How To Do In Text Apa Citations? (TOP 5 Tips)

APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.

Contents

Where do you put in text citations in APA?

In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper.

How do you do in text citations correctly?

In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.

How do you in-text cite a whole paragraph in APA?

In paragraphs that contain one overall instance of paraphrased information, “ cite the source in the first sentence in which it is relevant and do not repeat the citation in subsequent sentences as long as the source remains clear and unchanged ” (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 254).

Does in-text citation go inside quotes APA?

Quoted text is placed inside double quotation marks. The citation appears in parentheses outside the quotation and includes the author, date and page number (p. #) separated by commas.

How do you do in text citations with no author?

In-Text Citations:

  1. Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
  2. When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style” capitalization, and the year.

How do you in text cite with multiple authors?

Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses. In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

How do you do an in text citation for a website?

Luckily, writing the in-text citation for a website or webpage is easy: Simply include the author and year of publication. The URL goes in the corresponding reference list entry (and yes, you can leave the links live).

Do you need to cite every sentence in APA?

The rule of thumb is to cite the very first sentence, make it clear you are still talking about the same work in your subsequent sentences (for example, “The study noted that”), and then confirm you are still talking about the work by including another citation at the end (if this has continued for several sentences

Do you have to cite each sentence in APA?

Instead, when paraphrasing a key point in more than one sentence within a paragraph, cite the source in the first sentence in which it is relevant and do not repeat the citation in subsequent sentences as long as the source remains clear and unchanged.

Do in-text citations go at the end of a sentence APA?

Parenthetical citations in APA style often appear at the end of sentences to indicate quoted or paraphrased information. They typically consist of the author’s last name and the year of publication.

How do you in-text cite in the middle of a sentence?

When you use a quotation mid-sentence, end the quote with quotation marks and cite the source in parentheses immediately after, and continue the sentence. If the author’s name and the date of publication are included before the quotation, then provide only the page numbers immediately after the quotation.

Are in-text citations capitalized?

Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.

In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab

Note:This page contains the most recent edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (APA 7), which was issued in October 2019. You may find the similar material for the older APA 6 style in this section. The Publication Manual’s pages 261-268 provide guidance on how to use reference citations in text. Some general principles for citing other people’s work in your essay are provided below for your convenience. It is recommended on pages 117-118 of the Publication Manual that writers of research articles use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal words that appear in the literature review and technique descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) discovered or Jones (1998) has discovered.) Jones (1998) discovers that the simple present tense may be used in contexts other than those associated with typically organized research writing.

APA Citation Basics

Remember to check back regularly for updates to the most recent version of the APA Publication Manual (APA 7), which was published in October of this year. APA 6 style resources may be found here, while the APA 7 style resources can be found here. The Publication Manual’s pages 261-268 discuss how to include reference citations in your work. Some general recommendations for citing other people’s work in your essay are provided below in this section. Note: On pages 117-118 of the Publication Manual, it is recommended that writers of research articles use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal words that appear in the literature review and technique descriptions (for example, Jones (1998)foundor Jones (1998)has discovered).

  • Remember to check back regularly for updates to the most recent version of the APA Publication Manual (APA 7), which was issued in October of this year. You may find the same material for the older APA 6 style here. The Publication Manual’s pages 261-268 discuss how to include reference citations in text. The following are some general principles for citing other people’s work in your essay. Note:On pages 117-118, the Publication Manual recommends that writers of research articles use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal words that appear in the literature review and process descriptions (for example, Jones (1998)foundor Jones (1998)has discovered). Jones (1998) discovers that the simple present tense may be used in contexts other than standard research writing.

(Please keep in mind that just the first word of a title will be capitalized in your References list: Writing new media.)

  • Titles that contain a hyphenated compound word should be capitalized on both words: Cyborgs that were born naturally
  • After a dash or a colon, capitalize the first word that follows: Hitchcock’s Vertigo serves as a case study in “Defining Film Rhetoric.” For works whose titles are italics in your reference list, italicize them in the text as well, and use title case capitalization in the text: Friends
  • The Wizard of Oz
  • The Closing of the American Mind
  • The Closing of the American Mind If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even if the reference list is written in sentence case): “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “The One in which Chandler is unable to cry.”

Short quotations

It is necessary to mention the author, publication year, and page number for a reference when directly quoting from a book (preceded by “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for a span of several pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash). Using a signal phrase that comprises the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. Jones (1998) states that “students frequently had problems utilizing APA style, particularly when it was their first time” (p.

Jones (1998) discovered that “students frequently had trouble employing APA style” (p.

Wherever possible, omitting the author’s last name but including his or her year of publication and page number in the text of the sentence will be accepted as proper citation practice.

Long quotations

Direct quotations that are 40 words or more should be included in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, with quotation marks omitted if possible. Starting on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, or at the same spot as you would begin a new paragraph, insert the quotation at the beginning of the paragraph. Create a new margin and indent any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by separating them by 1/2 inch from the new margin. Type the full quotation on the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by 1/2 inch from the new margin.

The parenthetical citation should appear after the period at the end of the paragraph.

Given the difficulty of replicating block quote style in the OWL’s content management system, we have just supplied a snapshot of a generic example of block quotation formatting in this section. An example of how to format block quotes in the APA 7 style.

Quotations from sources without pages

It is not necessary to include a page number in direct quotations from sources that do not contain any pages. As an alternative, you may refer to another piece of logical identification, such as a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else entirely. Older works (such as religious writings) may additionally include particular location identifiers, such as verse numbers, to help readers find their way around. For the most part, choose a page number replacement that makes sense for your original material.

Summary or paraphrase

The author and year of publication are all that are required in your in-text reference if you are paraphrasing a concept from another book. The page numbers are not required in this case. According to APA rules, however, giving a page range for a summary or paraphrase where it will assist the reader in finding the material in a lengthier work is strongly encouraged. As Jones (1998) points out, the APA style is a tough citation format to master for first-time learners. For first-time learners, APA style is a tough citation system to master (Jones, 1998, p.

Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

Rather than appearing at the conclusion of long clauses or phrases, in-text references should occur immediately after the title, word, or phrase to which they are closely related. References inside the text should always come before punctuation marks. The following are some examples of in-text citations. The following is the author’s name in parentheses: According to one study, familiarity with the subject matter is the most crucial factor in interpreting non-native language speaking (GassVaronis, 1984).

Authors that belong to a group include: First citation:(American Psychological Association, 2015) (American Psychological Association, 2015) Following that, a citation is made: (APA, 2015) Several pieces of work: (separate each work with semi-colons) According to research, listening to a specific dialect increases comprehension of accented speech in general, not only in that accent (GassVaronis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

  1. The following is a verbatim quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote) “The listener’s acquaintance with the topic of discourse substantially aids the comprehension of the entire message,” according to one research (GassVaronis, 1984, p.
  2. According to Gass and Varonis (1984), “the listener’s prior knowledge of the topic of discourse substantially assists the comprehension of the entire message” (p.
  3. Note: For direct quotes of more than 40 words, the quote should be displayed as an indented block of text without quotation marks, with the names of the authors, the year of publication, and the page number of the source in parentheses at the end.
  4. That is, prior exposure to nonnative speech, such as that received by listening to the reading, makes it easier to comprehend what is being read.
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Beginner’s guide to APA in-text citation

Raimo Streefkerk published a new article on November 4, 2020. On December 15, 2021, a revision was made. This article is written in accordance with the American Psychological Association’s 7th edition criteria. The American Psychological Association’s sixth edition guidelines may be found here. In-text citations are used to identify the source of information within the body text of a piece of writing. In your work, they correlate to a complete reference entry at the conclusion of the manuscript.

  • Whenever possible, provide a page number or range of pages when referencing a specific section of a source, for example: (Parker, 2020, p.
  • 39–41).
  • The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
  • The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
  • The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
  • The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
  • The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.

Worried about in-text citation errors?

Raimo Streefkerk published an article on November 4, 2020. 15th of December, 2021, is the revision date. Guidelines for the American Psychological Association’s 7th edition have been followed in this article. APA 6th edition guidelines may be found by clicking here. Within the body text, in-text citations serve to indicate the information’s source in a succinct manner. In your work, they equate to a full reference entry at the conclusion of the manuscript. If the author’s last name and publication year are included in an APA in-text citation, it is considered a successful citation.

For example: (Parker, 2020, page 67) or (Johnson, 2017, pages 39–41).

Citations can be created automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator or manually by the user. Citations can be created automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator or manually by the user.

Citations can be created automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator or manually by the user. Citations can be created automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator or manually by the user. Citations can be created automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator or manually by the user. Citations can be created automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator or manually by the user. Citations can be created automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator or manually by the user.

Citations can be created automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator or manually by the user.

  • Raimo Streefkerk published a post on November 4, 2020. On December 15, 2021, the document was revised. This article is written in accordance with the APA 7th edition rules. The American Psychological Association’s 6th edition guidelines may be found here. In-text citations are used to identify the source of information within the body text of a written piece. They equate to a complete reference entry at the conclusion of your manuscript. In-text citations in the APA style consist of the author’s last name and the year the work was published. When referencing a specific section of a source, give a page number or page range as well, such as (Parker, 2020, p. 67) or (Johnson, 2017, pp. 39–41), for example. Citations can be generated automatically via the Scribbr Citation Generator, or they can be entered manually. Citations can be generated automatically via the Scribbr Citation Generator, or they can be entered manually. Citations can be generated automatically via the Scribbr Citation Generator, or they can be entered manually. Citations can be generated automatically via the Scribbr Citation Generator, or they can be entered manually. Citations can be generated automatically via the Scribbr Citation Generator, or they can be entered manually. Citations can be generated automatically via the Scribbr Citation Generator, or they can be entered manually. Citations can be generated automatically via the Scribbr Citation Generator, or they can be entered manually. Citations can be generated automatically via the Scribbr Citation Generator, or they can be entered manually. Citations can be generated automatically via the Scribbr Citation Generator, or they can be entered manually. Citations can be generated automatically via the Scribbr Citation Generator, or they can be entered manually.

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APA in-text citations explained in 4 minutes

Depending on the situation, the in-text citation may be provided in parentheses or organically blended into the statement.

  • Parenthetical: According to Parker (2019), there is a link between teens’ use of social media and their anxiety symptoms. An explanation is provided by Parker(2019), who discovered a link between social media use and anxiety symptoms in adolescents.

When writing in the narrative format, the year of publication appears right below the author’s name at the top of the page. The parenthetical citation can be used within a sentence or at the conclusion of a sentence, immediately before the period, depending on the situation. Take a look at a complete sample paragraph that includes in-text citations. A parenthetical citation or the word “and” in a narrative citation should be used to separate the names of two authors if a work has more than one author.

Author type Parenthetical Narrative
One author (Harris, 2020) Harris (2020)
Two authors (HarrisCook, 2020) Harris and Cook (2020)
Three or more authors (Harris et al., 2020) Harris et al. (2020)
Group authors (Scribbr, 2020) Scribbr (2020)
Abbreviated group author
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)(CDC, 2020) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020)CDC (2020)

No author, date or page number

Unknown element Solution In-text citation
Author Use the source title. (Source Title, 2020)
Date Write “n.d.” for “no date”. (Harris, n.d.)
Page number Use an alternative locator oromit the page number. (Harris, 2020, 03:46) or(Harris, 2020)

No author

Whether the author of a source is not known, attempt to figure out if there is an organization or government that is accountable for the creation of the information. If so, mention the name of the organization in the in-text citation (and reference entry). In the last three years, the cost of solar energy has dropped by 34%, which is a significant reduction (Tesla, 2020). Alternatively, you may substitute the title of the source for the author. If the title is italicized in the reference entry, italicize it here as well (except forcourt cases, which are italicized in the in-text citation but not the reference entry).

Titles should be capitalized in all cases, and extended titles should be condensed.

  • (“Flood Risk in the United States,” 2015)
  • (Thinking, Fast and Slow, 2017)

No publication date

(2015); (Thinking, Fast and Slow, 2017); (U.S. Flood Risk, 2015);

No page number (alternative locators)

In APA style, page numbers are only necessary when direct quotes are used. It is acceptable to use an alternate locator when quoting from a work that does not include page numbers (for example, online pages or YouTube movies). Examples include:

  • Direct quotations are the only instances in which page numbers are required in APA citations. It is acceptable to use an alternate locator when quoting from a work that does not provide page numbers (for example, online pages or YouTube movies). Examples include:

In APA style, page numbers are only necessary for direct quotations. It is acceptable to use an alternate locator when quoting from a work that does not include page numbers (for example, online pages or YouTube movies). For example:

Multiple sources in one parenthesis

It is acceptable to incorporate numerous in-text citations into a single pair of parentheses when a statement is backed by many sources. Order the sources alphabetically, then separate them with a semicolon between each one of them. The years of publication should be listed after each work by a single author when numerous works by that author are cited. These findings have been confirmed by a number of other investigations (Brown, 2009; Porter, 2004; Smith, 2015, 2017).

Avoiding ambiguity in APA in-text citations

The remedies mentioned in the table below should be used when in-text citations are confusing because they relate to several reference entries.

Situation Solution In-text citation
Multiple works by the same author in the same year. Add a lowercase letter after the year. (Cooper, 2018a)(Cooper, 2018b)
Different authors with the same last name. Include the authors’ initials. (H. Taylor, 2019)(B. J. Taylor, 2016)
Multiple works with 3+ authors that shorten to the same form (i.e., same first author(s) and date). Include as many names as needed to distinguish the citations. (Cooper, Lee, et al., 2015)(Cooper, Ross, et al., 2015)

Citing indirect sources (“as cited in”)

The original or main source should always be used when referencing an item that was discovered in another source, while the secondary source should never be used. If, on the other hand, you are unable to locate the original source, you should credit it through the secondary source that brought you to it, using the phrase “as cited in.” Bloom et al., 2017 quote from Parker (1978), which is mentioned in Bloom et al., 2017). If the publication date of the original source is not available, just the year of publication of the secondary source should be included in the citation.

Citing personal communication

Personal communications, such as phone conversations, emails, and interviews, are not included in the reference list since readers will not be able to obtain access to these materials. In addition, the in-text reference is structured in a different way. Identify the individual you corresponded with by including his or her initials and last name, the phrase “personal conversation,” and the date you communicated with in parenthesis. During the second quarter, sales are decreasing (P. G. Brown, personal communication, June 13, 2019).

General mentions of websites and software

General references of a website or program do not need to be accompanied by an in-text citation or a reference list item in order to be considered credible. Replace this information with appropriate information that is included into the running text.

  • Many excellent materials may be found on the Scribbr website (http://www.scribbr.com/). The data was analyzed with the help of the statistical softwareSPSS (version 25)

Example paragraph with in-text citations

Adapted version of the example paragraph Use of social media has been consistently linked to negative body image concerns, particularly among young women (Perloff, 2014). According to Grabe et al. (2008), exposure to mass media is associated with female body image dissatisfaction, which is supported by several studies and research findings. TiggermannSlater (2013) and MeierGray (2014) conducted empirical investigations on Facebook usage in teenage females, while Holland and Timmerman (2016) conducted an extensive review of the literature to demonstrate a link between social networking and body image in both women and men.

Frequently Asked Questions

What does an in-text reference for a website look like in the APA format? An in-text citation for a web page or online article in APA Style is comprised of the author’s last name and the year of publication, as shown in the example. As an illustration: (WorlandWilliams, 2015). It should be noted that the author might also be a company or organization. As an illustration: (American Psychological Association, 2019). It is recommended that you include a locator when quoting. Because web pages do not contain page numbers, you can use one of the following methods to navigate between them:

  • Smith (2018) provides the following paragraph number: (15). heading or section name: (CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
  • Heading or section name: (CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)
  • Abbreviated heading:

When using APA Style, how can I reference several sources written by the same author? If you reference many sources by the same author or group of writers, you’ll use the year of publication to distinguish between them in your APA in-text citations. Whenever you need to reference many sources by the same author(s) at the same time, you may just write the author name(s) once and separate the different years with commas, for example, et al (Smith, 2020, 2021). To distinguish between sources with the same author(s) and the same publication year, use a different lowercase letter after the year for each source, e.g., a different lowercase letter after the year for each source (Smith, 2020, 2021a, 2021b).

Add the identical letters to the appropriate reference entries to complete the sentence. You have already cast your vote. Thanks:-) Your vote has been recorded:-) Your vote is being processed.

Library Guides: APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation

When using APA Style, how can I properly reference several sources by the same author? If you reference several sources by the same author or group of writers, you’ll use the year of publication to distinguish between them in your APA in-text citations. Whenever you want to reference many sources by the same author(s) at the same time, you may just write the author name(s) once and separate the different years with commas, for example, et al (Smith, 2020, 2021). Adding a distinct lowercase letter after the year for each source can help you identify between sources with the same author(s) and the same publication year, for example (Smith, 2020, 2021a, 2021b).

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In-text Citations Have Two Formats

  1. In parenthesis, the author’s name and the date of publication (or any comparable information) are listed, as in the example above. Using the example of falsely balanced news coverage, Burnside (2016) shows how the public’s sense of expert consensus on a particular subject can be distorted. If the work is a narrative, the author’s name appears in running text immediately after the author name, and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. For example, Burnside (2016) has warned about the hazards of deceptively balanced news coverage in the media.

If you are paraphrasing or summarizing a concept from another work rather than explicitly citing it, you just need to provide the author’s name and the year of publication in your in-text reference rather than the page number of the original work. It is necessary to provide the page number at the end of the parenthetical reference if you are directly citing or borrowing from another piece of writing. As an illustration (Burnside, 2016, p. 199).

APA: Citing Within Your Paper

For each source you use, add the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number (or the place of the quotation within the source if a page number is not provided), for example: If you are quoting from a book, include the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number.

  • The following are the page number(s): (p. 3)or(pp. 3-4)
  • The following are the paragraph number(s): (para. 3)or(paras. 3-4)
  • The following are the paragraph within a chapter or section: (Chapter 3, para. 3)or (Plant-Based Foods section, para. 3)
  • The following are the slide number or table number: (Slide 3) or (Table 3)
  • The following are the time stamp: (1:03:03

Beginning with a signal phrase that contains the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. As an illustration: Cook-Gumperz (1986) writes that “the methodical growth of literacy and schooling resulted in a new split in society, between the learned and the uneducated” (p. 27). As Carr (2008) points out, “As we begin to rely on computers to filter our view of the world, it is our own intellect that flattens into artificial intelligence” (Chapter 3, para.

  1. You only need to provide the author’s last name and year of publication in your in-text citation when paraphrasing or summarizing material from a source, according to the American Psychological Association.
  2. Some believe that leaning too much on the Internet for information may impair our mental skills as well as our capacity to read books and other lengthy pieces of writing (Carr, 2008).
  3. It is necessary to mention the author’s last name and the date of publication when referencing a paraphrase or summary from an eBook in the citation.
  4. According to the American Psychological Association, “Adult development is the scientific study of changes in behaviors, ideas, and emotions that occur during adulthood” (Mossler, 2013, Adult Development section, para.
  5. It is necessary to add the author’s last name and the date on the web page or at the bottom of the website when paraphrasing or summarizing content from a web page in your citation.
  6. Wherever possible, indicate the most direct position of the quote, such as a section title and/or a paragraph number, where there are no page numbers.

Other web sites do not identify a specific individual as the author, but instead identify a firm or organization as the author. When mentioning a web page, it is important to identify whether the author is a person or a company.

Author is an Individual

. (Dunn, 2016, Plant-Based Foods section, para. 10). Even if you are unable to identify an individual author, if you are able to identify an organization or group that is responsible for the content of a web page, you should attribute the authorship of the web page to that group, organization, corporation, university, government agency, or association.

Author is an Organization/Company/University/Agency

. (United States Coast Guard, 2018, para. 6).

No Author

If there is no author listed on your web page, you should provide the title of the piece between quotation marks (“”). The title of the web page should be included in quotation marks (“”) if there is no obvious title for the article. If the title is lengthy, only the first few words should be used:. (See “Policies and Procedures for Patrol,” published in 2018 on page 3).

No Date

The title of the article should be enclosed in quotation quotes if there is no author listed on the web page in question (“”). The title of the web page should be enclosed in quotation marks (“”) if there is no distinct article title. The first few words of the title are sufficient if the title is lengthy: (2018), p. 3 of “Policies and Procedures for Patrol.”

2 Authors for a Source

Whenever your source includes two authors, use an ampersand () for your end-of-sentence (parenthetical)citation, but use the word “and” when the final names are a part of your sentence (narrative citation): JonesFraenza (2017) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized Jones and Fraenza (2017) made the following statement.

(See p.

3 or More Authors for a Source

When there are three or more authors named, just the last name of the first author listed should be included, followed by the phrase “et al.”:. (Lekkerkerk and colleagues, 2014, para. 2) That was examined by Lekkerkerk et al. (2014).

Group Author with Acronym Abbreviation

When referencing a group or organization with a name that is widely abbreviated, write down the full name of the group or organization the first time you mention it: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020, paragraph 2). That information was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). For each additional citation from a source, use the abbreviation for the organization that it belongs to: Paragraph 2 of the CDC’s 2020 report. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supplied this information.

Example: If you read an article by Brown (2020) that mentions a previous work by Smith (2017), Brown is regarded the secondary or indirect source (since the article was produced later) and Smith is considered the direct or original source (because the earlier work was written earlier) (because it was written first).

When citing a source that you discovered in another source, credit the original author and year first, followed by ” as referenced in ” the secondary author’s last name and year, and then the source in question.

Consider the following example: According to Smith (2017, as referenced in Brown, 2020), students require the support of teachers and staff in order to achieve.

More Examples:

When referencing a group or organization with a name that is widely abbreviated, write down the full name of the group or organization the first time you mention it:. 2020, paragraph 2 of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention That was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). For each further citation from its source, use the acronym for the organization: Paragraph 2 of the CDC’s 2020 report That information was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Example: If you read an article by Brown (2020) that mentions a previous work by Smith (2017), Brown is regarded the secondary or indirect source (since the article was produced later) and Smith is considered the direct or original source (because the older work was written first) (because it was written first).

The original author and year, followed by the phrase ” as referenced in ” the secondary author’s last name and year, should be used to credit sources discovered in other sources when referencing them.

Single Idea Sentence

The citations for all sources should be included at the conclusion of the sentence, with the sources listed alphabetically after that. For example, researchers generally agree that drinking coffee has health advantages (Centanni, 2020; Dunn et al., 2019; JonesHemerda, 2020).

Multiple Idea Sentence

The citations for all sources should be included at the conclusion of the sentence, with the sources listed alphabetically after them. In the case of coffee, for example, most researchers believe that it has health advantages (Centanni, 2020; Dunn et al., 2019; JonesHemerda, 2020).

LibGuides: Citation Resources: APA 7th Ed: In-Text Citations

The author-date citation method is used with parentheses in the APA 7 Style. After a quotation, provide parenthesis with the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) on which the quotation occurs. If a quotation is on a single page, precede the page number with the letter “p.”. Instead of “pp.”, “pp.” should be used for quotations that begin on one page and conclude on another. “Sometimes I have the distinct impression that there is a JERTAIN in the CURTAIN,” says one page (Seuss, 1974, p.

“The swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog,” according to a quote on page two: (Seuss, 2007, pp.

Using the letters a, b, and so on after the year indicates that you are using more than one work by the same author.

7-8).

A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (D. Seuss, 2007, pp. 7-8). Citations in-text for works by two or more authors are shown in the table below under Authors: In-Text Citations.

Narrative Citations

When you utilize the author’s last name in the narrative of your work, do not include the author’s first and last names in the parenthesis. Dr. Seuss made the observation that “the swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound” in his scientific investigation (2007, pp. 7-8). “The swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound,” as Dr. Seuss put it in his book “The Lorax” in 2007. (pp. 7-8).

Citations with Missing Elements

When an author’s name is not accessible, the first few words of the reference list entry should be used instead (usually the title). Make use of quote marks around the names of articles or web pages, as well as italicizing the titles of books, journals, and other publications. A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (Fox in Socks, 2007). When there are no page numbers available, paragraph numbers or other subsection identifiers should be used instead of page numbers.

5).

5-6).

Paraphrased Citations

Paraphrasing is the process of putting another person’s thoughts into your own words, which allows you to efficiently summarize and synthesize knowledge (p. 269). When paraphrasing concepts, you have the option of using either narrative or parenthetical citations. Using previously existing classroom literature education, stories may be utilized to teach social skills to kids. Emphasis should be placed on lessons that assist students analyze events and sympathize with characters (WolfBaker, 2012).

Seuss’ books to teach social skills to their pupils, based on a case study from one classroom teacher (p.

Keep in mind that if the source material is lengthy or difficult to understand, page numbers should be included to assist the reader in locating the text that is being paraphrased or referred to in your paper.

Author–date citation system

Cite references in the text using the author–date citation method in accordance with APA Style. Each work cited in a publication has two elements in this system: an in-text citation and a reference list item matching to the work cited in the article. In-text citations might take the form of parenthetical or narrative references.

  • To prevent ambiguity in parenthetical citations, include an ampersand () between names for a work with more than one author or before the last author’s name when all authors’ names must be mentioned. In narrative quotations, the word “and” should always be capitalized.

This advice has been updated from the previous edition (6th edition).

Number of authors to include in in-text citations

It is necessary to adjust the structure of the author element of the in-text citation depending on the number of authors. In certain circumstances, the author element is shortened.

  • When there are just one or two writers for a work, mention the author’s name(s) in every citation. When there are three or more authors on a work, just the first author’s name should be used in every citation (including the first citation)

The following table outlines the most common in-text citation formats:

Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020)
Two authors (SalasD’Agostino, 2020) Salas and D’Agostino (2020)
Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020)
Group author with abbreviationFirst citationaSubsequent citations (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020)(NIMH, 2020) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)NIMH (2020)
Group author without abbreviation (Stanford University, 2020) Stanford University (2020)

A group author’s abbreviation should be defined only once in the text, and it should be in either the parenthetical or narrative format.

After then, whenever the group is mentioned in the text, the abbreviation should be used.

Exceptions to the basic in-text citation styles

  • The year in the in-text citation should be the same year as the year in the reference list item, unless otherwise specified. Even if the reference list item has a more exact date (e.g., year, month, and day), just the year should be used in the in-text citation. In-text citations for works that do not have a date should use “n.d.” Work that has been approved for publication but has not yet been published should be identified with the phrase “in press.”

Repeating a citation

If the reference list entry is dated in the same year as the text citation, then the text citation is considered correct. Even if the reference list item provides a more exact date (e.g., year, month, and day), just the year should be used in the in-text citation. Use “n.d.” in the in-text citation for works that do not have a published date. “in press.” is used to indicate that a work has been accepted for publication but has not yet been published.

  • Include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication for each parenthetical in-text reference. When using narrative in-text citations, do not repeat the year on the second and subsequent occasions that they appear in a single paragraph. This guideline should be followed with each new paragraph (for example, the year should be included in the first narrative citation in a new paragraph). To avoid confusion, add the publication year in every in-text citation if you are citing several works by the same author or authors, regardless of when the works were first published. Example: If you reference Mohammed and Mahfouz (2017) and Mohammed and Mahfouz (2019), include the year with each citation, even when one of the references is used more than once in the same paragraph.

Further guidelines for in-text citations

  • Each in-text citation must match to a single reference list entry in the reference list. In-text citations should not include suffixes such as “Jr.” or “Sr.” Work with an unknown author (see Section 9.12) should be referenced in-text by including both the title and the year of publication. Each of the more than 100 reference examples in Chapter 10 of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) provides examples of both parenthetical and narrative citations. More information and examples may be found in the Publication Manual.

Originally published on: September 1, 2019.

CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations

In APA Style, an in-text citation informs the reader about the source of any and all material that did not originate from your own brain or other sources. This is more clear when you are explicitly quoting from a source, but it is equally necessary when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source, and even when you have gotten an idea from someplace else, to cite sources properly. It is critical that you properly cite all of the words and ideas that you have borrowed from other sources in order to avoid being accused of plagiarism.

  • If you are writing an APA Style paper, the author-date citation method is used to reference your sources.
  • It is possible for readers to identify sources used in the article by looking for author and date information inside the paper’s text, and then simply locate the relevant reference in the alphabetical reference list, using this citation method.
  • There are two sorts of in-text citations that can be used.
  • A narrative citation is a sort of citation in which the author’s name appears inside the text of the sentence; on the other hand, a parenthetical citation is a type of reference in which the author’s name and the date appear in parentheses at the conclusion of the phrase.

How do I create narrative or parenthetical citations?

In APA Style, you should cite your sources by placing the information about the source in parentheses at the end of a sentence or in the text of your paper, rather than using a footnote, which places the source information at the bottom of the page, or an endnote, which places the information about the source at the end of the paper. There are subtle variances in appearance based on which style you choose.

  • Include the last name of the author as well as the year of publication. Only use page numbers or paragraph numbers when quoting directly from a source. Check to ensure that the source information in parentheses corresponds to the source information in your reference list. The punctuation for the statement is placed AFTER the parenthesis
  • Nonetheless, When quoting less than forty words, use quotation marks around the words that are being quoted. Sources with defined page numbers should be referenced in narrative citations where the author and date are presented in the sentence. The page number should be included in parentheses at the conclusion of each quote. Instead of using page numbers when the source doesn’t have any, you can use a paragraph number, heading, or a mix of heading and paragraph number. It is acceptable to add the author and date with the page or paragraph number if the author and date are not presented as part of the content itself. The period should appear after the parenthesis
  • Otherwise, it is incorrect. If your quote is longer than forty words, set it off in a block text by starting the block quote on a new line, indenting 0.5 inches (one-half inch), and without using quotation marks around the block quote (see example). After the last word of the phrase, place a period after it, followed by the parenthesis, to mark the conclusion of the quote. More information may be found atBlock Quote

Additional Resources

For further information on parenthetical and narrative citations, read pages 253-278 of the 7th edition of the American Psychological Association Manual for a detailed discussion and examples.

LibGuides: APA Style & Citation 7th edition: Citations: In-Text

Watch the short video above to learn how to properly format an in-text citation by including signal phrases and parenthetical citations into your writing.

Additional instructions on how to properly cite your sources within your text may be found in the section below.

General rules (all source types):

  • For a quotation, provide the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the precise section (typically the page number) that was used. If providing a page or paragraph number in a paraphrase reference, you may do so if doing so would assist interested readers in locating the relevant text within a large or complicated book (American Psychological Association 2020, p. 269
  • American Psychological Association 2020, p. 269). Whenever possible, place quotation marks around the item that is being cited. It is not necessary to insert quotation marks in paraphrases and summaries. Citations at the conclusion of a sentence are placed before the period, and

Pages and Specific Parts

The page number of the borrowed information should be included in the citation of a book, journal article, or other paged source.

  • For a single page, use the letter p
  • For several pages, use the letter pp.

Whenever you are referencing a source that does not provide page numbers (such as a website), make it easy for the reader to access the material you are utilizing. For example, this may be the name of a section or header on a website, the number of paragraphs in a document (manually count the paragraphs and use the abbreviation ‘para.’), the slide number on a PowerPoint, the time stamp for a video, and so on. Immunotherapy is a “treatment that consists of a series of injections of purified allergen extracts” that is described as follows: (Mayo Clinic, n.d., “Treatment” section, para.3).

(15:30, 2015) (Whedon, 2015, 16:30)

Quotations or Paraphrases

It is possible to include the citation information into the text you are writing using the narrative in-text citation style. It is allowed, according to Spencer (2006), “to declare the author’s name at the beginning of the sentence, rather than always placing it in the parenthetical reference” when citing sources (pp. 5-6). ORA ‘parenthetical’ citations contain all of the citation information within the parenthesis of the original reference. “Separate the author from the citation at the conclusion of the cited text,” many pupils still refuse to do (Spencer, 2006, pp.

Organization as the Author

It is possible to include the citation information within the text you are writing using the narrative in-text citation style. When stating the author’s name at the beginning of a sentence, as opposed to usually putting it in the parenthetical citation, Spencer (2006) points out that it is permissible (pp. 5-6). ORA ‘parenthetical’ citations contain all of the citation information within the parenthesis of each respective citation. “Separate the author from the citation at the conclusion of the cited content,” many students continue to insist on (Spencer, 2006, pp.

  • To give an example, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2016), 5-10 percent of all cancer-related fatalities in Bangladesh are caused by arsenic poisoning caused by pollution in the region(paragraphs 9-10)
  • Consider the following: In a location with high arsenic contamination, “5–10 percent of all cancer deaths in an arsenic-contaminated zone were attributed to arsenic exposure,” according to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2016, para. 9-10)

Unknown Author

  • Make mention of the title of the work in the text, or provide the first word or two of the title in the in-text citation
  • Citation marks are used to denote the titles of articles. The titles of books are in italics
  • If the name Anonymous is ever used, it should be treated as if it were a genuine name.

As an illustration, developing efficient study habits is the most important predictor of first-year college student success in most cases (“Students,” 2002, para. 3).

Personal Communication

This can include private letters, a few emails, interviews you do, and other similar activities. Due to the fact that they are not recoverable (i.e., no one else will be able to discover this material), they do not need to be placed on the Reference page, but they must be cited in your text. Other in-text citations should be included in the same sequence as the quotation or paraphrase: immediately following the quote or paraphrase. The communicator’s initials and last name are written in capital letters (personal communication, date of communication).

Porterfield, personal communication, June 10, 2019).

Secondary Source

Make every effort to get the second source if the one you are using refers to it in your citation. If you are unable to access that source, use the phrase “as cited in” to recognize both sources. Include the date of the original source (which should be on the Reference page of the source you are using); if the date is not mentioned, then eliminate that portion of the reference from the citation.

The source you have is Schein’s 2017 essay, while the piece you’re quoting is Greave’s 2015 paper, which was published in 2015. When you don’t know the exact date of the original source, you can use Greave’s speech (as quoted in Schein, 2017).

Type of Author Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation
One author (Silas, 1989) Silas (1989).
Two authors (SilasBreacher, 1990) Silas and Breacher (1990).
Three or more authors (Silas et al., 1990) Silas et al. (1990).
Group author with an abbreviation*First citationFollowing citations (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)(CDC, 2020) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020).CDC (2020).
Group author no abbreviation (Central Penn College, 2019) Central Penn College (2019).
Two authors with the same last name (B. Silas, 1991)(J. Silas, 1992) B. Silas (1991).J. Silas (1992).
Two sources by the same author in the same year (Silas, 1990a)(Silas, 1990b) Silas (1990a).Silas (1990b).

*Group writers who use abbreviations do not use abbreviations on the Reference page; instead, they spell out their full names.

Research Guides: Citing Your Sources: APA (7th)

In the Reference page, group writers who use abbreviations should spell out their full names rather than abbreviations.

Format

A. A. is a recording artist who is well-known for his work in the music industry (Year). The song’s title. On the album’s title page. A recording label is a company that produces recordings.

  • In the case of classical compositions, the composer should be listed as the author, and the recording artist or ensemble should be listed in square brackets following the title. Use the publication date of the recording you used as the reference, but include the year of the original composition in parenthesis at the end of the reference to distinguish it from other recordings. It is necessary to mention both dates in the in-text reference, for example, Bach (1721/2010)
  • If there are numerous recording labels, they should be separated by a semicolon.
Example

Beyoncé is one of the most famous women in the world (2016). Sorry. OnLemonade is located in Parkwood and Columbia.

Film

Beyoncé is one of the most well-known celebrities in the world today (2016). Sorry. OnLemonade is located in Parkwood and Columbia, South Carolina.

Format

Beyoncé is one of the most famous people in the planet (2016). Sorry. OnLemonade is located in Parkwood and Columbia, Maryland.

Example

R. Coogler is the director of this film (2018). Panthera nigra (black panther). Marvel Studios and Walt Disney Pictures are two examples of production companies.

Online Video

More information may be found in the Publication Manual, section 10.12.

Format

A. A. Author’s name is A. A. (Year, Month Day). The title of the video. URL for a streaming website. It is dependent on where you watched the video that you choose who should be credited as the author. If the identity of the person or organization that posted the video is required in order to locate the precise version you saw, such as on YouTube, use the user account associated with that person or organization as the author.

Examples

Stanford University is a research university in California (2005, June 12). The commencement address delivered by Steve Jobs at Stanford University in 2005. YouTube. S. Jobs, S. Jobs, S. Jobs (2005, June). How to live your life till you die. TED.

Television Series Episode

More information may be found in the Publication Manual, section 10.12.

Format

D. D. (Director), Writer, W. W. (Writer), Writer, W. W. (Writer), Writer, W. W. (Writer), Writer, W. W. (Writer), Writer, W. W. (Writer), Writer, W. W. (Writer), Writer, W. W. (Writer), Writer, W. W. (Writer), Writer, W. W. (Writer), Writer, W. W (Director). (Year, month, and day of the week.) The episode’s official title is (Season x, Episode x). Executive Producer (Executive Producer) is the title of the television series in E. E. Executive Producer (Executive Producer). Company in charge of production.

Example

Averill, M. (author), and Silberlin, B. (editors) (Director). The 27th of October, 2014. The third chapter is titled (Season 1, Episode 3). Jane the virgin is a film directed by J. Snyder Urman, B. Silverman, G. Pearl, and J. Granier (executive producers). Poppy Productions, RCTV, Electus, CBS Television Studios, and Warner Bros. Television are among the companies involved.

Image

More information may be found in the Publication Manual, page 14.

Format

A. A. the artist is a pseudonym for A. A. (Year of creation). The title of the piece. Museum, Museum’s Address, Museum’s Website.

  • If the picture comes from a print source, mention that work (there is no need to add specifics about the image
  • Simply reference the page number in the in-text citation)
  • If the image comes from a digital source, cite that work. The name of the location from which the picture was acquired should be used in lieu of the words Museum and Museum Location for infographics, maps, images, and PowerPoint slides. If the piece does not have a title, include a brief description in square brackets.
Examples

J. Lawrence, et al (1940-1941). They also made it extremely difficult for migrants to leave the southern hemisphere.

In addition, they frequently went to railroad terminals and detained large numbers of black people, causing them to miss their train: The migration series is a collection of short stories. The Metropolitan Museum of Art is located in New York, New York, United States.

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