How To Do In-text Citation? (Solution found)

In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.

Contents

How do you type an in text citation?

There are two methods of citing sources in your text:

  1. Parenthetical citations give a short reference in parentheses directly in the text.
  2. Numerical citations give only a number that corresponds to a footnote, endnote, or reference list entry.

How do you do an in text citation for a website?

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.).

How do you cite in text MLA?

Using In-text Citation MLA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).

How do you cite in text apa?

Using In-text Citation APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.

What does APA stand for?

Summary: APA ( American Psychological Association ) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

How do you in text cite a website with no author?

Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.: (“All 33 Chile Miners,” 2010). Note: Use the full title of the web page if it is short for the parenthetical citation.

How do you in text cite APA with no author?

In-Text Citations:

  1. Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
  2. When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style” capitalization, and the year.

How do you cite a chapter in a book MLA?

The basic format for citing a book chapter in MLA format is: Author(s) of Chapter. “Title of Chapter: Subtitle of Chapter.” Title of Book, edited by Editor of Book, Publisher, Publication Date, page numbers.

How do you cite an article with no author MLA?

The MLA Style Center When a work is published without an author’s name, begin the works-cited-list entry with the title of the work. Do not use Anonymous in place of an author’s name: “English Language Arts Standards.” Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2017, www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/.

How do you MLA cite an article?

Format. Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article: Subtitle if Any.” Name of Journal, Volume Number, Issue Number, Date of Publication, First Page Number-Last Page Number.

How do you do in-text citations APA for websites?

When citing a web page or online article in APA Style, the in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).

How do you cite in-text APA 7?

APA 7 Style uses the author-date citation method with parentheses. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) the quote appears. For quotations that are on one page, type “p.” before the page number.

How do you in-text cite 7 authors in APA?

If a document has six or more authors, simply provide the last name of the first author with “et al.” from the first citation to the last. Example: Thomas et al.

In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab

Note:This page contains the most recent edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (APA 7), which was issued in October 2019. You may find the similar material for the older APA 6 style in this section. The Publication Manual’s pages 261-268 provide guidance on how to use reference citations in text. Some general principles for citing other people’s work in your essay are provided below for your convenience. It is recommended on pages 117-118 of the Publication Manual that writers of research articles use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal words that appear in the literature review and technique descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) discovered or Jones (1998) has discovered.) Jones (1998) discovers that the simple present tense may be used in contexts other than those associated with typically organized research writing.

APA Citation Basics

When writing in APA format, the author-date technique of in-text citation should be used. This implies that the last name of the author, as well as the year of publication for the source, should be included in the text, such as, for example (Jones, 1998). The reference list at the conclusion of the document should contain one complete reference for each source cited throughout the study. If you are referring to an idea from another work but are not directly quoting the material, or if you are making reference to an entire book, article, or other work, you only need to include the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and do not need to include the page number in your reference.

Before providing the page number, use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) to indicate that it is the first page (s).

If you want to write (Jones, 1998, p.

199–201), for example, you might write This information is restated in the next section.

Capitalization, quotations, and italics/underlining are all acceptable in-text citations.

  • Proper nouns, including author names and initials, should always be capitalized: Jones, D.
  • Jones, D. If you make reference to the title of a source inside your work, be sure to capitalize any terms that are four letters or longer in length within the title of a source, such as: The concepts of permanence and change are intertwined. Short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs are exempt from this rule. Examples include: There is nothing left to lose when it comes to new media writing.

(Please keep in mind that just the first word of a title will be capitalized in your References list: Writing new media.)

  • Titles that contain a hyphenated compound word should be capitalized on both words: Cyborgs that were born naturally
  • After a dash or a colon, capitalize the first word that follows: Hitchcock’s Vertigo serves as a case study in “Defining Film Rhetoric.” For works whose titles are italics in your reference list, italicize them in the text as well, and use title case capitalization in the text: Friends
  • The Wizard of Oz
  • The Closing of the American Mind
  • The Closing of the American Mind If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even if the reference list is written in sentence case): “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “The One in which Chandler is unable to cry.”

Short quotations

It is necessary to mention the author, publication year, and page number for a reference when directly quoting from a book (preceded by “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for a span of several pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash). Using a signal phrase that comprises the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. Jones (1998) states that “students frequently had problems utilizing APA style, particularly when it was their first time” (p.

Jones (1998) discovered that “students frequently had trouble employing APA style” (p.

Wherever possible, omitting the author’s last name but including his or her year of publication and page number in the text of the sentence will be accepted as proper citation practice.

Jones (1998) said that “students frequently had problems employing the APA style,” however she could not provide an explanation as to why this was the case.

Long quotations

Direct quotations that are 40 words or more should be included in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, with quotation marks omitted if possible. Starting on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, or at the same spot as you would begin a new paragraph, insert the quotation at the beginning of the paragraph. Create a new margin and indent any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by separating them by 1/2 inch from the new margin. Type the full quotation on the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by 1/2 inch from the new margin.

The parenthetical citation should appear after the period at the end of the paragraph.

An example of how to format block quotes in the APA 7 style.

Quotations from sources without pages

It is not necessary to include a page number in direct quotations from sources that do not contain any pages. As an alternative, you may refer to another piece of logical identification, such as a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else entirely. Older works (such as religious writings) may additionally include particular location identifiers, such as verse numbers, to help readers find their way around. For the most part, choose a page number replacement that makes sense for your original material.

Summary or paraphrase

The author and year of publication are all that are required in your in-text reference if you are paraphrasing a concept from another book. The page numbers are not required in this case. According to APA rules, however, giving a page range for a summary or paraphrase where it will assist the reader in finding the material in a lengthier work is strongly encouraged. As Jones (1998) points out, the APA style is a tough citation format to master for first-time learners. For first-time learners, APA style is a tough citation system to master (Jones, 1998, p.

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Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

Rather than appearing at the conclusion of long clauses or phrases, in-text references should occur immediately after the title, word, or phrase to which they are closely related. References inside the text should always come before punctuation marks. The following are some examples of in-text citations. The following is the author’s name in parentheses: According to one study, familiarity with the subject matter is the most crucial factor in interpreting non-native language speaking (GassVaronis, 1984).

Authors that belong to a group include: The first citation is as follows: (American Psychological Association, 2015) Following that, a citation is made: (APA, 2015) Several pieces of work: (separate each work with semi-colons) According to research, listening to a specific dialect increases comprehension of accented speech in general, not only in that accent (GassVaronis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

  1. The following is a verbatim quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote) “The listener’s acquaintance with the topic of discourse substantially aids the comprehension of the entire message,” according to one research (GassVaronis, 1984, p.
  2. According to Gass and Varonis (1984), “the listener’s prior knowledge of the topic of discourse substantially assists the comprehension of the entire message” (p.
  3. Note: For direct quotes of more than 40 words, the quote should be displayed as an indented block of text without quotation marks, with the names of the authors, the year of publication, and the page number of the source in parentheses at the end.
  4. That is, prior exposure to nonnative speech, such as that received by listening to the reading, makes it easier to comprehend what is being read.

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What Are In-Text Citations?

When a reference is made within the body of text of an academic essay, it is known as an in-text citation. The in-text reference directs the reader’s attention to a source that has influenced your own work and vice versa. The specific syntax of an in-text citation will vary depending on the style you are writing in, for example, APA or Chicago. Examine the in-text citations with your academic institution to confirm that you offer them in the manner that they require, and then use Cite This For Me’s citation generator to generate them for you instantly.

How to write an in-text citation

When citing a quotation or paraphrase, it is often sufficient to mention simply the author’s last name, date of publication, and page number from which the quotation or paraphrase was taken, with the entire reference appearing in your bibliography (or works cited) page at the conclusion of your essay. Because it is so obvious to the reader, the in-text citation should be placed in brackets immediately after the passage you have quoted or paraphrased, so that the reader may easily recognize it.

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APA Format In-Text Citations

APA style allows in-text citations to be used after a direct quotation or after paraphrased information. In the case of direct quotations, the in-text citation should be given immediately after. It is customary to include the author’s surname as well as the year of publication and the relevant page number or numbers in the in-text citation of a book. If you are citing a book, the in-text citation will typically include the author’s surname as well as the relevant page number or numbers, enclosed by parentheses.

  • For example, Gandalf remarked, “All we have to determine is what we will accomplish with the time that has been granted to us” (Tolkien, 1954, p.
  • If you make a direct reference to the author inside the text, you are not required to mention the author’s name in the in-text citation.
  • Tolkien writes, “All we have to decide is what to do with the time that is given us,” in the first book of the Lord of the Rings trilogy, The Fellowship of the Ring, in which the character Frodo Baggins is introduced.
  • If you’re citing content that has been paraphrased, a page number is not usually required.
  • Examples include the conflict between good and evil that runs through The Lord of the Rings and other films (Tolkien, 1954).

20). Don’t forget to include regular citations for your sources in your bibliography at the end of the paper as well as at the beginning of the paper.

MLA and Chicago Formatting

In order to keep you on your toes, the different formats use varied requirements for in-text citations to keep things interesting. When using MLA format in-text citations, for example, the author’s last name or the first item contained in the entire citation if the author’s name is not included is commonly used instead of the publication date to avoid confusion. For example, let’s take the identical in-text citation example from earlier and convert it to MLA style for simplicity. “All we have to determine is what we will do with the time that has been granted to us,” Gandalf explained (Tolkien 20).

  • A source’s identification information that is contained in the paragraph is unnecessary in the parenthetical citation.
  • The parenthetical reference would not be necessary in this scenario, either the source did not offer page numbers or because it was not important to add the page number.
  • Alternatively, some writers who adhere to the Chicago style opt to employ a notes and bibliography system, which eliminates the need for in-text citations entirely and instead relies on numbered footnotes or endnotes to provide additional information.
  • You may discover helpful citation instructions for the APA, MLA, and Chicago styles on the Cite This For Me website, which can assist you in learning how to make in-text citations.

Do’s and Don’ts of In-text Citations

Make an effort to maintain consistency. One of the most crucial components of citation creation is to ensure that you select a citation style and adhere to it throughout the entirety of your document. Before you begin writing your paper, double-check the criteria for in-text citations in your chosen style, whether you’re using APA format or a different style. From the beginning to the conclusion, follow those regulations. DON’T BELIEVE EVERYTHING. In situations where you are including material from another source, it might be all too simple to think to yourself, “the reader will know where this originated from.” Citations should not be treated in this manner since failing to provide in-text references might result in you being accused of plagiarism and obtaining a negative score on your paper.

  • Make your in-text citations as soon as possible.
  • Last-minute paper tension might result from delaying your paper till the last minute.
  • DON’T OVERUSE THIS FORMULA.
  • It is sufficient to include a single in-text citation at the beginning or conclusion of a paragraph or group of sentences that incorporates material from a single source throughout the paragraph or group of statements.
  • It is usually a good idea to double-check your in-text citations after you have finished writing your paper and before submitting it to your teacher for review.
  • Make one last pass through your in-text citations before submitting your paper for grading to ensure that they are accurate.
  • If you are unclear of how to begin creating your in-text citations for your paper, it is always a good idea to consult with your instructor for guidance.
  • It is probable that the assignment instructions they offer will provide specifics on how to format citations in the manner in which they anticipate them to be formatted.

Cite This For Me is a tool that allows you to create a bibliography as well as format in-text citations. You will find hundreds of styles on the site, as well as a Harvard referencing generator and many different source kinds, when you visit it.

A complete guide to MLA in-text citations

Shona McCombes published a new article on July 9, 2019. On July 2, 2021, a revision was made. It is necessary to supply the author’s last name and page number in parentheses when using anMLAin-text citation. If a source has more than one author, provide the names of both. If a source includes more than two authors, just the first author should be included, followed by the phrase “et al.” If the section you’re quoting is spread across numerous pages, make sure to provide the whole page range. You can use commas to separate the page numbers of several non-consecutive pages when citing numerous non-consecutive pages at once.

Number of authors Example
1 author (Moore 37)
2 authors (Moore and Patel 48–50)
3+ authors (Moore et al. 59, 34)

Each in-text citation must be accompanied by a complete reference in the Works Cited section of the paper. With the free Scribbr Citation Generator, you can quickly and easily generate and store your citations. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.

  • MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
  • MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
  • MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
  • MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
  • MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.

Where to include an MLA in-text citation

Placing the parenthetical reference immediately after the relevant quotation or paraphrase and before the period or other punctuation mark is recommended (except withblock quotes, where the citation comes after the period). If you’ve already mentioned the author in the sentence, all you need to do now is put the page number within parentheses. The phrase “and others” or “and colleagues” should be used instead of “et al.” when referencing a source with three or more authors outside of parenthesis.

  • The MLA citation style is the second most common citation style, according to Smith and Morrison (17–19). According to Smith and Morrison (17–19), the MLA citation style is the second most used citation style. The American Psychological Association (APA) is by far “the most widely used citation style in the United States” (Moore et al. 74), but it is less dominant in the United Kingdom (Smith 16)
  • Moore and colleagues state that APA is more popular in the United States than elsewhere(74)
  • Moore and colleagues state that APA is

Combining citations

Whenever more than one source is cited in support of a single statement, the citations can be combined into a single pair of parentheses. Use an asemicolon to distinguish between the two sources. Livestock production is one of the most significant contributors to climate change on a worldwide scale (Garcia 64; Davies 14).

Consecutive citations of the same source

For the first time you reference a source, you can give the complete citation; however, for future citations, you can only include the page number. This is especially useful when citing the same source more than once inside a paragraph. Smith and Morrison (17–19) report that MLA is the second most frequent citation style. It is more prevalent than the Chicago style, although it is less popular than the American Psychological Association style (21). You are permitted to do so as long as it is obvious from the text which source you are referring.

It is necessary to match the first element of the Works Cited item to the in-text citation for sources that do not have a listed author.

It is acceptable to abbreviate a source title or organizational name that is more than four words lengthy to the first word or phrase included in the in-text citation, eliminating any articles (a, an,andthe).

Titles should be formatted according to the generalMLA rules: If the source is a self-contained work (for example, a full website or an entire book), the title should be in italics; if the source is a part of a larger whole (for example, a page on a website or a chapter of a book), the title should be enclosed in quotes.

Full source title or organization name In-text citation
Amnesty International Report 2017/2018: The State of the World’s Human Rights (Amnesty International Report187)
“Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions” (“Sources”)
“A Quick Guide to Proofreading” (“Quick Guide”)
National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Academy (National Academy 24)

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Consider the following illustration:

Citing sources with no page numbers

For sources that do not contain page numbers but are separated into numbered sections (e.g., Chapters and Scenes in a Book of Mormon; Bible Books and Verse; Articles of the Constitution; or timestamps), utilize these numbers to identify the appropriate portion. It is sufficient to provide merely the author’s name as part of the in-text citation if the source does not employ a numerical system. Except if explicitly numbered in the source, do not add paragraph numbers when citing sources.

Source type What to do Example
Source divided into numbered parts Add a comma after the author and give a paragraph, section, or chapter number with a relevant abbreviation. (Luxemburg, ch. 26)
Playwith numbered lines Include the act, scene, and line numbers, separated by periods, instead of a page number. (Shakespeare1.2.95)
Audiovisual source Include the time range as displayed in the media player. (Wynn 10:23–45)
Source with no numbered divisions Include only the author’s name (or, if there is no author, the shortened title). (Rajaram)

It is important to note that if there are no numbered divisions and you have already identified the author in your sentence, no parenthetical citation is required.

Citing different sources with the same author name

If you have more than one item under the same last name on your Works Cited page, you must make a distinction between these sources in your in-text citations in order to avoid plagiarism.

Multiple sources by the same author

To indicate which source you are referring to when you mention more than one work by the same author, use a shorter title in your bibliography. It is acceptable to cite numerous sources by the same author (Butler, Gender Trouble27) (Butler, “Performative Acts” 522) According to this example, the title of the first source is italicized, while the title of the second source is in quote marks since it is an article that has been published in a journal, respectively.

Different authors with the same last name

Use the authors’ initials (or, if they are the same, the authors’ complete first names) in your in-text citations to distinguish between separate writers who have the same last name: Citing various writers with the same last name (A. Butler 19) is an example of plagiarism (J. Butler 27)

Citing sources indirectly

It is possible that you will wish to mention anything that you discovered was quoted in a secondary source. Always try to locate the original source and reference it explicitly if at all feasible. If you are unable to obtain access to the original source, be careful to provide the names of both the original author and the author of the source that you obtained access to. In order to specify where you found the quotation, you should use the abbreviation “qtd. in” (short for “quoted in”). As an example of an indirect quotation in MLA style, Marx describes “the two major generators of wealth” as “labour-power and land” (qtd.

26).

Frequently asked questions about MLA in-text citations

What is the proper way to reference material from a footnote in MLA format? Some types of sources, such as books and journal articles, may include footnotes (or endnotes) that provide further information about the source. The following are the criteria for referencing material from a note in an in-text citation according to MLA style:

  • Write “n” after the page number and then the note number, for example, (Smith 105n2), to quote material from a single-numbered note. To reference information from several numbered notes, use the notation “nn” followed by a range, for example, (Smith 77n1–2)
  • If you want to reference material from an unnumbered note, add “un” after the page number with a space between them, for example, (Jones 250 un)

In MLA format, how do I reference a source that does not include an author or page numbers? If a source does not have an author, the MLA Works Citedentry should begin with the source title. In your in-text citation, you should use an abbreviated version of the title. You can use an alternate locator (e.g., a chapter number for a book or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant part in your in-text citation if the source doesn’t have page numbers available.

If there are no numbered divisions in the source, only the author’s name should be used (or the title). There is no requirement for a parenthetical citation if you have already identified the author or title in your sentence and there is no locator accessible. For example:

  • As Rajaram contends, “cultural, political, and ideological objectives” influence how people see migration. “A movement for fundamentally alternative news,” according to the website of The Correspondent.

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SOM Library: APA Citation Style Guide (6th Ed.): Overview

The numbers in parentheses correspond to particular pages in the American Psychological Association’s 6th Edition manual. Textual Citation Using the Author-Date System (p. 174)

  • References are referenced in the text of the document using an author-date citation system, and then they are listed alphabetically in the reference list at the conclusion of the publication

EXAMPLE: Throughout the text:The conquering of pellagra is most often connected with a single name: Joseph Goldberger (Bryan, 2014). This entry is included in the Reference list: C.S. Bryan is an author who lives in the United States (2014). With the help of an asylum doctor, James Woods Babcock was able to stop the Red Plague of Pellagra. The University of South Carolina Press is located in Columbia, South Carolina. Ensure that you double-space the whole manuscript, including the References list and any block quotes (pp.

(p.

230)

  • Once your work is finished, number the pages in a sequential manner, starting with the title page. Include a “running head” at the top of every page (p. 229). Use the following format on the title page: “Running head: EXAMPLE OF TITLE” (without the quotation marks). On all future pages, use the format “EXAMPLE OF TITLE” to distinguish one page from the next (without quotation marks). See the sample paper on page 41 of the Manual for further information.

Tip: To set up the page numbers and running head in your word processor, use the “header” feature on your word processor. Because the running head format on the title page differs from that on the remaining pages, you will need to choose “different first page” from the header function of your word processor.

Help and Support: Chicago – Referencing Guide: Citing in the Text

When referring to a source of information inside the body of a document, the Chicago style provides a brief citation consisting of the name of the author (or authors) and the date of publication in its most basic form, according to the Chicago Manual of Style. Closed round brackets are used to indicate whether or not a brief reference is included in the text. Use simply the author’s surname followed by the year of publication as the sole part of the citation. If you need to be more particular, you might include page, chapter, section, or paragraph numbers.

  • With the exception of electronic materials that do not include page numbers, there is no distinction made between books, journal articles, online documents, or other forms in use.
  • Here are a few illustrations: There are several reasons for intestinal scarring, as stated in the text, which is cited as follows: (Ogilvie 1998, 26-28).
  • Ogilvie’s Large Animal Internal Medicine was published in 1998.
  • This is a reference to a journal article that appears in the text as:.
  • OR As Morgan and Thompson (1998, 243) point out, gastrointestinal sickness is frequently misdiagnosed in addition to other reasons.
  • M., and R.
  • A.

1998.

241-245 in Parasitology Today, December 2004.

The following is an example of a citation for an online resource that appears in the text as:There are numerous valuable materials accessible (Raidal and Dunsmore 1996, paragraph 13):Raidal, Shane R.

1996.

a survey of alimentary tract parasites in caged pythons, with particular emphasis on the prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae, was conducted.

Remember to use the term and before the last name when referring to numerous authors inside the text and within parenthesis, as Kurtines and Szapocnik (2003) indicated (Kurtines and Szapocnik, 2003).

Research Guides: Citation Guide: Home

The purpose of the parenthetical citation is to direct the reader to a specific item in the bibliography, so the first entry in the bibliography (usually the author’s last name, but sometimes the title if no author is listed) is what is included in the parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation should be followed by a period. In addition, the specific position (page number) is specified in the text. Plagiarism is defined as the act of taking someone else’s words, thoughts, or ideas and passing them off as one’s own.

  1. ” Plagiarism is defined as the intentional use of another’s verbatim words without credit or quote marks, as well as the use of someone else’s thoughts or ideas and representing them as one’s own.
  2. This provides a bit of a conundrum: students are supposed to use the research and writing of others, yet their ability to do so is severely restricted.
  3. However, due credit must be given to those who have done the study.
  4. There are a variety of note-taking methods available to aid you, but it is critical that you maintain track of which ideas came from which sources throughout the process.
  5. There are various ways to do this, including quote, paraphrase, and summary.” (Talman)

LibGuides: Citation Resources: APA 7th Ed: In-Text Citations

The author-date citation method is used with parentheses in the APA 7 Style. After a quotation, provide parenthesis with the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) on which the quotation occurs. If a quotation is on a single page, precede the page number with the letter “p.”. Instead of “pp.”, “pp.” should be used for quotations that begin on one page and conclude on another. “Sometimes I have the distinct impression that there is a JERTAIN in the CURTAIN,” says one page (Seuss, 1974, p.

“The swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog,” according to a quote on page two: (Seuss, 2007, pp.

Using the letters a, b, and so on after the year indicates that you are using more than one work by the same author.

7-8).

A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (D. Seuss, 2007, pp. 7-8). Citations in-text for works by two or more authors are shown in the table below under Authors: In-Text Citations.

Narrative Citations

When you utilize the author’s last name in the narrative of your work, do not include the author’s first and last names in the parenthesis. Dr. Seuss made the observation that “the swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound” in his scientific investigation (2007, pp. 7-8). “The swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound,” as Dr. Seuss put it in his book “The Lorax” in 2007. (pp. 7-8).

Citations with Missing Elements

When an author’s name is not accessible, the first few words of the reference list entry should be used instead (usually the title). Make use of quote marks around the names of articles or web pages, as well as italicizing the titles of books, journals, and other publications. A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (Fox in Socks, 2007). When there are no page numbers available, paragraph numbers or other subsection identifiers should be used instead of page numbers.

5).

5-6).

Paraphrased Citations

Paraphrasing is the process of putting another person’s thoughts into your own words, which allows you to efficiently summarize and synthesize knowledge (p. 269). When paraphrasing concepts, you have the option of using either narrative or parenthetical citations. Using previously existing classroom literature education, stories may be utilized to teach social skills to kids. Emphasis should be placed on lessons that assist students analyze events and sympathize with characters (WolfBaker, 2012).

Seuss’ books to teach social skills to their pupils, based on a case study from one classroom teacher (p.

Keep in mind that if the source material is lengthy or difficult to understand, page numbers should be included to assist the reader in locating the text that is being paraphrased or referred to in your paper.

In-Text Citations: An Overview

In-text citations are brief, unobtrusive references that direct readers to the works-cited-list entries for the sources you consulted as well as, where applicable, to the location in the source being cited. In-text citations are used to direct readers to the works-cited-list entries for the sources you consulted. When you use an in-text citation, you begin with the shortest piece of information that directs your reader to the corresponding entry in the works-cited list. As a result, it begins with whichever of the following appears first in the entry: the author’s name or the title (or description) of the piece of writing.

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Citation in prose

Naomi Baron was the first person to break fresh ground on the issue.

Parenthetical citation

At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Baron).

Work cited

Naomi S.

Baron’s “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media” is available online. Pages 193–200 of PMLA’s 128, no. 1 (January 2013) are available online.

Citation in prose

Female bhakti poets, according to the article “Bhakti Poets,” “experienced insurmountable problems as a result of their rejection of traditional norms and ideals.”

Parenthetical citation

According to the author, the female bhakti poets “were confronted with insurmountable problems as a result of their rejection of society norms and values” (Bhakti Poets).

Work cited

“Introduction to the Bhakti Poets.” Women in World History, Center for History and New Media, chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson1/lesson1.php?s=0; Women in World History, Center for History and New Media, chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson1/lesson1.php?s=0 . Accessed on the 20th of September, 2020. Whenever it is appropriate, an in-text citation must include a second component: when someone quotes or paraphrases a specific part of a work and the work includes a page number, line number, time stamp, or other method of directing readers to a specific point in the work where the information can be found, the location marker must be included in parentheses.

Parenthetical citations

“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (194). One could even argue that reading is never complete until it is accompanied by writing. “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (3). It is also acceptable to include the author or title in parentheses next to the page number or other loca­tion marker.

Parenthetical citations

“Reading is only half of literacy,” says the author. “The other half of the team is writing” (Baron 194). One could even argue that reading is never complete until it is accompanied by writing. The number of people who conduct creative writing, regardless of genre (and not just literary works), climbed dramatically between 1982 and 2002 despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period, according to the study (Reading3).

Works cited

Naomi S. Baron’s “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media” is available online. Pages 193–200 of PMLA’s 128, no. 1 (January 2013) are available online. Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America is a survey of literary reading in the United States. The National Endowment for the Arts published this article in June 2004. All in-text citations should be brief and to the point. Avoid, for example, using the author’s name or the title of a work in both your text and your parentheses while writing a paper.

Citations (incorrect)

“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (Baron 194). “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (Reading3).

Citations (correct)

“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (194). “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (3). Only the component of an author’s name—typically his or her surname—that is essential to locate that item in a list of works referenced should be used in parenthetical citations (for more information on surnames, see sections 2.73–2.81 in The Modern Language Association’s ninth edition of the MLA Handbook).

Citation (incorrect)

At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Naomi S. Baron).

Citation (correct)

At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Baron). In parenthetical citations, use abbreviated titles to save space. To learn how to reduce titles in parenthetical citations, refer to sections 6.10–6.14 of the MLA Handbook, ninth edition, for more information. In order to save space, do not include the prefix p.orpp. before a page number in a parenthetical reference, as you would in a list of works cited (where such abbreviations lend clarity). You should precede any number other than a page number in a parentheti­cal citation with a name such aschapterorsection (commonly abbreviated in parentheses) orlineorlines (typically abbreviated in parentheses) (do not abbreviate).

CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations

In APA Style, an in-text citation informs the reader about the source of any and all material that did not originate from your own brain or other sources. This is more clear when you are explicitly quoting from a source, but it is equally necessary when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source, and even when you have gotten an idea from someplace else, to cite sources properly. It is critical that you properly cite all of the words and ideas that you have borrowed from other sources in order to avoid being accused of plagiarism.

  • If you are writing an APA Style paper, the author-date citation method is used to reference your sources.
  • It is possible for readers to identify sources used in the article by looking for author and date information inside the paper’s text, and then simply locate the relevant reference in the alphabetical reference list, using this citation method.
  • There are two sorts of in-text citations that can be used.
  • A narrative citation is a sort of citation in which the author’s name appears inside the text of the sentence; on the other hand, a parenthetical citation is a type of reference in which the author’s name and the date appear in parentheses at the conclusion of the phrase.

How do I create narrative or parenthetical citations?

In APA Style, you should cite your sources by placing the information about the source in parentheses at the end of a sentence or in the text of your paper, rather than using a footnote, which places the source information at the bottom of the page, or an endnote, which places the information about the source at the end of the paper.

There are subtle variances in appearance based on which style you choose.

  • Include the last name of the author as well as the year of publication. Only use page numbers or paragraph numbers when quoting directly from a source. Check to ensure that the source information in parentheses corresponds to the source information in your reference list. The punctuation for the statement is placed AFTER the parenthesis
  • Nonetheless, When quoting less than forty words, use quotation marks around the words that are being quoted. Sources with defined page numbers should be referenced in narrative citations where the author and date are presented in the sentence. The page number should be included in parentheses at the conclusion of each quote. Instead of using page numbers when the source doesn’t have any, you can use a paragraph number, heading, or a mix of heading and paragraph number. It is acceptable to add the author and date with the page or paragraph number if the author and date are not presented as part of the content itself. The period should appear after the parenthesis
  • Otherwise, it is incorrect. If your quote is longer than forty words, set it off in a block text by starting the block quote on a new line, indenting 0.5 inches (one-half inch), and without using quotation marks around the block quote (see example). After the last word of the phrase, place a period after it, followed by the parenthesis, to mark the conclusion of the quote. More information may be found atBlock Quote

Additional Resources

For further information on parenthetical and narrative citations, read pages 253-278 of the 7th edition of the American Psychological Association Manual for a detailed discussion and examples.

Subject guides: Citing and referencing: In-text citations

It is necessary to put the in-text citation directly after the text that relates to the source that is being cited. According to one source, “the darkest days were still to come.” Round brackets are used to indicate this. According to one source, “the worst days were still ahead.” (1) Using square brackets: “the worst days were still ahead.” The following is written in superscript: “The worst days were yet ahead,” as one author put it. 1 It is also possible to incorporate the author’s name within the text.

Page numbers should be included with in-text citations: It is not uncommon for page numbers to be omitted from the citation number.

More than one reference should be cited at a time: The preferable way is to list each reference number one after another, separated by a comma or a dash if the numbers are in a sequence of consecutive integers.

Author–date citation system

Cite references in the text using the author–date citation method in accordance with APA Style. Each work cited in a publication has two elements in this system: an in-text citation and a reference list item matching to the work cited in the article. In-text citations might take the form of parenthetical or narrative references.

  • To prevent ambiguity in parenthetical citations, include an ampersand () between names for a work with more than one author or before the last author’s name when all authors’ names must be mentioned. In narrative quotations, the word “and” should always be capitalized.

This advice has been updated from the previous edition (6th edition).

Number of authors to include in in-text citations

It is necessary to adjust the structure of the author element of the in-text citation depending on the number of authors. In certain circumstances, the author element is shortened.

  • When there are just one or two writers for a work, mention the author’s name(s) in every citation. When there are three or more authors on a work, just the first author’s name should be used in every citation (including the first citation)

The following table outlines the most common in-text citation formats:

Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020)
Two authors (SalasD’Agostino, 2020) Salas and D’Agostino (2020)
Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020)
Group author with abbreviationFirst citationaSubsequent citations (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020)(NIMH, 2020) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)NIMH (2020)
Group author without abbreviation (Stanford University, 2020) Stanford University (2020)

A group author’s abbreviation should be defined only once in the text, and it should be in either the parenthetical or narrative format. After then, whenever the group is mentioned in the text, the abbreviation should be used.

Exceptions to the basic in-text citation styles

  • The year in the in-text citation should be the same year as the year in the reference list item, unless otherwise specified. Even if the reference list item has a more exact date (e.g., year, month, and day), just the year should be used in the in-text citation. In-text citations for works that do not have a date should use “n.d.” Work that has been approved for publication but has not yet been published should be identified with the phrase “in press.”

Repeating a citation

APA Style requires that you repeat a reference in its entirety; do not, for example, give merely a page number (the abbreviation “ibid.” is not permitted in APA Style). Instead, follow the procedures outlined below:

  • Include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication for each parenthetical in-text reference. When using narrative in-text citations, do not repeat the year on the second and subsequent occasions that they appear in a single paragraph. This guideline should be followed with each new paragraph (for example, the year should be included in the first narrative citation in a new paragraph). To avoid confusion, add the publication year in every in-text citation if you are citing several works by the same author or authors, regardless of when the works were first published. Example: If you reference Mohammed and Mahfouz (2017) and Mohammed and Mahfouz (2019), include the year with each citation, even when one of the references is used more than once in the same paragraph.

Further guidelines for in-text citations

  • Each in-text citation must match to a single reference list entry in the reference list. In-text citations should not include suffixes such as “Jr.” or “Sr.” Work with an unknown author (see Section 9.12) should be referenced in-text by including both the title and the year of publication. Each of the more than 100 reference examples in Chapter 10 of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) provides examples of both parenthetical and narrative citations. More information and examples may be found in the Publication Manual.

Originally published on: September 1, 2019.

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