APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.
How to make an in text citation?
- On the References tab,in the Citations Bibliography group,click the arrow next to Style and click the style that you want to use for the citation and source.
- Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite.
- On the Reference tab,click Insert Citation and then do one of the following: To add the source information,click Add New Source,and then,in the Create Source dialog
- If you chose to add a source,enter the details for the source. To add more information about a source,click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.
- Click OK when finished. The source is added as a citation at the place you selected in your document.
- 1 How do you start an in text citation for a sentence in APA?
- 2 How do you in text cite APA 7th edition?
- 3 How do you do in text citations APA for websites?
- 4 How do you start an in text citation?
- 5 Do you put in-text citations at the end of the sentence APA?
- 6 Can you do in-text citations in the middle of a sentence APA?
- 7 How do you do in-text citations?
- 8 Where are in-text citations placed in APA?
- 9 How do you cite APA 6th edition?
- 10 How do you in text cite APA with no author?
- 11 How do you in text cite a website in APA with no author?
- 12 How do you cite a whole paragraph in APA?
- 13 How do you cite a word in APA?
- 14 How do you cite a sentence in APA?
- 15 How do you write et al in APA?
- 16 In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
- 17 APA Citation Basics
- 18 Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation
- 19 Beginner’s guide to APA in-text citation
- 20 Worried about in-text citation errors?
- 21 APA in-text citations explained in 4 minutes
- 22 No author, date or page number
- 23 Multiple sources in one parenthesis
- 24 Avoiding ambiguity in APA in-text citations
- 25 Citing indirect sources (“as cited in”)
- 26 Citing personal communication
- 27 General mentions of websites and software
- 28 Example paragraph with in-text citations
- 29 Frequently Asked Questions
- 30 Library Guides: APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation
- 31 Library: Citing Sources in APA Style 7th edition: In-Text Citations
- 31.1 Specific examples from a source
- 31.2 One author
- 31.3 Two authors
- 31.4 Three or more authors
- 31.5 Group authors
- 31.6 Works without authors
- 31.7 Works without a date
- 31.8 Different works with the same author and date
- 31.9 Citing multiple works
- 31.10 Citing a secondary source
- 31.11 Personal communication (in personelectronic)
- 32 LibGuides: Citation Resources: APA 7th Ed: In-Text Citations
- 33 LibGuides: APA Style & Citation 7th edition: Citations: In-Text
- 34 CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations
- 35 Library Guides: APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide: In-Text Citations
- 36 APA: Citing Within Your Paper
- 37 Author–date citation system
- 38 Number of authors to include in in-text citations
- 39 Exceptions to the basic in-text citation styles
- 40 Repeating a citation
- 41 Further guidelines for in-text citations
How do you start an in text citation for a sentence in APA?
A ‘narrative’ in-text citation incorporates the citation information within the text you are writing. Spencer (2006) notes that it is acceptable “to state the author’s name at the beginning of the sentence, rather than always putting it in the parenthetical citation” (pp. 5-6).
How do you in text cite APA 7th edition?
Parenthetical Citations APA 7 Style uses the author-date citation method with parentheses. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) the quote appears. For quotations that are on one page, type “p.” before the page number.
How do you do in text citations APA for websites?
When citing a web page or online article in APA Style, the in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).
How do you start an in text citation?
To quote a critic or researcher, you can use an introductory phrase naming the source, followed by a comma. Note that the first letter after the quotation marks should be upper case. According to MLA guidelines, if you change the case of a letter from the original, you must indicate this with brackets.
Do you put in-text citations at the end of the sentence APA?
Parenthetical citations in APA style often appear at the end of sentences to indicate quoted or paraphrased information. They typically consist of the author’s last name and the year of publication.
Can you do in-text citations in the middle of a sentence APA?
When multiple studies support what you have to say, you can also include mid-sentence in-text citations. You can also use mid -sentence in-text citation if the study supports only a part of the sentence so that it is clear which material has come from which source.
How do you do in-text citations?
In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.
Where are in-text citations placed in APA?
In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper.
How do you cite APA 6th edition?
Citation Help for APA, 6th Edition: In-text Citations
- Give the author’s last name and the publication year.
- Only use page numbers for a direct quote.
- Make sure the source information in parentheses matches with your works cited.
- The punctuation for the sentence goes AFTER the parenthesis.
- Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
- When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style” capitalization, and the year.
Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.: (“All 33 Chile Miners,” 2010). Note: Use the full title of the web page if it is short for the parenthetical citation.
How do you cite a whole paragraph in APA?
If the paragraph has fewer than 40 words, put it within quotation marks. Before the final punctuation but after the closing quotation mark, include the author’s last name, a comma, the publication date, a comma and the page number within parentheses.
How do you cite a word in APA?
Quoted material should be reproduced word-for-word. Always include the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number(s).
How do you cite a sentence in APA?
In a narrative citation, the author(s) appear as part of your sentence. Place the year in parentheses directly after the author’s name, and place the page number in parentheses directly after the quote.
How do you write et al in APA?
The abbreviation “et al.” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten in-text citations with three or more authors. Here’s how it works: Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
J. Lawrence is a writer and editor who lives in the United Kingdom (1940-1941). It was also extremely difficult for migrants to leave the South due to the actions of these individuals. In addition, they frequently went to railroad terminals and detained large groups of black people, causing them to miss their train: The Migration Series is a collection of short stories on migration. In New York, the Metropolitan Museum of Art (MoMA) celebrates its 150th anniversary this year.
APA Citation Basics
When writing in APA format, the author-date technique of in-text citation should be used. This implies that the last name of the author, as well as the year of publication for the source, should be included in the text, such as, for example (Jones, 1998). The reference list at the conclusion of the document should contain one complete reference for each source cited throughout the study. If you are referring to an idea from another work but are not directly quoting the material, or if you are making reference to an entire book, article, or other work, you only need to include the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and do not need to include the page number in your reference.
Before providing the page number, use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) to indicate that it is the first page (s).
If you want to write (Jones, 1998, p.
199–201), for example, you might write This information is restated in the next section.
Capitalization, quotations, and italics/underlining are all acceptable in-text citations.
- Proper nouns, including author names and initials, should always be capitalized: Jones, D.
- Jones, D. If you make reference to the title of a source inside your work, be sure to capitalize any terms that are four letters or longer in length within the title of a source, such as: The concepts of permanence and change are intertwined. Short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs are exempt from this rule. Examples include: There is nothing left to lose when it comes to new media writing.
(Please keep in mind that just the first word of a title will be capitalized in your References list: Writing new media.)
- Titles that contain a hyphenated compound word should be capitalized on both words: Cyborgs that were born naturally
- After a dash or a colon, capitalize the first word that follows: Hitchcock’s Vertigo serves as a case study in “Defining Film Rhetoric.” For works whose titles are italics in your reference list, italicize them in the text as well, and use title case capitalization in the text: Friends
- The Wizard of Oz
- The Closing of the American Mind
- The Closing of the American Mind If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even if the reference list is written in sentence case): “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
- ” “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
- ” “The One in which Chandler is unable to cry.”
It is necessary to mention the author, publication year, and page number for a reference when directly quoting from a book (preceded by “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for a span of several pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash). Using a signal phrase that comprises the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. Jones (1998) states that “students frequently had problems utilizing APA style, particularly when it was their first time” (p.
Jones (1998) discovered that “students frequently had trouble employing APA style” (p.
Wherever possible, omitting the author’s last name but including his or her year of publication and page number in the text of the sentence will be accepted as proper citation practice.
Jones (1998) said that “students frequently had problems employing the APA style,” however she could not provide an explanation as to why this was the case.
Direct quotations that are 40 words or more should be included in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, with quotation marks omitted if possible. Starting on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, or at the same spot as you would begin a new paragraph, insert the quotation at the beginning of the paragraph. Create a new margin and indent any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by separating them by 1/2 inch from the new margin. Type the full quotation on the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by 1/2 inch from the new margin.
The parenthetical citation should appear after the period at the end of the paragraph.
An example of how to format block quotes in the APA 7 style.
Quotations from sources without pages
It is not necessary to include a page number in direct quotations from sources that do not contain any pages. As an alternative, you may refer to another piece of logical identification, such as a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else entirely. Older works (such as religious writings) may additionally include particular location identifiers, such as verse numbers, to help readers find their way around. For the most part, choose a page number replacement that makes sense for your original material.
Summary or paraphrase
The author and year of publication are all that are required in your in-text reference if you are paraphrasing a concept from another book. The page numbers are not required in this case. According to APA rules, however, giving a page range for a summary or paraphrase where it will assist the reader in finding the material in a lengthier work is strongly encouraged. As Jones (1998) points out, the APA style is a tough citation format to master for first-time learners. For first-time learners, APA style is a tough citation system to master (Jones, 1998, p.
Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation
Rather than appearing at the conclusion of long clauses or phrases, in-text references should occur immediately after the title, word, or phrase to which they are closely related. References inside the text should always come before punctuation marks. The following are some examples of in-text citations. The following is the author’s name in parentheses: According to one study, familiarity with the subject matter is the most crucial factor in interpreting non-native language speaking (GassVaronis, 1984).
Authors that belong to a group include: The first citation is as follows: (American Psychological Association, 2015) Following that, a citation is made: (APA, 2015) Several pieces of work: (separate each work with semi-colons) According to research, listening to a specific dialect increases comprehension of accented speech in general, not only in that accent (GassVaronis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
- The following is a verbatim quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote) “The listener’s acquaintance with the topic of discourse substantially aids the comprehension of the entire message,” according to one research (GassVaronis, 1984, p.
- According to Gass and Varonis (1984), “the listener’s prior knowledge of the topic of discourse substantially assists the comprehension of the entire message” (p.
- Note: For direct quotes of more than 40 words, the quote should be displayed as an indented block of text without quotation marks, with the names of the authors, the year of publication, and the page number of the source in parentheses at the end.
- That is, prior exposure to nonnative speech, such as that received by listening to the reading, makes it easier to comprehend what is being read.
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Beginner’s guide to APA in-text citation
Raimo Streefkerk published a new article on November 4, 2020. On December 15, 2021, a revision was made. This article is written in accordance with the American Psychological Association’s 7th edition criteria. The American Psychological Association’s sixth edition guidelines may be found here. In-text citations are used to identify the source of information within the body text of a piece of writing. In your work, they correlate to a complete reference entry at the conclusion of the manuscript.
- Whenever possible, provide a page number or range of pages when referencing a specific section of a source, for example: (Parker, 2020, p.
- The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
- The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
- The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
Worried about in-text citation errors?
Before submitting your work, do a fast check to discover how many APA citation problems you have in your article.
- Over 100 APA guidelines were reviewed and approved. Within one minute, you will get a response. American Psychological Association Style (6th/7th Edition)
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APA in-text citations explained in 4 minutes
Depending on the situation, the in-text citation may be provided in parentheses or organically blended into the statement.
- Parenthetical: According to Parker (2019), there is a link between teens’ use of social media and their anxiety symptoms. An explanation is provided by Parker(2019), who discovered a link between social media use and anxiety symptoms in adolescents.
Parenthetical: According to Parker (2019), there is a link between teenage social media use and anxiety symptoms. A association was discovered between social media usage and anxiety symptoms among teens, according to Parker (2019).
|One author||(Harris, 2020)||Harris (2020)|
|Two authors||(HarrisCook, 2020)||Harris and Cook (2020)|
|Three or more authors||(Harris et al., 2020)||Harris et al. (2020)|
|Group authors||(Scribbr, 2020)||Scribbr (2020)|
|Abbreviated group author|
|(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)(CDC, 2020)||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020)CDC (2020)|
|Unknown element||Solution||In-text citation|
|Author||Use the source title.||(Source Title, 2020)|
|Date||Write “n.d.” for “no date”.||(Harris, n.d.)|
|Page number||Use an alternative locator oromit the page number.||(Harris, 2020, 03:46) or(Harris, 2020)|
Whether the author of a source is not known, attempt to figure out if there is an organization or government that is accountable for the creation of the information. If so, mention the name of the organization in the in-text citation (and reference entry). In the last three years, the cost of solar energy has dropped by 34%, which is a significant reduction (Tesla, 2020). Alternatively, you may substitute the title of the source for the author. If the title is italicized in the reference entry, italicize it here as well (except forcourt cases, which are italicized in the in-text citation but not the reference entry).
In every other case, it should be enclosed in double quotation marks. Titles should be capitalized in all cases, and extended titles should be condensed. To make it easier for readers to identify the related reference item, the initial word of the title should always be included as well.
- (“Flood Risk in the United States,” 2015)
- (Thinking, Fast and Slow, 2017)
No publication date
If the publishing date is not known, the in-text reference should be written as “n.d.” (no date). (Johnson,n.d.).
No page number (alternative locators)
In APA style, page numbers are only necessary when direct quotes are used. It is acceptable to use an alternate locator when quoting from a work that does not include page numbers (for example, online pages or YouTube movies). Examples include:
- (Liu, 2020,03:26)
- (Johnson, 2019,Chapter 3)
- (McCombes, 2016,para. 4)
- (Davis, 2016,Slide 15)
- (Flores, 2020,Table 5)
- (Streefkerk, 2020,”No page number” section)
- (Liu, 2020,03:26)
- (Davis, 2016,Slide 15
Even in cases where page numbers are available, Bible citations usually utilize chapter and verse numbers. For example, According to the English Standard Version Bible (2001), Joshua 2:7.
Multiple sources in one parenthesis
It is acceptable to incorporate numerous in-text citations into a single pair of parentheses when a statement is backed by many sources. Order the sources alphabetically, then separate them with a semicolon between each one of them. The years of publication should be listed after each work by a single author when numerous works by that author are cited. These findings have been confirmed by a number of other investigations (Brown, 2009; Porter, 2004; Smith, 2015, 2017).
Avoiding ambiguity in APA in-text citations
It is acceptable to integrate many in-text citations into a single pair of parentheses when a statement is backed by numerous sources. Order the sources alphabetically, then separate them with a semicolon after each one of them. The years of publication should be listed between commas when mentioning numerous works by the same author. These findings have been confirmed in a number of other investigations (Brown, 2009; Porter, 2004; Smith, 2015, 2017).
|Multiple works by the same author in the same year.||Add a lowercase letter after the year.||(Cooper, 2018a)(Cooper, 2018b)|
|Different authors with the same last name.||Include the authors’ initials.||(H. Taylor, 2019)(B. J. Taylor, 2016)|
|Multiple works with 3+ authors that shorten to the same form (i.e., same first author(s) and date).||Include as many names as needed to distinguish the citations.||(Cooper, Lee, et al., 2015)(Cooper, Ross, et al., 2015)|
Citing indirect sources (“as cited in”)
The original or main source should always be used when referencing an item that was discovered in another source, while the secondary source should never be used. If, on the other hand, you are unable to locate the original source, you should credit it through the secondary source that brought you to it, using the phrase “as cited in.” Bloom et al., 2017 quote from Parker (1978), which is mentioned in Bloom et al., 2017). If the publication date of the original source is not available, just the year of publication of the secondary source should be included in the citation.
Citing personal communication
Personal communications, such as phone conversations, emails, and interviews, are not included in the reference list since readers will not be able to obtain access to these materials. In addition, the in-text reference is structured in a different way. Identify the individual you corresponded with by including his or her initials and last name, the phrase “personal conversation,” and the date you communicated with in parenthesis. During the second quarter, sales are decreasing (P. G. Brown, personal communication, June 13, 2019).
General mentions of websites and software
General references of a website or program do not need to be accompanied by an in-text citation or a reference list item in order to be considered credible.
Replace this information with appropriate information that is included into the running text.
- Many excellent materials may be found on the Scribbr website (http://www.scribbr.com/). The data was analyzed with the help of the statistical softwareSPSS (version 25)
Example paragraph with in-text citations
Adapted version of the example paragraph Use of social media has been consistently linked to negative body image concerns, particularly among young women (Perloff, 2014). According to Grabe et al. (2008), exposure to mass media is associated with female body image dissatisfaction, which is supported by several studies and research findings. TiggermannSlater (2013) and MeierGray (2014) conducted empirical investigations on Facebook usage in teenage females, while Holland and Timmerman (2016) conducted an extensive review of the literature to demonstrate a link between social networking and body image in both women and men.
Frequently Asked Questions
What does an in-text reference for a website look like in the APA format? An in-text citation for a web page or online article in APA Style is comprised of the author’s last name and the year of publication, as shown in the example. As an illustration: (WorlandWilliams, 2015). It should be noted that the author might also be a company or organization. As an illustration: (American Psychological Association, 2019). It is recommended that you include a locator when quoting. Because web pages do not contain page numbers, you can use one of the following methods to navigate between them:
- Smith (2018) provides the following paragraph number: (15). heading or section name: (CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
- Heading or section name: (CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)
- Abbreviated heading:
When using APA Style, how can I reference several sources written by the same author? If you reference many sources by the same author or group of writers, you’ll use the year of publication to distinguish between them in your APA in-text citations. Whenever you need to reference many sources by the same author(s) at the same time, you may just write the author name(s) once and separate the different years with commas, for example, et al (Smith, 2020, 2021). To distinguish between sources with the same author(s) and the same publication year, use a different lowercase letter after the year for each source, e.g., a different lowercase letter after the year for each source (Smith, 2020, 2021a, 2021b).
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Library Guides: APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation
In-text citations are used to quickly document the source of your information in an APA research paper. In-text citations are introduced into the body of your research paper to document the source of your information. Citations that are only a few sentences long direct the reader to more extensive information in the Reference list. When citing in-text sources in APA format, use the author-date method of citation. According to this approach, the author and date are included in the main body of the document, and a reference to the author and date is included in the References section of the article.
When you cite another work or when you paraphrase another work in your own words, you must include an in-text reference to acknowledge the source.
In-text Citations Have Two Formats
- In parenthesis, the author’s name and the date of publication (or any comparable information) are listed, as in the example above. Using the example of falsely balanced news coverage, Burnside (2016) shows how the public’s sense of expert consensus on a particular subject can be distorted. If the work is a narrative, the author’s name appears in running text immediately after the author name, and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. For example, Burnside (2016) has warned about the hazards of deceptively balanced news coverage in the media.
If you are paraphrasing or summarizing a concept from another work rather than explicitly citing it, you just need to provide the author’s name and the year of publication in your in-text reference rather than the page number of the original work. It is necessary to provide the page number at the end of the parenthetical reference if you are directly citing or borrowing from another piece of writing. As an illustration (Burnside, 2016, p. 199).
Library: Citing Sources in APA Style 7th edition: In-Text Citations
When you incorporate someone else’s ideas in your own work, whether as a direct quotation or as a paraphrase, you must include a reference to the original source somewhere in your writing. The in-text citation should include the author’s last name and the year the work was published, and it should relate to a reference included in the references section of your paper. An topic can be distorted through falsely balanced news coverage, which can lead to the public’s view of expert consensus being distorted (Koehler, 2016).
When Should Page Numbers Be Included?
It is not necessary to offer a page number for a paraphrase; however, you may do so if doing so will assist the reader in locating the relevant part in a lengthy or difficult text.
Specific examples from a source
If a passage in your work refers to a quotation, statistic, chart, or other similar particular example from a source, include the page (or paragraph, web page section, chapter, figure, or other such example) where the example may be located in the referenced source. Armstrong (2015) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized The findings of Armstrong (2015) revealed a broad range of communication preferences across people of different ages (p.
8) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, section on Vaccine Benefits) (KovacicHorvat, 2017, Table 1)
This topic has already been raised and discussed (Tannen, 2012). orTannen (2012) has made a similar argument.
Salas and D’Agostino (2018), as well as Salas and D’Agostino (2018), found the same results.
Use the first author and et al. (Martin et al., 2013) instead of the last author. This is what Martin and colleagues (2013) discovered in their research:.
Stanford University published a paper in 2016 stating that Authors are grouped together using abbreviations.
The first citation is as follows: (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020) Citations in the following paragraphs: (NIMH, 2020)
Use the title of the book as well as the year it was published. Make sure to italicize the title in the reference list and in the in-text citation if it is italics in the reference list. To indicate that the title is not emphasized in the reference list, surround the title with double quotation marks (double quotation quotes). No author for this book: (Interpersonal Competencies, 2019) An article in a magazine with no author: (“Understanding Sensory Memory,” 2018)
Works without a date
When the publishing date of a book is unknown or cannot be ascertained, the abbreviation “n.d.” should be used (which stands for “no date”). Gagnon (n.d.) or Gagnon et al. Gagnon created an idea that is comparable to this one (n.d.).
After the year, a lowercase letter should be used (in both the in-text citation and the reference entries). (2012) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012a) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012b) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012a) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012b)
Citing multiple works
In order to properly reference numerous works parenthetically, arrange the citations in alphabetical order, with semicolons separating each one. (Adams and colleagues, 2019; Shumway and Shulman, 2015)
Citing a secondary source
If at all feasible, locate the original source and include it in your citation. If the original source is not available, include a reference item for the secondary source that you utilized instead of the original source. The in-text citation should include the primary source, followed by “as referenced in” and the secondary source you utilized to support your claim. The term “Rabbitt” refers to an author who published in 1982 and is mentioned in Lyon et al. (2014).
Personal communication (in personelectronic)
Give the initial(s) and last name of the communicator, the phrase “personal communication,” and as accurate a date as you can as a reference. The following was said by T. Nguyen in a personal communication on August 8, 2019: The author’s personal correspondence with me on August 8, 2019). Personal correspondence should not be included in the list of references.
LibGuides: Citation Resources: APA 7th Ed: In-Text Citations
The author-date citation method is used with parentheses in the APA 7 Style. After a quotation, provide parenthesis with the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) on which the quotation occurs. If a quotation is on a single page, precede the page number with the letter “p.”. Instead of “pp.”, “pp.” should be used for quotations that begin on one page and conclude on another. “Sometimes I have the distinct impression that there is a JERTAIN in the CURTAIN,” says one page (Seuss, 1974, p.
“The swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog,” according to a quote on page two: (Seuss, 2007, pp.
Using the letters a, b, and so on after the year indicates that you are using more than one work by the same author.
A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (D. Seuss, 2007, pp. 7-8). Citations in-text for works by two or more authors are shown in the table below under Authors: In-Text Citations.
When you utilize the author’s last name in the narrative of your work, do not include the author’s first and last names in the parenthesis. Dr. Seuss made the observation that “the swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound” in his scientific investigation (2007, pp. 7-8). “The swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound,” as Dr. Seuss put it in his book “The Lorax” in 2007. (pp. 7-8).
Citations with Missing Elements
When an author’s name is not accessible, the first few words of the reference list entry should be used instead (usually the title). Make use of quote marks around the names of articles or web pages, as well as italicizing the titles of books, journals, and other publications. A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (Fox in Socks, 2007). When there are no page numbers available, paragraph numbers or other subsection identifiers should be used instead of page numbers.
Paraphrasing is the process of putting another person’s thoughts into your own words, which allows you to efficiently summarize and synthesize knowledge (p. 269). When paraphrasing concepts, you have the option of using either narrative or parenthetical citations. Using previously existing classroom literature education, stories may be utilized to teach social skills to kids. Emphasis should be placed on lessons that assist students analyze events and sympathize with characters (WolfBaker, 2012).
Seuss’ books to teach social skills to their pupils, based on a case study from one classroom teacher (p.
Keep in mind that if the source material is lengthy or difficult to understand, page numbers should be included to assist the reader in locating the text that is being paraphrased or referred to in your paper.
LibGuides: APA Style & Citation 7th edition: Citations: In-Text
Watch the short video above to learn how to properly format an in-text citation by including signal phrases and parenthetical citations into your writing. Additional instructions on how to properly cite your sources within your text may be found in the section below.
General rules (all source types):
- Watch the short video above to learn how to properly format an in-text citation by including signal phrases and parenthetical citations into your writing style. Additional instructions on how to properly reference your sources within your text may be found in the section below the table.
Pages and Specific Parts
The page number of the borrowed information should be included in the citation of a book, journal article, or other paged source.
- For a single page, use the letter p
- For several pages, use the letter pp.
Whenever you are referencing a source that does not provide page numbers (such as a website), make it easy for the reader to access the material you are utilizing. For example, this may be the name of a section or header on a website, the number of paragraphs in a document (manually count the paragraphs and use the abbreviation ‘para.’), the slide number on a PowerPoint, the time stamp for a video, and so on. Immunotherapy is a “treatment that consists of a series of injections of purified allergen extracts” that is described as follows: (Mayo Clinic, n.d., “Treatment” section, para.3).
For quotes from films or other audiovisual media, use a time stamp in front of the quote rather than a page number to indicate where it came from. (15:30, 2015) (Whedon, 2015, 16:30)
Quotations or Paraphrases
It is possible to include the citation information into the text you are writing using the narrative in-text citation style. It is allowed, according to Spencer (2006), “to declare the author’s name at the beginning of the sentence, rather than always placing it in the parenthetical reference” when citing sources (pp. 5-6). ORA ‘parenthetical’ citations contain all of the citation information within the parenthesis of the original reference. “Separate the author from the citation at the conclusion of the cited text,” many pupils still refuse to do (Spencer, 2006, pp.
Organization as the Author
If you wish to shorten the name of the organization, you can do so. In order to introduce the abbreviation, provide the full name first, followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis.
- To give an example, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2016), 5-10 percent of all cancer-related fatalities in Bangladesh are caused by arsenic poisoning caused by pollution in the region(paragraphs 9-10)
- Consider the following: In a location with high arsenic contamination, “5–10 percent of all cancer deaths in an arsenic-contaminated zone were attributed to arsenic exposure,” according to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2016, para. 9-10)
- Make mention of the title of the work in the text, or provide the first word or two of the title in the in-text citation
- Citation marks are used to denote the titles of articles. The titles of books are in italics
- If the name Anonymous is ever used, it should be treated as if it were a genuine name.
As an illustration, developing efficient study habits is the most important predictor of first-year college student success in most cases (“Students,” 2002, para. 3).
This can include private letters, a few emails, interviews you do, and other similar activities. Due to the fact that they are not recoverable (i.e., no one else will be able to discover this material), they do not need to be placed on the Reference page, but they must be cited in your text. Other in-text citations should be included in the same sequence as the quotation or paraphrase: immediately following the quote or paraphrase. The communicator’s initials and last name are written in capital letters (personal communication, date of communication).
Porterfield, personal communication, June 10, 2019).
Make every effort to get the second source if the one you are using refers to it in your citation. If you are unable to access that source, use the phrase “as cited in” to recognize both sources. Include the date of the original source (which should be on the Reference page of the source you are using); if the date is not mentioned, then eliminate that portion of the reference from the citation. The source you have is Schein’s 2017 essay, while the piece you’re quoting is Greave’s 2015 paper, which was published in 2015.
|Type of Author||Parenthetical Citation||Narrative Citation|
|One author||(Silas, 1989)||Silas (1989).|
|Two authors||(SilasBreacher, 1990)||Silas and Breacher (1990).|
|Three or more authors||(Silas et al., 1990)||Silas et al. (1990).|
|Group author with an abbreviation*First citationFollowing citations||(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)(CDC, 2020)||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020).CDC (2020).|
|Group author no abbreviation||(Central Penn College, 2019)||Central Penn College (2019).|
|Two authors with the same last name||(B. Silas, 1991)(J. Silas, 1992)||B. Silas (1991).J. Silas (1992).|
|Two sources by the same author in the same year||(Silas, 1990a)(Silas, 1990b)||Silas (1990a).Silas (1990b).|
*Group writers who use abbreviations do not use abbreviations on the Reference page; instead, they spell out their full names.
CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations
In APA Style, an in-text citation informs the reader about the source of any and all material that did not originate from your own brain or other sources. This is more clear when you are explicitly quoting from a source, but it is equally necessary when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source, and even when you have gotten an idea from someplace else, to cite sources properly. It is critical that you properly cite all of the words and ideas that you have borrowed from other sources in order to avoid being accused of plagiarism.
If you are writing an APA Style paper, the author-date citation method is used to reference your sources.
It is possible for readers to identify sources used in the article by looking for author and date information inside the paper’s text, and then simply locate the relevant reference in the alphabetical reference list, using this citation method.
There are two sorts of in-text citations that can be used.
A narrative citation is a sort of citation in which the author’s name appears inside the text of the sentence; on the other hand, a parenthetical citation is a type of reference in which the author’s name and the date appear in parentheses at the conclusion of the phrase.
How do I create narrative or parenthetical citations?
In APA Style, you should cite your sources by placing the information about the source in parentheses at the end of a sentence or in the text of your paper, rather than using a footnote, which places the source information at the bottom of the page, or an endnote, which places the information about the source at the end of the paper. There are subtle variances in appearance based on which style you choose.
- Include the last name of the author as well as the year of publication. Only use page numbers or paragraph numbers when quoting directly from a source. Check to ensure that the source information in parentheses corresponds to the source information in your reference list. The punctuation for the statement is placed AFTER the parenthesis
- Nonetheless, When quoting less than forty words, use quotation marks around the words that are being quoted. Sources with defined page numbers should be referenced in narrative citations where the author and date are presented in the sentence. The page number should be included in parentheses at the conclusion of each quote. Instead of using page numbers when the source doesn’t have any, you can use a paragraph number, heading, or a mix of heading and paragraph number. It is acceptable to add the author and date with the page or paragraph number if the author and date are not presented as part of the content itself. The period should appear after the parenthesis
- Otherwise, it is incorrect. If your quote is longer than forty words, set it off in a block text by starting the block quote on a new line, indenting 0.5 inches (one-half inch), and without using quotation marks around the block quote (see example). After the last word of the phrase, place a period after it, followed by the parenthesis, to mark the conclusion of the quote. More information may be found atBlock Quote
For further information on parenthetical and narrative citations, read pages 253-278 of the 7th edition of the American Psychological Association Manual for a detailed discussion and examples.
Library Guides: APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide: In-Text Citations
You have numerous writers with the same surname who published in the same year when you have the following situation: If your writers have distinct initials, include the initials of each author as follows: As A. Smith (2016) pointed out, this was validated by J.G. Smith’s (2016) research, as well. (A. Smith and J. G. Smith, 2016; A. Smith and J. G. Smith, 2016). If your writers have the same initials, you should give the following information: According to Adam Smith’s observation, which was supported by Amy Smith’s (2016) research.
- Please keep in mind that in your reference list, you should add the author’s first name after their initials: A.
- When you have many works by the same author published in the same year, this is what happens: You will have sorted the works in your reference list alphabetically by title in your bibliography (see the page onReference Listsfor more information).
- You reference them in the text as follows: Asthma is the most frequent ailment afflicting the people in the state of Queensland (Queensland Health, 2017b).
- If you have many works by the same author published in various years, you might say: Asthma is the most frequent ailment afflicting the people in the state of Queensland (Queensland Health, 2017, 2018).
- Obama Says ‘Lovely Frame’,” 2018).
- Obama Says ‘Lovely Frame’ in Box During Awkward Handoff” would be too abrupt, while the shorter “Mrs.
When referring to titles inside the body of your writing, you should utilize title case as well as lowercase. If there are no page numbers in the source, you can provide any of the following in the in-text citation: citation
- If paragraph numbers are visible, you can use them for page numbers
- Alternatively, you can count down from the beginning of the document by counting down the number of paragraphs. Use the abbreviation ‘para.’ to indicate a paragraph
- “On Australia Day 1938, William Cooper, Jack Patten, and William Ferguson joined forces to host a Day of Mourning to raise attention to the losses experienced by Aboriginal people at the hands of the white man,” according to the National Museum of Australia (n.d., para. 4).
- Where headers are present but no page numbers or paragraph numbers, use the heading plus a paragraph number inside the section in which it appears.
- It was “in 1957 that news of a report by the Western Australian government served as the spark for a reform campaign,” according to the National Museum of Australia’s The catalyst for change section (paragraph 1).
- Alternatively, if the heading is very long, it can be shortened and placed in “quotation marks.” When it came to this particular issue, the entire title was “Alick Jackomos recalls petition-gathering for the referendum alongside Doug Nicholls”
- National Museum of Australia, n.d., “petition gathering,” para. 1, states that “By the conclusion of this year of intense effort over 100,000 signatures had been collected” (National Museum of Australia, n.d., “petition gathering,” para. 1).
Using a classical text such as the Bible or the Quran: References to works of scripture or other classical works are considered differently than standard cites in academic writing. For further information, please see the following entry on the APA Blog: Citing Classical Works for the Holidays: Citation of Classical Works (Please note that this document is from the 6th edition of the American Psychological Association.)
APA: Citing Within Your Paper
For each source you use, add the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number (or the place of the quotation within the source if a page number is not provided), for example: If you are quoting from a book, include the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number.
- The following are the page number(s): (p. 3)or(pp. 3-4)
- The following are the paragraph number(s): (para. 3)or(paras. 3-4)
- The following are the paragraph within a chapter or section: (Chapter 3, para. 3)or (Plant-Based Foods section, para. 3)
- The following are the slide number or table number: (Slide 3) or (Table 3)
- The following are the time stamp: (1:03:03
Beginning with a signal phrase that contains the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. As an illustration: Cook-Gumperz (1986) writes that “the methodical growth of literacy and schooling resulted in a new split in society, between the learned and the uneducated” (p. 27). As Carr (2008) points out, “As we begin to rely on computers to filter our view of the world, it is our own intellect that flattens into artificial intelligence” (Chapter 3, para.
- You only need to provide the author’s last name and year of publication in your in-text citation when paraphrasing or summarizing material from a source, according to the American Psychological Association.
- Some believe that leaning too much on the Internet for information may impair our mental skills as well as our capacity to read books and other lengthy pieces of writing (Carr, 2008).
- It is necessary to mention the author’s last name and the date of publication when referencing a paraphrase or summary from an eBook in the citation.
- According to the American Psychological Association, “Adult development is the scientific study of changes in behaviors, ideas, and emotions that occur during adulthood” (Mossler, 2013, Adult Development section, para.
- It is necessary to add the author’s last name and the date on the web page or at the bottom of the website when paraphrasing or summarizing content from a web page in your citation.
- Wherever possible, indicate the most direct position of the quote, such as a section title and/or a paragraph number, where there are no page numbers.
Other web sites do not identify a specific individual as the author, but instead identify a firm or organization as the author. When mentioning a web page, it is important to identify whether the author is a person or a company.
Author is an Individual
. (Dunn, 2016, Plant-Based Foods section, para. 10). Even if you are unable to identify an individual author, if you are able to identify an organization or group that is responsible for the content of a web page, you should attribute the authorship of the web page to that group, organization, corporation, university, government agency, or association.
Author is an Organization/Company/University/Agency
. (United States Coast Guard, 2018, para. 6).
, (United States Coast Guard, 2018, para. 6).
The publishing date of a web page may frequently be seen at the top or bottom of the page, depending on the browser. If no date is provided, the abbreviation n.d. is used (for no date). Thompson (n.d., Teaching for Success section, para. 12) describes the process of teaching for success as follows: The speaker (or screen name), the year of the recording, and the moment at which the quotation begins in the recording should all be included in the citation when referencing a media source such as a video or audio recording that does not include page numbers but does have time stamps: “There were 300,000 individuals in jails and prisons in 1972; now, there are 2.3 million people in jails and prisons” (Stevenson, 2016, 05:52).
If your content does not include the name of the author, insert the title of the web page or article between quotation marks (” “) and capitalize it in title case (if the title is lengthy, only use the first few words of it) like follows: A collapse of the main ramp of the San Jose mine traps 33 workers 2,300 feet below for two months, stranding them for two months (“All 33 Chile Miners,” 2010).
When a group or an organization develops a work, that organization, company, university, government agency, or association can be considered as the author of that work under certain circumstances.
(University of Arizona Global Campus, 2017).
2 Authors for a Source
Whenever your source includes two authors, use an ampersand () for your end-of-sentence (parenthetical)citation, but use the word “and” when the final names are a part of your sentence (narrative citation): JonesFraenza (2017) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized Jones and Fraenza (2017) made the following statement.
3 or More Authors for a Source
When there are three or more authors named, just the last name of the first author listed should be included, followed by the phrase “et al.”:. (Lekkerkerk and colleagues, 2014, para. 2) That was examined by Lekkerkerk et al. (2014).
Group Author with Acronym Abbreviation
When referencing a group or organization with a name that is widely abbreviated, write down the full name of the group or organization the first time you mention it: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020, paragraph 2). That information was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). For each additional citation from a source, use the abbreviation for the organization that it belongs to: Paragraph 2 of the CDC’s 2020 report. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supplied this information.
Example: If you read an article by Brown (2020) that mentions a previous work by Smith (2017), Brown is regarded the secondary or indirect source (since the article was produced later) and Smith is considered the direct or original source (because the earlier work was written earlier) (because it was written first).
When citing a source that you discovered in another source, credit the original author and year first, followed by ” as referenced in ” the secondary author’s last name and year, and then the source in question.
According to Lee’s 2014 study, which was quoted in Brown’s (2019) article: “Coffee helps students stay awake while studying” (Lee, 2014, as cited in Brown, 2019). According to Parker (2016), who was also mentioned on page 5 of an article by Miles (2020), the writer would like to include a quote from Parker (2016): The statement made by Parker (2016), as mentioned in Miles, 2020, is that “drinking coffee black is more healthful” (p. 5). Sometimes, when conducting research, you will discover that there are several sources for a single statement.
Single Idea Sentence
The citations for all sources should be included at the conclusion of the sentence, with the sources listed alphabetically after that. For example, researchers generally agree that drinking coffee has health advantages (Centanni, 2020; Dunn et al., 2019; JonesHemerda, 2020).
Multiple Idea Sentence
The citations for all sources should be included at the conclusion of the sentence, with the sources listed alphabetically after them. In the case of coffee, for example, most researchers believe that it has health advantages (Centanni, 2020; Dunn et al., 2019; JonesHemerda, 2020).
Author–date citation system
Cite references in the text using the author–date citation method in accordance with APA Style.
Each work cited in a publication has two elements in this system: an in-text citation and a reference list item matching to the work cited in the article. In-text citations might take the form of parenthetical or narrative references.
- To prevent ambiguity in parenthetical citations, include an ampersand () between names for a work with more than one author or before the last author’s name when all authors’ names must be mentioned. In narrative quotations, the word “and” should always be capitalized.
This advice has been updated from the previous edition (6th edition).
It is necessary to adjust the structure of the author element of the in-text citation depending on the number of authors. In certain circumstances, the author element is shortened.
- When there are just one or two writers for a work, mention the author’s name(s) in every citation. When there are three or more authors on a work, just the first author’s name should be used in every citation (including the first citation)
The following table outlines the most common in-text citation formats:
|Author type||Parenthetical citation||Narrative citation|
|One author||(Luna, 2020)||Luna (2020)|
|Two authors||(SalasD’Agostino, 2020)||Salas and D’Agostino (2020)|
|Three or more authors||(Martin et al., 2020)||Martin et al. (2020)|
|Group author with abbreviationFirst citationaSubsequent citations||(National Institute of Mental Health, 2020)(NIMH, 2020)||National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)NIMH (2020)|
|Group author without abbreviation||(Stanford University, 2020)||Stanford University (2020)|
A group author’s abbreviation should be defined only once in the text, and it should be in either the parenthetical or narrative format. After then, whenever the group is mentioned in the text, the abbreviation should be used.
Exceptions to the basic in-text citation styles
- The year in the in-text citation should be the same year as the year in the reference list item, unless otherwise specified. Even if the reference list item has a more exact date (e.g., year, month, and day), just the year should be used in the in-text citation. In-text citations for works that do not have a date should use “n.d.” Work that has been approved for publication but has not yet been published should be identified with the phrase “in press.”
Repeating a citation
APA Style requires that you repeat a reference in its entirety; do not, for example, give merely a page number (the abbreviation “ibid.” is not permitted in APA Style). Instead, follow the procedures outlined below:
- Include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication for each parenthetical in-text reference. When using narrative in-text citations, do not repeat the year on the second and subsequent occasions that they appear in a single paragraph. This guideline should be followed with each new paragraph (for example, the year should be included in the first narrative citation in a new paragraph). To avoid confusion, add the publication year in every in-text citation if you are citing several works by the same author or authors, regardless of when the works were first published. Example: If you reference Mohammed and Mahfouz (2017) and Mohammed and Mahfouz (2019), include the year with each citation, even when one of the references is used more than once in the same paragraph.
Further guidelines for in-text citations
- Each in-text citation must match to a single reference list entry in the reference list. In-text citations should not include suffixes such as “Jr.” or “Sr.” Work with an unknown author (see Section 9.12) should be referenced in-text by including both the title and the year of publication. Each of the more than 100 reference examples in Chapter 10 of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) provides examples of both parenthetical and narrative citations. More information and examples may be found in the Publication Manual.
Originally published on: September 1, 2019.