APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.
How to make an in text citation?
- On the References tab,in the Citations Bibliography group,click the arrow next to Style and click the style that you want to use for the citation and source.
- Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite.
- On the Reference tab,click Insert Citation and then do one of the following: To add the source information,click Add New Source,and then,in the Create Source dialog
- If you chose to add a source,enter the details for the source. To add more information about a source,click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.
- Click OK when finished. The source is added as a citation at the place you selected in your document.
- 1 How do you do in-text citations APA for websites?
- 2 How do you in-text cite APA 7th edition?
- 3 How do you cite in-text citations?
- 4 How do you in text cite APA with no author?
- 5 How do you in text cite a website in APA with no author?
- 6 How do you in text cite a whole paragraph in APA?
- 7 How do you cite APA 6th edition?
- 8 How do you use et al in APA?
- 9 How do you cite in APA with no author or date?
- 10 Do you cite every sentence in APA?
- 11 In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
- 12 APA Citation Basics
- 13 Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation
- 14 Beginner’s guide to APA in-text citation
- 15 Worried about in-text citation errors?
- 16 APA in-text citations explained in 4 minutes
- 17 No author, date or page number
- 18 Multiple sources in one parenthesis
- 19 Avoiding ambiguity in APA in-text citations
- 20 Citing indirect sources (“as cited in”)
- 21 Citing personal communication
- 22 General mentions of websites and software
- 23 Example paragraph with in-text citations
- 24 Frequently Asked Questions
- 25 Library Guides: APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation
- 26 RasGuides: APA 7th Edition Guide: In-Text Citations
- 26.1 Creating In-Text Citations: Paraphrases and Summaries
- 26.2 Parenthetical In-Text Citation
- 26.3 Narrative In-Text Citation
- 26.4 In-Text Citations and References are Connected and Match!
- 26.5 Formatting In-Text Citations
- 26.6 Placing In-Text Citations
- 26.7 Creating In-Text Citations: Quotations
- 26.8 Quotations of 40 or More Words Require Block Format
- 26.9 Paraphrases and Summaries
- 26.10 Qualities of a “Good” Paraphrase
- 27 CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations
- 28 APA: Citing Within Your Paper
- 29 Author–date citation system
- 30 Number of authors to include in in-text citations
- 31 Exceptions to the basic in-text citation styles
- 32 Repeating a citation
- 33 Further guidelines for in-text citations
How do you do in-text citations APA for websites?
When citing a web page or online article in APA Style, the in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).
How do you in-text cite APA 7th edition?
Parenthetical Citations APA 7 Style uses the author-date citation method with parentheses. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) the quote appears. For quotations that are on one page, type “p.” before the page number.
How do you cite in-text citations?
In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.
- Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
- When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style” capitalization, and the year.
Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.: (“All 33 Chile Miners,” 2010). Note: Use the full title of the web page if it is short for the parenthetical citation.
How do you in text cite a whole paragraph in APA?
In paragraphs that contain one overall instance of paraphrased information, “ cite the source in the first sentence in which it is relevant and do not repeat the citation in subsequent sentences as long as the source remains clear and unchanged ” (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 254).
How do you cite APA 6th edition?
Citation Help for APA, 6th Edition: In-text Citations
- Give the author’s last name and the publication year.
- Only use page numbers for a direct quote.
- Make sure the source information in parentheses matches with your works cited.
- The punctuation for the sentence goes AFTER the parenthesis.
How do you use et al in APA?
The abbreviation “et al.” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten in-text citations with three or more authors. Here’s how it works: Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation “n.d.” (for “no date”). Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring (“Tutoring and APA,” n.d.).
Do you cite every sentence in APA?
You need to make clear where someone else’s narration stops and you begin with your own words. Therefore, putting one citation at the end of a paragraph paraphrase is NOT APA compliant. If paraphrasing multiple consecutive sentences from the same source, cite each sentence to avoid plagiarism.
In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
Note:This page contains the most recent edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (APA 7), which was issued in October 2019. You may find the similar material for the older APA 6 style in this section. The Publication Manual’s pages 261-268 provide guidance on how to use reference citations in text. Some general principles for citing other people’s work in your essay are provided below for your convenience. It is recommended on pages 117-118 of the Publication Manual that writers of research articles use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal words that appear in the literature review and technique descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) discovered or Jones (1998) has discovered.) Jones (1998) discovers that the simple present tense may be used in contexts other than those associated with typically organized research writing.
APA Citation Basics
When writing in APA format, the author-date technique of in-text citation should be used. This implies that the last name of the author, as well as the year of publication for the source, should be included in the text, such as, for example (Jones, 1998). The reference list at the conclusion of the document should contain one complete reference for each source cited throughout the study. If you are referring to an idea from another work but are not directly quoting the material, or if you are making reference to an entire book, article, or other work, you only need to include the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and do not need to include the page number in your reference.
Before providing the page number, use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) to indicate that it is the first page (s).
If you want to write (Jones, 1998, p.
199–201), for example, you might write This information is restated in the next section.
Capitalization, quotations, and italics/underlining are all acceptable in-text citations.
- Proper nouns, including author names and initials, should always be capitalized: Jones, D.
- Jones, D. If you make reference to the title of a source inside your work, be sure to capitalize any terms that are four letters or longer in length within the title of a source, such as: The concepts of permanence and change are intertwined. Short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs are exempt from this rule. Examples include: There is nothing left to lose when it comes to new media writing.
(Please keep in mind that just the first word of a title will be capitalized in your References list: Writing new media.)
- Titles that contain a hyphenated compound word should be capitalized on both words: Cyborgs that were born naturally
- After a dash or a colon, capitalize the first word that follows: Hitchcock’s Vertigo serves as a case study in “Defining Film Rhetoric.” For works whose titles are italics in your reference list, italicize them in the text as well, and use title case capitalization in the text: Friends
- The Wizard of Oz
- The Closing of the American Mind
- The Closing of the American Mind If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even if the reference list is written in sentence case): “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
- ” “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
- ” “The One in which Chandler is unable to cry.”
It is necessary to mention the author, publication year, and page number for a reference when directly quoting from a book (preceded by “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for a span of several pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash). Using a signal phrase that comprises the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. Jones (1998) states that “students frequently had problems utilizing APA style, particularly when it was their first time” (p.
Jones (1998) discovered that “students frequently had trouble employing APA style” (p.
Wherever possible, omitting the author’s last name but including his or her year of publication and page number in the text of the sentence will be accepted as proper citation practice.
Jones (1998) said that “students frequently had problems employing the APA style,” however she could not provide an explanation as to why this was the case.
Direct quotations that are 40 words or more should be included in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, with quotation marks omitted if possible. Starting on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, or at the same spot as you would begin a new paragraph, insert the quotation at the beginning of the paragraph. Create a new margin and indent any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by separating them by 1/2 inch from the new margin. Type the full quotation on the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by 1/2 inch from the new margin.
The parenthetical citation should appear after the period at the end of the paragraph.
An example of how to format block quotes in the APA 7 style.
Quotations from sources without pages
It is not necessary to include a page number in direct quotations from sources that do not contain any pages. As an alternative, you may refer to another piece of logical identification, such as a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else entirely. Older works (such as religious writings) may additionally include particular location identifiers, such as verse numbers, to help readers find their way around. For the most part, choose a page number replacement that makes sense for your original material.
Summary or paraphrase
The author and year of publication are all that are required in your in-text reference if you are paraphrasing a concept from another book. The page numbers are not required in this case. According to APA rules, however, giving a page range for a summary or paraphrase where it will assist the reader in finding the material in a lengthier work is strongly encouraged. As Jones (1998) points out, the APA style is a tough citation format to master for first-time learners. For first-time learners, APA style is a tough citation system to master (Jones, 1998, p.
Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation
Rather than appearing at the conclusion of long clauses or phrases, in-text references should occur immediately after the title, word, or phrase to which they are closely related. References inside the text should always come before punctuation marks. The following are some examples of in-text citations. The following is the author’s name in parentheses: According to one study, familiarity with the subject matter is the most crucial factor in interpreting non-native language speaking (GassVaronis, 1984).
Authors that belong to a group include: The first citation is as follows: (American Psychological Association, 2015) Following that, a citation is made: (APA, 2015) Several pieces of work: (separate each work with semi-colons) According to research, listening to a specific dialect increases comprehension of accented speech in general, not only in that accent (GassVaronis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
- The following is a verbatim quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote) “The listener’s acquaintance with the topic of discourse substantially aids the comprehension of the entire message,” according to one research (GassVaronis, 1984, p.
- According to Gass and Varonis (1984), “the listener’s prior knowledge of the topic of discourse substantially assists the comprehension of the entire message” (p.
- Note: For direct quotes of more than 40 words, the quote should be displayed as an indented block of text without quotation marks, with the names of the authors, the year of publication, and the page number of the source in parentheses at the end.
- That is, prior exposure to nonnative speech, such as that received by listening to the reading, makes it easier to comprehend what is being read.
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Beginner’s guide to APA in-text citation
Raimo Streefkerk published a new article on November 4, 2020. On December 15, 2021, a revision was made. This article is written in accordance with the American Psychological Association’s 7th edition criteria. The American Psychological Association’s sixth edition guidelines may be found here. In-text citations are used to identify the source of information within the body text of a piece of writing. In your work, they correlate to a complete reference entry at the conclusion of the manuscript.
- Whenever possible, provide a page number or range of pages when referencing a specific section of a source, for example: (Parker, 2020, p.
- The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
- The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
- The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
Worried about in-text citation errors?
Before submitting your work, do a fast check to discover how many APA citation problems you have in your article.
- Over 100 APA guidelines were reviewed and approved. Within one minute, you will get a response. American Psychological Association Style (6th/7th Edition)
Try it out for free.
APA in-text citations explained in 4 minutes
Depending on the situation, the in-text citation may be provided in parentheses or organically blended into the statement.
- Parenthetical: According to Parker (2019), there is a link between teens’ use of social media and their anxiety symptoms. An explanation is provided by Parker(2019), who discovered a link between social media use and anxiety symptoms in adolescents.
When writing in the narrative format, the year of publication appears right below the author’s name at the top of the page. The parenthetical citation can be used within a sentence or at the conclusion of a sentence, immediately before the period, depending on the situation. Take a look at a complete sample paragraph that includes in-text citations. A parenthetical citation or the word “and” in a narrative citation should be used to separate the names of two authors if a work has more than one author.
|One author||(Harris, 2020)||Harris (2020)|
|Two authors||(HarrisCook, 2020)||Harris and Cook (2020)|
|Three or more authors||(Harris et al., 2020)||Harris et al. (2020)|
|Group authors||(Scribbr, 2020)||Scribbr (2020)|
|Abbreviated group author|
|(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)(CDC, 2020)||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020)CDC (2020)|
|Unknown element||Solution||In-text citation|
|Author||Use the source title.||(Source Title, 2020)|
|Date||Write “n.d.” for “no date”.||(Harris, n.d.)|
|Page number||Use an alternative locator oromit the page number.||(Harris, 2020, 03:46) or(Harris, 2020)|
Whether the author of a source is not known, attempt to figure out if there is an organization or government that is accountable for the creation of the information. If so, mention the name of the organization in the in-text citation (and reference entry). In the last three years, the cost of solar energy has dropped by 34%, which is a significant reduction (Tesla, 2020). Alternatively, you may substitute the title of the source for the author. If the title is italicized in the reference entry, italicize it here as well (except forcourt cases, which are italicized in the in-text citation but not the reference entry).
Titles should be capitalized in all cases, and extended titles should be condensed.
- (“Flood Risk in the United States,” 2015)
- (Thinking, Fast and Slow, 2017)
No publication date
If the publishing date is not known, the in-text reference should be written as “n.d.” (no date). (Johnson,n.d.).
No page number (alternative locators)
In APA style, page numbers are only necessary when direct quotes are used. It is acceptable to use an alternate locator when quoting from a work that does not include page numbers (for example, online pages or YouTube movies). Examples include:
- (Liu, 2020,03:26)
- (Johnson, 2019,Chapter 3)
- (McCombes, 2016,para. 4)
- (Davis, 2016,Slide 15)
- (Flores, 2020,Table 5)
- (Streefkerk, 2020,”No page number” section)
- (Liu, 2020,03:26)
- (Davis, 2016,Slide 15
Even in cases where page numbers are available, Bible citations usually utilize chapter and verse numbers. For example, According to the English Standard Version Bible (2001), Joshua 2:7.
Multiple sources in one parenthesis
It is acceptable to incorporate numerous in-text citations into a single pair of parentheses when a statement is backed by many sources. Order the sources alphabetically, then separate them with a semicolon between each one of them. The years of publication should be listed after each work by a single author when numerous works by that author are cited. These findings have been confirmed by a number of other investigations (Brown, 2009; Porter, 2004; Smith, 2015, 2017).
Avoiding ambiguity in APA in-text citations
The remedies mentioned in the table below should be used when in-text citations are confusing because they relate to several reference entries.
|Multiple works by the same author in the same year.||Add a lowercase letter after the year.||(Cooper, 2018a)(Cooper, 2018b)|
|Different authors with the same last name.||Include the authors’ initials.||(H. Taylor, 2019)(B. J. Taylor, 2016)|
|Multiple works with 3+ authors that shorten to the same form (i.e., same first author(s) and date).||Include as many names as needed to distinguish the citations.||(Cooper, Lee, et al., 2015)(Cooper, Ross, et al., 2015)|
Citing indirect sources (“as cited in”)
The original or main source should always be used when referencing an item that was discovered in another source, while the secondary source should never be used. If, on the other hand, you are unable to locate the original source, you should credit it through the secondary source that brought you to it, using the phrase “as cited in.” Bloom et al., 2017 quote from Parker (1978), which is mentioned in Bloom et al., 2017). If the publication date of the original source is not available, just the year of publication of the secondary source should be included in the citation.
Citing personal communication
Personal communications, such as phone conversations, emails, and interviews, are not included in the reference list since readers will not be able to obtain access to these materials. In addition, the in-text reference is structured in a different way.
Identify the individual you corresponded with by including his or her initials and last name, the phrase “personal conversation,” and the date you communicated with in parenthesis. During the second quarter, sales are decreasing (P. G. Brown, personal communication, June 13, 2019).
General mentions of websites and software
General references of a website or program do not need to be accompanied by an in-text citation or a reference list item in order to be considered credible. Replace this information with appropriate information that is included into the running text.
- Many excellent materials may be found on the Scribbr website (http://www.scribbr.com/). The data was analyzed with the help of the statistical softwareSPSS (version 25)
Example paragraph with in-text citations
Adapted version of the example paragraph Use of social media has been consistently linked to negative body image concerns, particularly among young women (Perloff, 2014). According to Grabe et al. (2008), exposure to mass media is associated with female body image dissatisfaction, which is supported by several studies and research findings. TiggermannSlater (2013) and MeierGray (2014) conducted empirical investigations on Facebook usage in teenage females, while Holland and Timmerman (2016) conducted an extensive review of the literature to demonstrate a link between social networking and body image in both women and men.
Frequently Asked Questions
What does an in-text reference for a website look like in the APA format? An in-text citation for a web page or online article in APA Style is comprised of the author’s last name and the year of publication, as shown in the example. As an illustration: (WorlandWilliams, 2015). It should be noted that the author might also be a company or organization. As an illustration: (American Psychological Association, 2019). It is recommended that you include a locator when quoting. Because web pages do not contain page numbers, you can use one of the following methods to navigate between them:
- Smith (2018) provides the following paragraph number: (15). heading or section name: (CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
- Heading or section name: (CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)
- Abbreviated heading:
When using APA Style, how can I reference several sources written by the same author? If you reference many sources by the same author or group of writers, you’ll use the year of publication to distinguish between them in your APA in-text citations. Whenever you need to reference many sources by the same author(s) at the same time, you may just write the author name(s) once and separate the different years with commas, for example, et al (Smith, 2020, 2021). To distinguish between sources with the same author(s) and the same publication year, use a different lowercase letter after the year for each source, e.g., a different lowercase letter after the year for each source (Smith, 2020, 2021a, 2021b).
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Library Guides: APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation
In-text citations are used to quickly document the source of your information in an APA research paper. In-text citations are introduced into the body of your research paper to document the source of your information. Citations that are only a few sentences long direct the reader to more extensive information in the Reference list. When citing in-text sources in APA format, use the author-date method of citation. According to this approach, the author and date are included in the main body of the document, and a reference to the author and date is included in the References section of the article.
When you cite another work or when you paraphrase another work in your own words, you must include an in-text reference to acknowledge the source.
In-text Citations Have Two Formats
- In parenthesis, the author’s name and the date of publication (or any comparable information) are listed, as in the example above. Using the example of falsely balanced news coverage, Burnside (2016) shows how the public’s sense of expert consensus on a particular subject can be distorted. If the work is a narrative, the author’s name appears in running text immediately after the author name, and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. For example, Burnside (2016) has warned about the hazards of deceptively balanced news coverage in the media.
If you are paraphrasing or summarizing a concept from another work rather than explicitly citing it, you just need to provide the author’s name and the year of publication in your in-text reference rather than the page number of the original work. It is necessary to provide the page number at the end of the parenthetical reference if you are directly citing or borrowing from another piece of writing. As an illustration (Burnside, 2016, p. 199).
RasGuides: APA 7th Edition Guide: In-Text Citations
It is important to note that citing sources in the body of a research paper informs the reader that outside source material was used to construct the phrase in which the in-text citation appears. This informs the reader that the work or thinking they are reading is not their own. The following are examples of citations:
- Provides the reader with information about the studies, ideas, or beliefs that motivated the author of the work
- It lends credibility and credence to the arguments made in the document. Recognizes the contributions of others in the area by acknowledging their unique work
In-text citations can also be used as search engines. Because in-text citations are composed of the first two elements of the reference for the resource (the author’s last name and the date of publication), they provide the reader with enough information to locate the resource in the paper’s References list without having to look it up in the reference list. In other words, the in-text citations and the references are the same thing!
Creating In-Text Citations: Paraphrases and Summaries
(Name of author, date of publication) The Author-Datecitation system is used in the APA style. Citations inside the body of a document are used to alert readers that the information included in the phrase where the citation is found was obtained from a third-party source. They are formed of the first two parts of the related reference (Author and Date) for the resource, and they are intended to be brief in order to avoid interfering with the flow of the text as much as possible. There are two sorts of in-text citations: in-text citations and endnotes.
Parenthetical In-Text Citation
This is the most often used type of in-text reference. It is made up of the last name of the author(s) and the year in which the work was published. This type of reference is known as a parenthetical citation since the material is included inside parentheses. In the sentence where information from the source was utilized, the parenthetical citation appears at the conclusion of the sentence and, because it is a part of the sentence, it appears immediately before the period. Consider the following example of a parenthetical citation: In contrast to writing with a pen and paper, students stated that they prefer writing on a computer (Cheung, 2016).
Narrative In-Text Citation
When the author’s name appears in a sentence, the narrative citation is employed to reference that author. As in the previous example, the year of publication is placed in parentheses after the author’s name in the paragraph. Consider the following example of a narrative citation: Cheung (2016) discovered that student writers generated higher-quality work when they composed on a computer rather than with a paper and pen, according to the results of his survey.
In-Text Citations and References are Connected and Match!
Citations inside the text have two purposes. First and foremost, they notify the reader that information from a source was incorporated into a phrase in which the in-text citation is included. It informs the reader about the authors whose work had an impact on the writer’s attitude or findings on the subject.
For the second, it functions as a discovery aid, allowing the reader to locate the complete reference in the reference list without having to search for it. Both the reference and the in-text citation must be identical. The following example demonstrates how these are compatible:
Formatting In-Text Citations
In-text citations are formatted according to the Author-Date pattern. A parenthetical in-text citation is one that appears at the end of a sentence, whereas an in-text citation is one that appears inside the body of the sentence if the author’s name is included (narrative in-text citation). It is customary to mention the first author’s last name, followed by the phrase “et al.” and the year the book was published if it is by three or more writers. In-text citations for works by a single author, two authors, three or more authors, and group writers are provided in the following examples: Work by a single author with paraphrased in-text citation (Davis, 2019).
A collaborative effort by two authors with in-text citations (RyanCooper, 2020).
Paraphrased in-text citation for work by three or more authors (Morrison et al., 2018).
(2018) research, Work by Group AuthorParenthetical citations inside the text
- The first citation (American Nurses Association, 2019)
- The second citation (ANA, 2019)
- And the third citation (ANA, 2019).
In-text reference with a narrative
- The very first citation The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released a study in 2020. Citation after citation According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2020), recommendations include:
Placing In-Text Citations
The very first reference a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020). Citation after the fact The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) makes the following recommendations:
Creating In-Text Citations: Quotations
The very first mention According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020), The following reference According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2020), recommendations include;
Quotations of 40 or More Words Require Block Format
The first citation The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020) published a report. Subsequent citations According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2020), recommendations include the following:
- When introducing a topic or setting the tone for a paper, including a well-known or well-understood quotation may be quite useful.
- When introducing a topic or setting the tone for a work, including a well-known or well-understood quotation might be useful.
- Occasionally, it may be difficult to paraphrase a brief section without distorting the content
- In these cases, presenting a specific quotation may be better.
- Your work must include in-text citations and references to the sources of facts and figures, including those given in tables and charts.
- Incorporating a quotation that is diametrically opposed to your perspective may be a powerful tool for demonstrating why your position on the problem is superior.
Paraphrases and Summaries
Whenever you summarize, paraphrase, or otherwise allude to an idea, concept, or fact discovered from your study, your citation will include the last name of the author(s) as well as the year the work was published: 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) (Smith, 2018) WilsonMiller (2019) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized (WilsonMiller, 2019) formalized (WilsonMiller, 2019) formalized (WilsonMiller, 2019) formalized (WilsonMiller, 2019) formalized (WilsonMiller, 2019) formalized (WilsonMiller, 2019) formalized (WilsonMiller, 2019) formalized (WilsonMiller, 2019) formalized (W
Qualities of a “Good” Paraphrase
Students are frequently required to incorporate information from source materials into their academic writing. There are several different ways to accomplish this, including quotes, summaries, and paraphrases. It is a comprehensive restatement in your own words of the important concepts from the section of the text that has been paraphrased.
Learning how to write a well-written paraphrase might be a difficult talent to master. Understanding the characteristics of a “good” paraphrase can be of assistance. The following characteristics are present in a well-written paraphrase:
- The paraphrase retains all of the important features from the original text
- The paraphrase does not alter the sense of the original author’s words
- In most cases, the paraphrase is the same length or slightly shorter than the original
- The paraphrase is written in your own words, in your own voice, with your own tone and style
- Both in-text and reference citations are provided for the source
- Both an in-text citation and a reference to the paraphrased content must be in the References section.
An example of a well-written paraphrase is as follows: Judy Berry, a psychologist at the University of Tulsa, investigated 73 Oklahoma eighth graders who had participated in a parenting course, according to the original passage. Each student was assigned to care for a ten-pound sack of flour as if it were a baby for a period of 10 days. According to Berry’s research on her young patients, the course was effective. The youngsters who participated in the research felt a more solid feeling of parental duty after taking the course than they did before.
Surrogacy for ‘Flour Babies’ teaches eighth-grade students about parenthood.
A good example of a paraphrase is as follows: According to a research conducted by psychologist Judy Berry with eighth grade students, extended parental role-playing might actually boost an adolescent’s knowledge of parental obligations (Harper, 1996).
In the process of learning how to paraphrase, students may unintentionally “patch write.” It is possible to utilize a passage from a source material and make minor adjustments to the words and phrases before incorporating the piece into a paper or assignment, however patch writing is not recommended.
- Take a look at the following example to obtain a better idea of patch writing: Judy Berry, a psychologist at the University of Tulsa, investigated 73 Oklahoma eighth graders who had participated in a parenting course, according to the original passage.
- According to Berry’s research on her young patients, the course was effective.
- Example of a Patch Writing: Judy Berry, a psychologist at the University of Tulsa, performed a study of eighth graders who had participated in a parenting course.
- Teenagers who participated in Berry’s study had a greater knowledge of parental responsibility after completing the course, according to the study’s findings (Harper, 1996).
- Patch writing, despite the fact that there is an in-text reference, is considered to be a type of plagiarism.
CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations
In APA Style, an in-text citation informs the reader about the source of any and all material that did not originate from your own brain or other sources. This is more clear when you are explicitly quoting from a source, but it is equally necessary when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source, and even when you have gotten an idea from someplace else, to cite sources properly. It is critical that you properly cite all of the words and ideas that you have borrowed from other sources in order to avoid being accused of plagiarism.
If you are writing an APA Style paper, the author-date citation method is used to reference your sources.
It is possible for readers to identify sources used in the article by looking for author and date information inside the paper’s text, and then simply locate the relevant reference in the alphabetical reference list, using this citation method.
There are two sorts of in-text citations that can be used.
A narrative citation is a sort of citation in which the author’s name appears inside the text of the sentence; on the other hand, a parenthetical citation is a type of reference in which the author’s name and the date appear in parentheses at the conclusion of the phrase.
How do I create narrative or parenthetical citations?
In APA Style, an in-text citation informs the reader of the source of any and all material that did not originate from your own brain or other sources that you have used. This is more clear when you are explicitly quoting from a source, but it is also necessary when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source, and even when you have gotten an idea from someplace else, as explained above. It is critical that you properly cite all of the words and ideas that you have borrowed from other sources in order to avoid plagiarism.
- Author-date citations are used to properly reference sources in an APA Style work.
- When the author and date of a source are reviewed inside the text of the article, this citation style allows the reader to quickly identify the source and then seek the relevant reference in the alphabetical reference list.
- In-text citations are used inside the body of the document to direct the reader to the reference listed in parentheses after each paragraph.
- When the author’s name is used inside the text of a sentence, this is referred to as a narrative citation; however, when the author and date are placed in parentheses at the conclusion of a phrase, this is referred to as a parenthetical citation.
- Include the last name of the author as well as the year of publication. Only use page numbers or paragraph numbers when quoting directly from a source. Check to ensure that the source information in parentheses corresponds to the source information in your reference list. The punctuation for the statement is placed AFTER the parenthesis
- Nonetheless, When quoting less than forty words, use quotation marks around the words that are being quoted. Sources with defined page numbers should be referenced in narrative citations where the author and date are presented in the sentence. The page number should be included in parentheses at the conclusion of each quote. Instead of using page numbers when the source doesn’t have any, you can use a paragraph number, heading, or a mix of heading and paragraph number. It is acceptable to add the author and date with the page or paragraph number if the author and date are not presented as part of the content itself. The period should appear after the parenthesis
- Otherwise, it is incorrect. If your quote is longer than forty words, set it off in a block text by starting the block quote on a new line, indenting 0.5 inches (one-half inch), and without using quotation marks around the block quote (see example). After the last word of the phrase, place a period after it, followed by the parenthesis, to mark the conclusion of the quote. More information may be found atBlock Quote
Please provide the last name of the author as well as the year of publication. Whenever possible, only direct quotations should be supported by page numbers or paragraph numbers. Please double-check that the source information in parentheses corresponds to the source information in your reference list. The sentence’s punctuation is placed AFTER the parenthesis; yet, When you have a quote that is shorter than forty words, add quotation marks around the words that are quoted. Sources with defined page numbers should be referenced in narrative citations when the author and date are presented in the sentence.
- Instead of using page numbers when the source doesn’t provide them, you can use a paragraph number, heading, or a mix of heading and paragraph number.
- It is necessary to place a period after the parenthesis.
- To do so, start the block quote on a new line, indent 0.5 inches (one-half inch), and do not include quotation marks around it.
- Check outBlock Quote for more details.
APA: Citing Within Your Paper
For each source you use, add the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number (or the place of the quotation within the source if a page number is not provided), for example: If you are quoting from a book, include the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number.
- The following are the page number(s): (p. 3)or(pp. 3-4)
- The following are the paragraph number(s): (para. 3)or(paras. 3-4)
- The following are the paragraph within a chapter or section: (Chapter 3, para. 3)or (Plant-Based Foods section, para. 3)
- The following are the slide number or table number: (Slide 3) or (Table 3)
- The following are the time stamp: (1:03:03
Beginning with a signal phrase that contains the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. As an illustration: Cook-Gumperz (1986) writes that “the methodical growth of literacy and schooling resulted in a new split in society, between the learned and the uneducated” (p. 27). As Carr (2008) points out, “As we begin to rely on computers to filter our view of the world, it is our own intellect that flattens into artificial intelligence” (Chapter 3, para.
- You only need to provide the author’s last name and year of publication in your in-text citation when paraphrasing or summarizing material from a source, according to the American Psychological Association.
- Some believe that leaning too much on the Internet for information may impair our mental skills as well as our capacity to read books and other lengthy pieces of writing (Carr, 2008).
- It is necessary to mention the author’s last name and the date of publication when referencing a paraphrase or summary from an eBook in the citation.
- According to the American Psychological Association, “Adult development is the scientific study of changes in behaviors, ideas, and emotions that occur during adulthood” (Mossler, 2013, Adult Development section, para.
- It is necessary to add the author’s last name and the date on the web page or at the bottom of the website when paraphrasing or summarizing content from a web page in your citation.
- Wherever possible, indicate the most direct position of the quote, such as a section title and/or a paragraph number, where there are no page numbers.
- Other web sites do not identify a specific individual as the author, but instead identify a firm or organization as the author.
Author is an Individual
. (Dunn, 2016, Plant-Based Foods section, para. 10). Even if you are unable to identify an individual author, if you are able to identify an organization or group that is responsible for the content of a web page, you should attribute the authorship of the web page to that group, organization, corporation, university, government agency, or association.
Author is an Organization/Company/University/Agency
. (United States Coast Guard, 2018, para. 6).
If there is no author listed on your web page, you should provide the title of the piece between quotation marks (“”). The title of the web page should be included in quotation marks (“”) if there is no obvious title for the article. If the title is lengthy, only the first few words should be used:. (See “Policies and Procedures for Patrol,” published in 2018 on page 3).
The title of the article should be enclosed in quotation quotes if there is no author listed on the web page in question (“”). The title of the web page should be enclosed in quotation marks (“”) if there is no distinct article title. The first few words of the title are sufficient if the title is lengthy: (2018), p. 3 of “Policies and Procedures for Patrol.”
2 Authors for a Source
Whenever your source includes two authors, use an ampersand () for your end-of-sentence (parenthetical)citation, but use the word “and” when the final names are a part of your sentence (narrative citation): JonesFraenza (2017) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized Jones and Fraenza (2017) made the following statement.
3 or More Authors for a Source
When there are three or more authors named, just the last name of the first author listed should be included, followed by the phrase “et al.”:. (Lekkerkerk and colleagues, 2014, para. 2) That was examined by Lekkerkerk et al. (2014).
Group Author with Acronym Abbreviation
When referencing a group or organization with a name that is widely abbreviated, write down the full name of the group or organization the first time you mention it: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020, paragraph 2). That information was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). For each additional citation from a source, use the abbreviation for the organization that it belongs to: Paragraph 2 of the CDC’s 2020 report. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supplied this information.
Example: If you read an article by Brown (2020) that mentions a previous work by Smith (2017), Brown is regarded the secondary or indirect source (since the article was produced later) and Smith is considered the direct or original source (because the earlier work was written earlier) (because it was written first).
When citing a source that you discovered in another source, credit the original author and year first, followed by ” as referenced in ” the secondary author’s last name and year, and then the source in question.
Consider the following example: According to Smith (2017, as referenced in Brown, 2020), students require the support of teachers and staff in order to achieve.
When referencing a group or organization with a name that is widely abbreviated, write down the full name of the group or organization the first time you mention it:. 2020, paragraph 2 of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention That was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). For each further citation from its source, use the acronym for the organization: Paragraph 2 of the CDC’s 2020 report That information was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Example: If you read an article by Brown (2020) that mentions a previous work by Smith (2017), Brown is regarded the secondary or indirect source (since the article was produced later) and Smith is considered the direct or original source (because the older work was written first) (because it was written first).
The original author and year, followed by the phrase ” as referenced in ” the secondary author’s last name and year, should be used to credit sources discovered in other sources when referencing them.
Single Idea Sentence
The citations for all sources should be included at the conclusion of the sentence, with the sources listed alphabetically after that. For example, researchers generally agree that drinking coffee has health advantages (Centanni, 2020; Dunn et al., 2019; JonesHemerda, 2020).
Multiple Idea Sentence
The citation should be included immediately after the information from the source. Research has hypothesized, for example, that the absence of social cues and pressures in electronic communications may reduce the anxiety associated with asking for help (KisantisChow, 2017), and that this may result in a more comfortable, open environment in which all members are treated on an equal footing (Sullivan, 2012).
Author–date citation system
Cite references in the text using the author–date citation method in accordance with APA Style. Each work cited in a publication has two elements in this system: an in-text citation and a reference list item matching to the work cited in the article. In-text citations might take the form of parenthetical or narrative references.
- To prevent ambiguity in parenthetical citations, include an ampersand () between names for a work with more than one author or before the last author’s name when all authors’ names must be mentioned. In narrative quotations, the word “and” should always be capitalized.
This advice has been updated from the previous edition (6th edition).
It is necessary to adjust the structure of the author element of the in-text citation depending on the number of authors. In certain circumstances, the author element is shortened.
- When there are just one or two writers for a work, mention the author’s name(s) in every citation. When there are three or more authors on a work, just the first author’s name should be used in every citation (including the first citation)
The name(s) of the author(s) should be included in every citation for a work that has one or two authors. The first author’s name plus “et al.” should be included in every citation (including the first citation) of a work having three or more authors.
|Author type||Parenthetical citation||Narrative citation|
|One author||(Luna, 2020)||Luna (2020)|
|Two authors||(SalasD’Agostino, 2020)||Salas and D’Agostino (2020)|
|Three or more authors||(Martin et al., 2020)||Martin et al. (2020)|
|Group author with abbreviationFirst citationaSubsequent citations||(National Institute of Mental Health, 2020)(NIMH, 2020)||National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)NIMH (2020)|
|Group author without abbreviation||(Stanford University, 2020)||Stanford University (2020)|
A group author’s abbreviation should be defined only once in the text, and it should be in either the parenthetical or narrative format. After then, whenever the group is mentioned in the text, the abbreviation should be used.
Exceptions to the basic in-text citation styles
- The year in the in-text citation should be the same year as the year in the reference list item, unless otherwise specified. Even if the reference list item has a more exact date (e.g., year, month, and day), just the year should be used in the in-text citation. In-text citations for works that do not have a date should use “n.d.” Work that has been approved for publication but has not yet been published should be identified with the phrase “in press.”
Repeating a citation
APA Style requires that you repeat a reference in its entirety; do not, for example, give merely a page number (the abbreviation “ibid.” is not permitted in APA Style). Instead, follow the procedures outlined below:
- Include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication for each parenthetical in-text reference. When using narrative in-text citations, do not repeat the year on the second and subsequent occasions that they appear in a single paragraph. This guideline should be followed with each new paragraph (for example, the year should be included in the first narrative citation in a new paragraph). To avoid confusion, add the publication year in every in-text citation if you are citing several works by the same author or authors, regardless of when the works were first published. Example: If you reference Mohammed and Mahfouz (2017) and Mohammed and Mahfouz (2019), include the year with each citation, even when one of the references is used more than once in the same paragraph.
Further guidelines for in-text citations
- Each in-text citation must match to a single reference list entry in the reference list. In-text citations should not include suffixes such as “Jr.” or “Sr.” Work with an unknown author (see Section 9.12) should be referenced in-text by including both the title and the year of publication. Each of the more than 100 reference examples in Chapter 10 of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) provides examples of both parenthetical and narrative citations. More information and examples may be found in the Publication Manual.
Originally published on: September 1, 2019.