How To In Text Cite An Article Apa? (Solution found)

APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.

How do you cite an article within text?

  • When citing the article in text, simply put the author and page number in parenthesis: (Wood 4). If you have already referred to the author in the sentence, such as saying “According to Wood,” omit the author’s name in the parenthetical citation and just list the page number.

Contents

How do you cite an online article in APA in text?

When citing a web page or online article in APA Style, the in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).

How do you in text cite an online article in APA 7th edition?

Quote from website or electronic source with no page numbers with author’s name in parentheses. Include the author’s name, the date, and the paragraph number, heading or section, or both in parentheses at the end of the sentence. Furthermore, the research “” (Smith, 2019, para. 4).

How do you in text cite a website article?

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.).

How do you in text cite APA 7th edition?

Parenthetical Citations APA 7 Style uses the author-date citation method with parentheses. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) the quote appears. For quotations that are on one page, type “p.” before the page number.

How do you cite an article?

The basic format is as follows: Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.

How do you cite an article with no author in APA?

Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication. When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline” style capitalization, and the year.

How do you do in text citations?

In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.

How do you in text cite an article with no page number?

Using In-text Citation MLA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).

Where are in-text citations placed in APA?

In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper.

How do you reference an article in APA 7?

Start by listing the author’s last name and first initials, followed by the date of publication in parentheses. Provide the title of the article, but only capitalize the first letter of the title. Next, list the journal or periodical and volume number in italics, followed by the issue number in parentheses.

In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab

Note:This page contains the most recent edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (APA 7), which was issued in October 2019. You may find the similar material for the older APA 6 style in this section. The Publication Manual’s pages 261-268 provide guidance on how to use reference citations in text. Some general principles for citing other people’s work in your essay are provided below for your convenience. It is recommended on pages 117-118 of the Publication Manual that writers of research articles use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal words that appear in the literature review and technique descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) discovered or Jones (1998) has discovered.) Jones (1998) discovers that the simple present tense may be used in contexts other than those associated with typically organized research writing.

APA Citation Basics

When writing in APA format, the author-date technique of in-text citation should be used. This implies that the last name of the author, as well as the year of publication for the source, should be included in the text, such as, for example (Jones, 1998). The reference list at the conclusion of the document should contain one complete reference for each source cited throughout the study. If you are referring to an idea from another work but are not directly quoting the material, or if you are making reference to an entire book, article, or other work, you only need to include the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and do not need to include the page number in your reference.

Before providing the page number, use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) to indicate that it is the first page (s).

If you want to write (Jones, 1998, p.

199–201), for example, you might write This information is restated in the next section.

Capitalization, quotations, and italics/underlining are all acceptable in-text citations.

  • Proper nouns, including author names and initials, should always be capitalized: Jones, D.
  • Jones, D. If you make reference to the title of a source inside your work, be sure to capitalize any terms that are four letters or longer in length within the title of a source, such as: The concepts of permanence and change are intertwined. Short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs are exempt from this rule. Examples include: There is nothing left to lose when it comes to new media writing.

(Please keep in mind that just the first word of a title will be capitalized in your References list: Writing new media.)

  • Titles that contain a hyphenated compound word should be capitalized on both words: Cyborgs that were born naturally
  • After a dash or a colon, capitalize the first word that follows: “Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock’sVertigo.”
  • For works whose titles are italics in your reference list, italicize them in the text as well, and use title case capitalization in the text: Friends
  • The Wizard of Oz
  • The Closing of the American Mind
  • The Closing of the American Mind If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even if the reference list is written in sentence case): “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “The One in which Chandler is unable to cry.”

Short quotations

Titles that contain a hyphenated compound word should be capitalized on both sides: The first Cyborgs to be born in the natural environment; After a dash or a colon, capitalize the first word that follows it: Hitchcock’s Vertigo serves as a case study in “Defining Film Rhetoric.” For works whose titles are italicized in your reference list, italicize them in the text as well, and use title case capitalization: Friends; The Wizard of Oz; The Closing of the American Mind “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;” “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;” “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;” and “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;” If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even though the reference list uses sentence case): This is the one in which Chandler is unable to cry.

Long quotations

Direct quotations that are 40 words or more should be included in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, with quotation marks omitted if possible. Starting on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, or at the same spot as you would begin a new paragraph, insert the quotation at the beginning of the paragraph. Create a new margin and indent any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by separating them by 1/2 inch from the new margin. Type the full quotation on the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by 1/2 inch from the new margin.

The parenthetical citation should appear after the period at the end of the paragraph.

An example of how to format block quotes in the APA 7 style.

Quotations from sources without pages

It is not necessary to include a page number in direct quotations from sources that do not contain any pages. As an alternative, you may refer to another piece of logical identification, such as a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else entirely. Older works (such as religious writings) may additionally include particular location identifiers, such as verse numbers, to help readers find their way around. For the most part, choose a page number replacement that makes sense for your original material.

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Summary or paraphrase

The author and year of publication are all that are required in your in-text reference if you are paraphrasing a concept from another book. The page numbers are not required in this case. According to APA rules, however, giving a page range for a summary or paraphrase where it will assist the reader in finding the material in a lengthier work is strongly encouraged. As Jones (1998) points out, the APA style is a difficult citation format to master for first-time learners. For first-time learners, APA style is a tough citation system to master (Jones, 1998, p.

Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

Rather than appearing at the conclusion of long clauses or phrases, in-text references should occur immediately after the title, word, or phrase to which they are closely related. References inside the text should always come before punctuation marks. The following are some examples of in-text citations. The following is the author’s name in parentheses: According to one study, familiarity with the subject matter is the most crucial factor in interpreting non-native language speaking (GassVaronis, 1984).

Authors that belong to a group include: The first citation is as follows: (American Psychological Association, 2015) Following that, a citation is made: (APA, 2015) Several pieces of work: (separate each work with semi-colons) According to research, listening to a specific dialect increases comprehension of accented speech in general, not only in that accent (GassVaronis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

  • The following is a verbatim quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote) “The listener’s acquaintance with the topic of discourse substantially aids the comprehension of the entire message,” according to one research (GassVaronis, 1984, p.
  • According to Gass and Varonis (1984), “the listener’s prior knowledge of the topic of discourse substantially assists the comprehension of the entire message” (p.
  • Note: For direct quotes of more than 40 words, the quote should be displayed as an indented block of text without quotation marks, with the names of the authors, the year of publication, and the page number of the source in parentheses at the end.
  • That is, prior exposure to nonnative speech, such as that received by listening to the reading, makes it easier to comprehend what is being read.

77) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formal

How to cite a journal article in APA Style

Jack Caulfield’s article was published on November 5, 2020. On September 27, 2021, a revision was made. This article is written in accordance with the American Psychological Association’s 7th edition criteria. The American Psychological Association’s sixth edition guidelines may be found here. Author(s), publication year, article title, journal name, volume and issue number, page range of article, and DOI (Digital Object Identifier) are all included in an APA Stylecitation for an academic journal article (if available).

  1. The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
  2. The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
  3. The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
  4. The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.
  5. The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.

Basic format for an APA journal citation

The title of the article appears in plain text and sentence case, but the name of the magazine is in italics and title case (all major words capitalized).

Format Last name,Initials. (Year).Article title.Journal Name,Volume(Issue),Page range.DOIorURL
Reference entry Mounier-Kuhn, P. (2012). Computer science in French universities: Early entrants and latecomers.InformationCulture: A Journal of History,47 (4), 414–456.
In-text citation (Mounier-Kuhn, 2012)

When reading a journal article online, most of the necessary information may be found on the access page of the paper. When articles are only available in PDF format, they may only include an e-locator rather than a page range; in this instance, you should provide the e-locator in your citation.

Linking to online journal articles

When ADOI is available, it should be used whenever possible. Despite the fact that some databases do not list one, you may be able to locate one by searching for the same item in another database. You are not need to provide the database’s name in your citation. It is unnecessary to specify a URL if there is no DOI available for the article and it was obtained from a database. The URL of the article should be as stable as possible, especially if it is not from a database but from another website (for example, the journal’s own website).

Alternatively, copy the URL from the address bar of your browser.

Citing unpublished journal articles

When referencing from an article that has not yet been published in a formal journal, the format used differs depending on whether or not the piece has been submitted to the publication in question.

It is important to note that distinct forms are utilized for unpublished dissertations and unpublished data.

Unpublished article

“Unpublished manuscript” should be used to refer to the text of an article that has not yet been published online or in print (i.e., is only accessible from the author). In this case, the title is italicized, and if accessible, information about the author’s university is given as well:

Format Last name,Initials. (Year).Article title.Department Name,University Name.
Reference entry Smith, J. M.,Davis, H. (2019).Language acquisition among autistic children. Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame.
In-text citation (SmithDavis, 2019)

Article submitted for publication

A manuscript submitted for publishing refers to an article that has been submitted to a journal but has not yet been accepted for publication. The title has been italicized, and the name of the magazine to which it has been submitted has been left out of the text:

Format Last name,Initials. (Year).Article title.Department Name,University Name.
Reference entry Smith, J. M.,Davis, H. (2019).Language acquisition among autistic children. Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame.
In-text citation (SmithDavis, 2019)

Article in press

“In press” refers to an article that has been submitted to a journal and has been accepted for publication in that journal. Rather than including university information, this example includes the name of the journal together with the phrase “in press” in place of the year (in the reference list and in the in-text citation): “in press”

Format Last name,Initials. (in press).Article title.Journal Name.
Reference entry Smith, J. M.,Davis, H. (in press). Language acquisition among autistic children.Journal of Developmental Psychology.
In-text citation (SmithDavis, in press)

Scribbr Citation Checker New

The AI-powered Citation Checker assists you in avoiding typical citation errors such as the following:

  • There are no commas or periods in this sentence. Incorrect use of the phrase “and others”
  • In narrative quotations, use an ampersand (). Reference entries that aren’t there

More information may be found here.

Special issue of a journal

Whenever you wish to reference a special issue of a journal rather than a standard article, you should substitute the name(s) of the editor(s) and the title of the issue in lieu of the author’s name and article title, as shown below:

Format Last name,Initials. (Ed.orEds.). (Year).Title of issue.Journal Name,Volume(Issue).
Reference entry Pollak, S. D., Camras, L. A.,Cole, P. M. (Eds.). (2019). New perspectives on the development of human emotion.Developmental Psychology,55 (9).
In-text citation (Pollak et al., 2019)

It is important to note that if you wish to mention a specific piece from the special issue, you may simply use the standard style for journal articles to do so.

Frequently asked questions about APA Style citations

When should I include a DOI or a URL in an APA journal citation and when should I avoid doing so? If a DOI (digital object identifier) is available for an article, it should always be included in the citation in an APA journal. If an article does not have a DOI and you obtained it from a database or in print, you may simply omit the DOI. If an article does not have a DOI and you accessed it from a website other than a database (for example, the journal’s own website), add a URL that points to the piece in your manuscript.

APA reference entries must include a DOI (Digital object identifier).

  • A DOI or URL should be used in an APA journal citation when the author’s last name is not known. If an article has a DOI (digital object identifier), it should always be included in the APA journal citation. If an article does not have a DOI and you obtained it via a database or in print, you may simply omit the DOI from your reference. Where there is no DOI and you got the article from a website other than a database (for example, the journal’s own website), provide a URL to the article in your reference list. What is the proper way to format a DOI in APA Format? APA reference entries must include a DOI (digital object identifier). In the 6th edition of the American Psychological Association’s style manual, the DOI is preceded by the marker “doi:.” The DOI is preceded by the letters’in the 7th edition.

APA citation example (7th edition)

N. S. Hawi and M. Samaha are co-authors of this paper (2016). Researchers looked into the relationships between social media addiction, self-esteem, and overall life happiness among university students. Social Science Computer Review, volume 35, number 5, pages 576–586. You have the option of include up to 20 authors in your reference list entry. When an article has more than 20 authors, the names preceding the final listed author should be replaced with an ellipsis, but the final author should not be omitted:Davis, Y., Smith, J., Caulfield, F., Pullman, H., Carlisle, J., Donahue, S.

(2012).

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LibGuides: Citation Resources: APA 7th Ed: In-Text Citations

The author-date citation method is used with parentheses in the APA 7 Style. After a quotation, provide parenthesis with the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) on which the quotation occurs. If a quotation is on a single page, precede the page number with the letter “p.”. Instead of “pp.”, “pp.” should be used for quotations that begin on one page and conclude on another. “Sometimes I have the distinct impression that there is a JERTAIN in the CURTAIN,” says one page (Seuss, 1974, p.

  • “The swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog,” according to a quote on page two: (Seuss, 2007, pp.
  • Using the letters a, b, and so on after the year indicates that you are using more than one work by the same author.
  • 7-8).
  • A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (D.
  • 7-8).

Narrative Citations

When you utilize the author’s last name in the narrative of your work, do not include the author’s first and last names in the parenthesis. Dr. Seuss made the observation that “the swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound” in his scientific investigation (2007, pp. 7-8). “The swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound,” as Dr. Seuss put it in his book “The Lorax” in 2007. (pp. 7-8).

Citations with Missing Elements

When an author’s name is not accessible, the first few words of the reference list entry should be used instead (usually the title). Make use of quote marks around the names of articles or web pages, as well as italicizing the titles of books, journals, and other publications. A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (Fox in Socks, 2007). When there are no page numbers available, paragraph numbers or other subsection identifiers should be used instead of page numbers.

5).

5-6).

Paraphrased Citations

Paraphrasing is the process of putting another person’s thoughts into your own words, which allows you to efficiently summarize and synthesize knowledge (p. 269). When paraphrasing concepts, you have the option of using either narrative or parenthetical citations. Using previously existing classroom literature education, stories may be utilized to teach social skills to kids. Emphasis should be placed on lessons that assist students analyze events and sympathize with characters (WolfBaker, 2012).

Seuss’ books to teach social skills to their pupils, based on a case study from one classroom teacher (p.

174). Keep in mind that if the source material is lengthy or difficult to understand, page numbers should be included to assist the reader in locating the text that is being paraphrased or referred to in your paper.

Library Guides: APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation

In-text citations are used to quickly document the source of your information in an APA research paper. In-text citations are introduced into the body of your research paper to document the source of your information. Citations that are only a few sentences long direct the reader to more extensive information in the Reference list. When citing in-text sources in APA format, use the author-date method of citation. According to this approach, the author and date are included in the main body of the document, and a reference to the author and date is included in the References section of the article.

When you cite another work or when you paraphrase another work in your own words, you must include an in-text reference to acknowledge the source.

In-text Citations Have Two Formats

  1. In parenthesis, the author’s name and the date of publication (or any comparable information) are listed, as in the example above. Using the example of falsely balanced news coverage, Burnside (2016) shows how the public’s sense of expert consensus on a particular subject can be distorted. If the work is a narrative, the author’s name appears in running text immediately after the author name, and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. For example, Burnside (2016) has warned about the hazards of deceptively balanced news coverage in the media.

In parenthesis, the author’s name and the date of publication (or other comparable information) appear. According to Burnside (2016), erroneously balanced news coverage might alter the public’s sense of expert consensus on a certain subject. Author names appear in running text following the author’s name, and the date appears in parentheses after the author name in narrative form. Take, for example, Burnside (2016), who warned about the hazards of deceptively balanced news coverage.

CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations

In APA Style, an in-text citation informs the reader about the source of any and all material that did not originate from your own brain or other sources. This is more clear when you are explicitly quoting from a source, but it is equally necessary when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source, and even when you have gotten an idea from someplace else, to cite sources properly. It is critical that you properly cite all of the words and ideas that you have borrowed from other sources in order to avoid being accused of plagiarism.

If you are writing an APA Style paper, the author-date citation method is used to reference your sources.

It is possible for readers to identify sources used in the article by looking for author and date information inside the paper’s text, and then simply locate the relevant reference in the alphabetical reference list, using this citation method.

There are two sorts of in-text citations that can be used.

A narrative citation is a sort of citation in which the author’s name appears inside the text of the sentence; on the other hand, a parenthetical citation is a type of reference in which the author’s name and the date appear in parentheses at the conclusion of the phrase.

How do I create narrative or parenthetical citations?

In APA Style, you should cite your sources by placing the information about the source in parentheses at the end of a sentence or in the text of your paper, rather than using a footnote, which places the source information at the bottom of the page, or an endnote, which places the information about the source at the end of the paper. There are subtle variances in appearance based on which style you choose.

  • According to the APA Style, you should cite your sources by placing the information about the source in parentheses at the end of a sentence or in the text of your paper, as opposed to using a footnote, which places the information about the source at the bottom of the page or an endnote, which places it at the bottom of the final page of your paper. There are minor variances in appearance depending on whatever style you choose.

Additional Resources

For further information on parenthetical and narrative citations, read pages 253-278 of the 7th edition of the American Psychological Association Manual for a detailed discussion and examples.

APA: Citing Within Your Paper

For each source you use, add the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number (or the place of the quotation within the source if a page number is not provided), for example: If you are quoting from a book, include the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number.

  • The following are the page number(s): (p. 3)or(pp. 3-4)
  • The following are the paragraph number(s): (para. 3)or(paras. 3-4)
  • The following are the paragraph within a chapter or section: (Chapter 3, para. 3)or (Plant-Based Foods section, para. 3)
  • The following are the slide number or table number: (Slide 3) or (Table 3)
  • The following are the time stamp: (1:03:03

Beginning with a signal phrase that contains the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. As an illustration: Cook-Gumperz (1986) writes that “the methodical growth of literacy and schooling resulted in a new split in society, between the learned and the uneducated” (p. 27). As Carr (2008) points out, “As we begin to rely on computers to filter our view of the world, it is our own intellect that flattens into artificial intelligence” (Chapter 3, para.

  1. You only need to provide the author’s last name and year of publication in your in-text citation when paraphrasing or summarizing material from a source, according to the American Psychological Association.
  2. Some believe that leaning too much on the Internet for information may impair our mental skills as well as our capacity to read books and other lengthy pieces of writing (Carr, 2008).
  3. It is necessary to mention the author’s last name and the date of publication when referencing a paraphrase or summary from an eBook in the citation.
  4. According to the American Psychological Association, “Adult development is the scientific study of changes in behaviors, ideas, and emotions that occur during adulthood” (Mossler, 2013, Adult Development section, para.
  5. It is necessary to add the author’s last name and the date on the web page or at the bottom of the website when paraphrasing or summarizing content from a web page in your citation.
  6. Wherever possible, indicate the most direct position of the quote, such as a section title and/or a paragraph number, where there are no page numbers.

Other web sites do not identify a specific individual as the author, but instead identify a firm or organization as the author. When mentioning a web page, it is important to identify whether the author is a person or a company.

Author is an Individual

. (Dunn, 2016, Plant-Based Foods section, para. 10). Even if you are unable to identify an individual author, if you are able to identify an organization or group that is responsible for the content of a web page, you should attribute the authorship of the web page to that group, organization, corporation, university, government agency, or association.

Author is an Organization/Company/University/Agency

. (United States Coast Guard, 2018, para. 6).

No Author

If there is no author listed on your web page, you should provide the title of the piece between quotation marks (“”). The title of the web page should be included in quotation marks (“”) if there is no obvious title for the article. If the title is lengthy, only the first few words should be used:. (See “Policies and Procedures for Patrol,” published in 2018 on page 3).

No Date

The publishing date of a web page may frequently be seen at the top or bottom of the page, depending on the browser. If no date is provided, the abbreviation n.d. is used (for no date). Thompson (n.d., Teaching for Success section, para. 12) describes the process of teaching for success as follows: The speaker (or screen name), the year of the recording, and the moment at which the quotation begins in the recording should all be included in the citation when referencing a media source such as a video or audio recording that does not include page numbers but does have time stamps: “There were 300,000 individuals in jails and prisons in 1972; now, there are 2.3 million people in jails and prisons” (Stevenson, 2016, 05:52).

If your content does not include the name of the author, insert the title of the web page or article between quotation marks (” “) and capitalize it in title case (if the title is lengthy, only use the first few words of it) like follows: A collapse of the main ramp of the San Jose mine traps 33 workers 2,300 feet below for two months, stranding them for two months (“All 33 Chile Miners,” 2010).

When a group or an organization develops a work, that organization, company, university, government agency, or association can be considered as the author of that work under certain circumstances.

(University of Arizona Global Campus, 2017).

2 Authors for a Source

Whenever your source includes two authors, use an ampersand () for your end-of-sentence (parenthetical)citation, but use the word “and” when the final names are a part of your sentence (narrative citation): JonesFraenza (2017) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized Jones and Fraenza (2017) made the following statement.

(See p.

3 or More Authors for a Source

When there are three or more authors named, just the last name of the first author listed should be included, followed by the phrase “et al.”:. (Lekkerkerk and colleagues, 2014, para. 2) That was examined by Lekkerkerk et al. (2014).

Group Author with Acronym Abbreviation

When referencing a group or organization with a name that is widely abbreviated, write down the full name of the group or organization the first time you mention it: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020, paragraph 2). That information was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). For each additional citation from a source, use the abbreviation for the organization that it belongs to: Paragraph 2 of the CDC’s 2020 report. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supplied this information.

Example: If you read an article by Brown (2020) that mentions a previous work by Smith (2017), Brown is regarded the secondary or indirect source (since the article was produced later) and Smith is considered the direct or original source (because the earlier work was written earlier) (because it was written first).

When citing a source that you discovered in another source, credit the original author and year first, followed by ” as referenced in ” the secondary author’s last name and year, and then the source in question.

More Examples:

According to Lee’s 2014 study, which was quoted in Brown’s (2019) article: “Coffee helps students stay awake while studying” (Lee, 2014, as cited in Brown, 2019). According to Parker (2016), who was also mentioned on page 5 of an article by Miles (2020), the writer would like to include a quote from Parker (2016): The statement made by Parker (2016), as mentioned in Miles, 2020, is that “drinking coffee black is more healthful” (p. 5). Sometimes, when conducting research, you will discover that there are several sources for a single statement.

Single Idea Sentence

The citations for all sources should be included at the conclusion of the sentence, with the sources listed alphabetically after that. For example, researchers generally agree that drinking coffee has health advantages (Centanni, 2020; Dunn et al., 2019; JonesHemerda, 2020).

Multiple Idea Sentence

The citation should be included immediately after the information from the source. Research has hypothesized, for example, that the absence of social cues and pressures in electronic communications may reduce the anxiety associated with asking for help (KisantisChow, 2017), and that this may result in a more comfortable, open environment in which all members are treated on an equal footing (Sullivan, 2012).

LibGuides: APA Style & Citation 7th edition: Citations: In-Text

Watch the short video above to learn how to properly format an in-text citation by including signal phrases and parenthetical citations into your writing. Additional instructions on how to properly cite your sources within your text may be found in the section below.

General rules (all source types):

  • For a quotation, provide the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the precise section (typically the page number) that was used. If providing a page or paragraph number in a paraphrase reference, you may do so if doing so would assist interested readers in locating the relevant text within a large or complicated book (American Psychological Association 2020, p. 269
  • American Psychological Association 2020, p. 269). Whenever possible, place quotation marks around the item that is being cited. It is not necessary to insert quotation marks in paraphrases and summaries. Citations at the conclusion of a sentence are placed before the period, and

Pages and Specific Parts

The page number of the borrowed information should be included in the citation of a book, journal article, or other paged source.

  • For a single page, use the letter p
  • For several pages, use the letter pp.

Whenever you are referencing a source that does not provide page numbers (such as a website), make it easy for the reader to access the material you are utilizing. For example, this may be the name of a section or header on a website, the number of paragraphs in a document (manually count the paragraphs and use the abbreviation ‘para.’), the slide number on a PowerPoint, the time stamp for a video, and so on. Immunotherapy is a “treatment that consists of a series of injections of purified allergen extracts” that is described as follows: (Mayo Clinic, n.d., “Treatment” section, para.3).

(15:30, 2015) (Whedon, 2015, 16:30)

Quotations or Paraphrases

It is possible to include the citation information into the text you are writing using the narrative in-text citation style. It is allowed, according to Spencer (2006), “to declare the author’s name at the beginning of the sentence, rather than always placing it in the parenthetical reference” when citing sources (pp. 5-6). ORA ‘parenthetical’ citations contain all of the citation information within the parenthesis of the original reference. “Separate the author from the citation at the conclusion of the cited text,” many pupils still refuse to do (Spencer, 2006, pp.

Organization as the Author

If you wish to shorten the name of the organization, you can do so. In order to introduce the abbreviation, provide the full name first, followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis.

  • To give an example, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2016), 5-10 percent of all cancer-related fatalities in Bangladesh are caused by arsenic poisoning caused by pollution in the region(paragraphs 9-10)
  • Consider the following: In a location with high arsenic contamination, “5–10 percent of all cancer deaths in an arsenic-contaminated zone were attributed to arsenic exposure,” according to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2016, para. 9-10)

Unknown Author

  • Make mention of the title of the work in the text, or provide the first word or two of the title in the in-text citation
  • Citation marks are used to denote the titles of articles. The titles of books are in italics
  • If the name Anonymous is ever used, it should be treated as if it were a genuine name.

As an illustration, developing efficient study habits is the most important predictor of first-year college student success in most cases (“Students,” 2002, para. 3).

Personal Communication

This can include private letters, a few emails, interviews you do, and other similar activities. Due to the fact that they are not recoverable (i.e., no one else will be able to discover this material), they do not need to be placed on the Reference page, but they must be cited in your text. Other in-text citations should be included in the same sequence as the quotation or paraphrase: immediately following the quote or paraphrase. The communicator’s initials and last name are written in capital letters (personal communication, date of communication).

Porterfield, personal communication, June 10, 2019).

Secondary Source

Make every effort to get the second source if the one you are using refers to it in your citation. If you are unable to access that source, use the phrase “as cited in” to recognize both sources. Include the date of the original source (which should be on the Reference page of the source you are using); if the date is not mentioned, then eliminate that portion of the reference from the citation.

The source you have is Schein’s 2017 essay, while the piece you’re quoting is Greave’s 2015 paper, which was published in 2015. When you don’t know the exact date of the original source, you can use Greave’s speech (as quoted in Schein, 2017).

Type of Author Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation
One author (Silas, 1989) Silas (1989).
Two authors (SilasBreacher, 1990) Silas and Breacher (1990).
Three or more authors (Silas et al., 1990) Silas et al. (1990).
Group author with an abbreviation*First citationFollowing citations (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)(CDC, 2020) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020).CDC (2020).
Group author no abbreviation (Central Penn College, 2019) Central Penn College (2019).
Two authors with the same last name (B. Silas, 1991)(J. Silas, 1992) B. Silas (1991).J. Silas (1992).
Two sources by the same author in the same year (Silas, 1990a)(Silas, 1990b) Silas (1990a).Silas (1990b).

*Group writers who use abbreviations do not use abbreviations on the Reference page; instead, they spell out their full names.

How do you reference a web page that lists no author? (6th edition)

Whenever a web page does not have an author associated with it, the title of the page takes over the first place in the reference entry. For example, all 33 Chilean miners were liberated in a perfect rescue operation. Wednesday, October 13th, 2010. Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (typically the title) as well as the year the information was obtained. Double quote marks should be used around the title or shortened title (“All 33 Chile Miners,” 2010). Note: If the title of the web page is too short for the parenthetical citation, use the full title instead.

Reports discovered on the internet would be italicized in the reference list, as in Publication Manual (6th ed.)Examples 31, 32, and 33 on pp.

In addition, they would be italicized in the in-text citation, much like a book would be.

  • What is the APA Style for Citing Something You Found on the Internet? When You Don’t Have All of the Information: How to Write an APA Style Reference Even When You Don’t Have All of the Information A generic reference includes the following information: who
  • What
  • When
  • Where
  • How
  • And why.

The most recent update was made in July 2020. May 2009 was the date of creation.

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