author is an Individual
It is necessary to add the author’s last name and the page number if you are quoting from a book or other source (if available). If the author’s last name and the page number are not included in your sentence, insert the author’s last name and the page number in parenthesis after the quotation to identify the author. There are no page numbers in the source, therefore this may be eliminated from the reference. As an illustration, consider: “The methodical expansion of literacy and schooling resulted in a new separation in society, between the learned and the uneducated,” the author observes (Cook-Gumperz 27).
- Always begin and end the quotation with a signal verb and an explanation following it to make it more meaningful.
- It is not necessary to include a parenthetical reference when introducing a book that does not have page numbers because the author’s name is given in the introduction.
- And thus access to education resulted in the formation of yet another social stratification.
- You should still cite the author’s last name and the page number on which the material may be located in a source even if you are paraphrasing or summarizing facts (if there are page numbers available).
- It has been suggested that leaning too much on the Internet for information may impair our mental faculties as well as our capacity to read novels and other lengthy works (Carr).
- Your in-text citation will include just the author’s last name if the eBook does not have clear page numbers included.
- Using a location such as volume (vol.
), or paragraph (par.) would be appropriate only if the material is organized into chapter or section numbers that are constant across all mediums (Kindle, Nook, PDF, etc).
According to the American Psychological Association, “Adult development is the scientific study of changes in behaviors, attitudes, and emotions that occur during adulthood” (Mossler, ch.
It has been reported that identical twins who were raised apart have comparable sentiments (Palfrey, pars.
In the same manner that any other source is mentioned, a web page must provide the author’s name and page number as well.
Although you should avoid include any paragraph numbers unless they are specifically defined, you can include them if they are expressly indicated Always rely on others to count your paragraphs for you.
If no author name is available, you may reference the organization. As a general rule, the word(s) that appear first in your Works Cited entry should be the same as the word(s) that occur first in your parenthetical citations.
Author is an Organization/Company/University/Agency
. (United States Coast Guard).
If there is no author listed on your web page, provide a shorter version of the article title between quote marks to serve as a substitute (“”). Remove articles such as the, a, and a from your sentences. Make certain, however, that the key terms you use for your in-text citation correspond to the key words you choose for your Works Cited entry so that your reader can readily identify between the sources you are referring. The following web page title should be included between quotation marks (“”) if there is no obvious article title: (See “Policies and Procedures” 3 for more information.) If your material does not include the name of an author, you can add the title of a web page or an article between quote marks: A collapse of the main ramp of the San Jose mine traps 33 workers 2,300 feet below for two months, stranding them for two months (“All 33 Chile Miners”).
You should mention the book title initalics if you are referencing a book or eBook that does not have an author: In the words of Merriam-Collegiate Webster’s Dictionary, andragogy is “the approach and practice of educating adult learners.” When a group or an organization develops a work, that organization, company, university, government agency, or association can be considered as the author of that work under certain circumstances.
In this scenario, the author should be identified by the group’s complete name, as follows: (From the San Diego State University website) 4) Once again, make certain that the text of your parenthetical citation corresponds to the first few words of your Works Cited section.
The conjunction “and” should be used for both your end-of-sentence citation and when the final names are a part of your sentence when your source includes two authors: Jones and Fraenza (Jones and Fraenza, 3). It was stated explicitly by Jones and Fraenza in their article. (3).
3 or More Authors
When there are three or more writers named, just the last name of the first author listed should be included, followed by the phrase “et al.” (Lekkerkerk and colleagues 2) That was explored by Lekkerkerk and colleagues. (2). If your list of works mentioned includes two or more works by the same author, your citation must include the precise text of the work in addition to the author’s name in order to be considered complete. Incorporate the title within the text or use a parenthetical reference to refer to it.
- Consider the following example: Around the age of seven, children learn to utilize appropriate gestures in conjunction with their stories (Gardner,Arts144-145).
- A semicolon should be used to denote the separation of references when using a single parenthetical citation to refer to more than one work.
- In the field of information science, a secondary source (also known as an indirect source) is any source that references or quotes another source.
- To reference a source that you discovered in another source, begin your sentence with the author of the original source (direct source) and end it with “qtd.
- For example, according to Smith, students require the assistance of teachers and staff in order to achieve (qtd.
- Generally speaking, if feasible, it is preferable to go directly to the source of information.
- In order to avoid confusion with page numbers, you should prefix the numbers with “line” or “lines” in the first citation; after that, you should only use numbers.
However, when he says, “In me though seest the lighting of such fire / That on the ashes of his youth doth lay,” he is referring to the process of aging (9-10).
Instead, reference the act and scene (or parts) together with the line numbers.
The disguised Edward is heard later in King Lear saying, “The lord of darkness is a gentleman,” according to Shakespeare (3.4.147).
When Willie Loman is attacked by his wife Linda in Arthur Miller’s playDeath of a Salesman, the most moving defense of her husband comes from her: “He’s hardly the best guy that ever lived.” Nonetheless, he is a human being, and something dreadful is happening to him.
The ancient dog in the grave is not to be permitted to die in peace.
Whenever you are referencing a media source that does not have page numbers but does include time stamps (such as a video, speech, or interview), you can mention the period of time you are quoting in a parenthetical citation as follows: For example, Stevenson claims that “in 1972 there were 300,000 individuals in jails and prisons; today the number is 2.3 million” (05:52-05:58).
for Genesis,” “Rev.” for Revelations,” etc.), and then the chapter and verse numbers in Arabic numerals after the abbreviation. According to the Bible, God “did. confuse the language of all the world” at the Tower of Babel (Gen. 11.9).
Using MLA in-text citations
Information regarding parenthetical citations in general
How do I cite sources in my paper?
The following procedures apply to both print and electronic sources and are essentially the same in both cases. When you quote or paraphrase a specific section of a text from a source, include enough information — most commonly the author’s last name and the page number — to let the reader to locate the exact section of the text that you are referencing. The title of the work, as well as the name of the author, will need to be referenced, either in the sentence itself or in the parenthetical citation, if you are referencing two sources written by the same author.
The parenthetical information should not repeat material that has already been provided in your text (for example, if you have included the author’s name in your text, you should not add it in the reference).
How should I format my quotations and citation information?
If the direct reference, paraphrase, or quote is less than four lines in length, provide the citation information in parentheses at the end of the sentence, immediately following any quotation marks and just before the sentence’s final punctuation. When you have a quotation that is more than four lines long, you should use the block quotation format: indent one-half inch from the left margin, double space the quotation, and do not use quotation marks. The parenthetical citation should be placed after the period (or other mark of punctuation) that marks the conclusion of the block quotation.
Instead of using page numbers, if an electronic source uses paragraph or section numbers instead of page numbers, use the appropriate abbreviation (e.g., “par.”; do not count paragraphs if they are not numerically referenced in the electronic source; do not include any numbers in your citation if the electronic source does not provide page or paragraph numbers).
After that, include any other identifying information—such as abbreviations for “chapter” and “section”—and then the appropriate number.
Citing books, articles, and other sources parenthetically in your paper
The examples on this page, in conjunction with the instructions regarding organizing and formatting in–text citations provided here, demonstrate how a variety of different source types are appropriately mentioned in accordance with MLA’s citation requirements. –Includes the author’s name in the text Magny elaborates on his point of view (67-69). –The author’s name appears in the reference This is an argument that has been previously explored (Magny 67-69). Indirect or “secondhand” sources were used to find this quotation.
- in Magny 66).
- –The names of two writers appear in the reference list.
- A reference to the volume and page in a multivolume book is necessary.
- The reference is to the entire volume.
- –On the list of works referenced, there are two works by the same author.
- And while this relationship may seem odd given the themes and substance of A Clockwork Orange, Frye’s unique viewpoint on the nature of genres gives light on this uncommon pairing (“Rhetorical Criticism: Theory of Genres”).
- –There are two sources given.
–Personal interview; the interviewer’s name is stated in the text Phys ed instructors must comprehend the link between physical exercise and fitness, according to Parsons, who tackles this issue.
Quote from a play with page numbers is provided.
Quotation from a play that includes division and line numbers As demonstrated by the Duke’s admonition that the best answer to sadness is to move on (Othello1.3.208–209), this is a valid point.
“What is it to realize the absolute value / of negative grace.?” Barry inquires with a cutting tone.
Source that makes use of paragraph numbers in its electronic form The workplace in the semiconductor industry is extremely hazardous (Ross par.
35). –Electronic source that makes use of chapter and section numbers to organize information “Once we begin to rely heavily on a tool, it begins to rely heavily on us” (Rawlins ch. 1, sec. 1).
Formatting quotations according to the MLA guidelines
When a direct reference, summary, paraphrase, or quote is used, parenthetical citations are used at the conclusion of the sentence in which the reference is made. Citations for quotes that are less than four lines should be placed after the closing quotation marks and before the sentence’s concluding punctuation (see example below). When you have a quotation that is longer than four lines long, use theblock quotationformat:
- In the majority of circumstances, a colon should be used to introduce the quotation
- One-half inch from the left margin, indent the quotation. The quotation should be double spaced. It is not necessary to use quote marks.
After the period (or other mark of punctuation) that concludes the block quote, include the parenthetical citation (author and page number) in the block quotation.