How To In Text Cite Multiple Authors? (Solution found)

How to do an in text citation with no author?

  • The title should have each significant word capitalized (basically sentence case).
  • If the source is not italicized in the reference list entry,place the title in quotation marks (“”) in the intext citation.
  • If the source title is italicized in the reference list entry,italicize the title in the intext citation (example: books).

Contents

How do you in text cite multiple authors?

Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses. In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

How do you cite multiple authors in text MLA?

Three or more authors When mentioning the authors in the text, give all of the authors’ names or list the first author and write “and others”. For the parenthetical citation and Works Cited citation, give the first author’s name followed by et al.

How do you cite 3 authors in APA?

NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author’s name followed by et al. and the year. References: Author Surname, First Initial.

How do you cite multiple authors in APA 7?

When you have 3 or more authors, you only use the first author’s surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with “et al.” (Latin for “and others”). In your reference list, you list all of the authors (up to 20).

How do you Harvard reference multiple authors in-text?

In the citation, if a source has three or more authors, the name of the first author should be given, followed by the phrase “et al.” Example citations: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2011).

How do you cite 4 authors in APA?

General Use of Et Al. Specifically, articles with one or two authors include all names in every in-text citation; articles with three, four, or five authors include all names in the first in-text citation but are abbreviated to the first author name plus et al.

How do you cite 3 authors in MLA?

If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for “and others”) in place of the subsequent authors’ names. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al.”).

How do you use et al?

How to Use Et Al.

  1. Don’t use et al.
  2. For references with three to five authors, list all the authors in the first citation of the work, but abbreviate using the name of the first author and et al.
  3. For references with more than six authors, cite using the first author’s name plus et al.

How do you cite 3 or more authors?

Citing Works With Three or More Authors Include only the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” and the year published in all narrative and parenthetical citations APA. Note: The reference entry should list the names of up to 20 authors.

Can you use et al for 3 authors?

In MLA style, always use “et al.” for sources with three or more authors. This applies both to in-text citations and in the Works Cited list.

How do you in-text cite multiple sources in APA?

When citing multiple works parenthetically, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons. Arrange two or more works by the same authors by year of publication. Place citations with no date first, followed by works with dates in chronological order.

How do you cite a lot of authors in APA?

For the in-text citation for a book with eight or more authors, include the first author and then ‘et al. ‘. Include the first six authors’ names, then insert three ellipsis points and add the last author name in the Reference List. Berman, A., Snyder, S. J., Levett-Jones, T., Dwyer, T., Hales, M., Harvey, N.

How do you write the names of authors if there are more than 20 of them?

For a work with up to 20 authors, include all of the names in the reference. When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis, and the final name (see this guideline in the fifth and sixth bullets in Section 9.8 of the Publication Manual and Example 4 in Chapter 10).

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors // Purdue Writing Lab

Note:This page contains the most recent edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (APA 7), which was issued in October 2019. You may find the similar material for the older APA 6 style in this section. Despite the fact that the American Psychological Association’s author-date system for citations is pretty basic, author categories might differ dramatically from the typical “one author, one source” arrangement. Further guidelines are provided for citing authors of indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources that do not have page numbers.

A Work by One Author

The author-date citation structure is recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA) for in-text citation references. As a result of this structure, each in-text citation (that is, a citation that appears inside the body of the text) must be accompanied by a matching reference list item. In the in-text citation, just the author’s surname should be used; no suffixes such as “Jr.” or “Sr.” are acceptable. Ahmed (2016) makes the following point: (2016). (Ahmed, 2016)

Citing Non-Standard Author Categories

Each time you mention a work, provide the names of both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses. Use the conjunction “and” between the names of the writers within the text, as well as the ampersand in parentheses. Wegener and Petty (1994) conducted research to support these claims. Petty (Wegener) and Wegener (Petty, 1994)

A Work by Three or More Authors

Only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” should be included in every citation, including the first, unless doing so would result in ambiguity between various sources (see below). (Kernis and colleagues, 1993) According to Kernis et al. (1993), It is not necessary to use a period after Inet al.,et. The only word that should be followed by a period is “al.” If you’re referencing many works by comparable groups of writers, and the abbreviated “et al” citation form of each source would be the same, you’ll need to write out additional names in order to avoid ambiguity.

is plural, it should always be used to refer to more than one person.

would serve as a substitute for only one author, the author’s name should be used instead.

Unknown Author

In every reference, including the first, provide just the first author’s name followed by “et al.” unless doing so would cause uncertainty between distinct sources. In 1993, Kernis and colleagues (Kernis and colleagues) published a paper entitled According to Kernis and colleagues (1993), It is not necessary to use a period after Inet al.,etc. It is only necessary to use a period after “al.” If you’re citing numerous works by comparable groups of authors, and the abbreviated “et al” citation form of each source would be the same, you’ll need to write out additional names in order to prevent ambiguity in your citation style.

Jones, Smith, Ruiz, and colleagues (Jones, Smith, Ruiz, and colleagues, 2020). It should always be used in place of more than one name because et al. is plural. If et al. would be used to represent only one author, the author’s name should be used instead of et al.

Organization as an Author

As with an individual author, if the author is a corporation or a government agency, you should include a reference to the corporation or government agency in the signal phrase or parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source, just as you would for an individual author. The American Psychological Association (APA) states that (2000),. You may add the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is quoted and then use simply the abbreviation in subsequent citations if the organization has a well recognized abbreviation.

The first citation is as follows: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving, 2000) The second quotation is as follows: (MADD, 2000)

Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses

The works in your parenthetical citation should be ordered in the same manner they appear in the reference list (i.e., alphabetically), and they should be separated by a semicolons. (Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983; Harlow, 2002) For numerous works written by the same author that are cited together in the same parenthetical citation, use the author’s name just one time and then follow it up with a list of dates. No-date citations are placed first, followed by years, and finally in-press citations.

Authors with the Same Last Name

To avoid misunderstanding, use the first initials of the last names with the first names. L. Johnson (1998) and E. Johnson (2001) are two examples of authors who have written about this topic.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If you have two sources by the same author published in the same year, you should use lower-case letters (a, b, c) to arrange the items in the reference list, rather than numbers. In the in-text reference, lower-case letters should be used in conjunction with the year. Berndt (1981a) conducted research that indicated significant relationships. However, a second research (Berndt, 1981b) came up with results that were unclear in nature.

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords

Cite the proper author and year as you would normally do when referencing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in the body of the work. FunkKolln (FunkKolln, 1992)

Personal Communication

Indicate in the body of the message the communicator’s identity, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date on which it occurred. This is especially important for interviews and other person-to-person contact. Personal correspondence should not be included in the list of references. The following is from E. Robbins’ personal communication on January 4, 2001: If you’re using a footnote to refer to a personal message, treat citations in the same manner you would any other citation.

Smith noted that many of her students had difficulty understanding and using the APA format (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

Traditional Knowledge of Indigenous Peoples

A variant of the personal communication citation above should be used when citing information you obtained via a chat with an Indigenous person who was not a study participant. Before the “personal communication, date” section of the citation, provide the person’s complete name, nationality or Indigenous group, location, and any other pertinent information about the person.

Carole Jennings, Cherokee Nation, lives in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and spoke with me personally in October of this year.

Citing Indirect Sources

Writers should make an effort to study primary sources (original sources) and cite them rather than secondary sources in their work, in general (works that report on original sources). Sometimes, though, this is just not an option. You should include the source of the original source in your signal phrase if you utilize a source that was mentioned in another source. List the secondary source in your reference list, then add the secondary source in the parenthesis after the list of references is complete.

Johnson argued in favor of this.

102, this is an example of Johnson (1985), as referenced in Smith (2003), p.

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Electronic Sources

If at all feasible, reference an electronic document in the same way that you would any other document, following the author-date format. Kenneth (2000) provided an explanation.

Unknown Author and Unknown Date

Use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in parenthesis plus the abbreviation “n.d.” if there is no author or date specified. n.d. stands for “not yet determined” (for “no date”). Another study of students and research decisions revealed that students who received tutoring were more successful (“Tutoring and APA,” n.d.).

Sources Without Page Numbers

When using an electronic source that does not offer page numbers, you should make every effort to add information that will assist readers in locating the paragraph being referenced. To refer to a heading or section name, use a shortened heading or section name, a paragraph number (for example, “paragraph 1,” or a mix of these methods. Smith (1997) asserts that (Mind Over Matter section, para. 6). Remember that the page numbers of printed webpages should never be used since various computers print webpages with varying pagination.

Other Sources

The American Psychological Association Publication Manualdescribes how to reference a wide range of authors and content providers. However, you may occasionally come across a source or author category that is not described in the handbook, making it difficult to determine the appropriate course of action. As a general rule, it’s appropriate in these situations to apply standard rules of American Psychological Association citation to the new type of source in an orderly and sensible manner. A simple method for accomplishing this is to follow the normal APA citation guidelines for a kind of source that is similar to the source you wish to cite.

Another possibility is that a third-party organization has offered instructions on how to properly reference a certain type of source.

Beginner’s guide to APA in-text citation

Originally published on November 4, 2020 byRaimo Streefkerk, and updated on December 15, 2021. This article complies with the APA 7th edition guidelines. For information on the APA 6th edition guidelines, click here.In-text citations are brief references to the source of information within the body of the text. They correspond to a fullreference entry at the conclusion of your paper.APA in-text citations consist of the author’s last name and the year of publication in parentheses after the author’s name.

67)or(Johnson, 2017, pp. 39–41).The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless APA citationor cite manually

Worried about in-text citation errors?

Before submitting your work, do a fast check to discover how many APA citation problems you have in your article.

  • Over 100 APA guidelines were reviewed and approved. Within one minute, you will get a response. American Psychological Association Style (6th/7th Edition)

More than 100 APA rules and regulations were checked. In about a minute, you’ll have your answer. American Psychological Association Style, sixth and seventh edition

APA in-text citations explained in 4 minutes

Depending on the situation, the in-text citation may be provided in parentheses or organically blended into the statement.

  • Parenthetical: According to Parker (2019), there is a link between teens’ use of social media and their anxiety symptoms. An explanation is provided by Parker(2019), who discovered a link between social media use and anxiety symptoms in adolescents.

When writing in the narrative format, the year of publication appears right below the author’s name at the top of the page. The parenthetical citation can be used within a sentence or at the conclusion of a sentence, immediately before the period, depending on the situation. Take a look at a complete sample paragraph that includes in-text citations. A parenthetical citation or the word “and” in a narrative citation should be used to separate the names of two authors if a work has more than one author.

Author type Parenthetical Narrative
One author (Harris, 2020) Harris (2020)
Two authors (HarrisCook, 2020) Harris and Cook (2020)
Three or more authors (Harris et al., 2020) Harris et al. (2020)
Group authors (Scribbr, 2020) Scribbr (2020)
Abbreviated group author
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)(CDC, 2020) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020)CDC (2020)

No author, date or page number

Unknown element Solution In-text citation
Author Use the source title. (Source Title, 2020)
Date Write “n.d.” for “no date”. (Harris, n.d.)
Page number Use an alternative locator oromit the page number. (Harris, 2020, 03:46) or(Harris, 2020)

No author

Whether the author of a source is not known, attempt to figure out if there is an organization or government that is accountable for the creation of the information. If so, mention the name of the organization in the in-text citation (and reference entry). In the last three years, the cost of solar energy has dropped by 34%, which is a significant reduction (Tesla, 2020). Alternatively, you may substitute the title of the source for the author. If the title is italicized in the reference entry, italicize it here as well (except forcourt cases, which are italicized in the in-text citation but not the reference entry).

Titles should be capitalized in all cases, and extended titles should be condensed.

  • (“Flood Risk in the United States,” 2015)
  • (Thinking, Fast and Slow, 2017)

No publication date

(2015); (Thinking, Fast and Slow, 2017); (U.S. Flood Risk, 2015);

No page number (alternative locators)

In APA style, page numbers are only necessary when direct quotes are used. It is acceptable to use an alternate locator when quoting from a work that does not include page numbers (for example, online pages or YouTube movies). Examples include:

  • (Liu, 2020,03:26)
  • (Johnson, 2019,Chapter 3)
  • (McCombes, 2016,para. 4)
  • (Davis, 2016,Slide 15)
  • (Flores, 2020,Table 5)
  • (Streefkerk, 2020,”No page number” section)
  • (Liu, 2020,03:26)
  • (Davis, 2016,Slide 15

Even in cases where page numbers are available, Bible citations usually utilize chapter and verse numbers. For example, According to the English Standard Version Bible (2001), Joshua 2:7.

Multiple sources in one parenthesis

It is acceptable to incorporate numerous in-text citations into a single pair of parentheses when a statement is backed by many sources. Order the sources alphabetically, then separate them with a semicolon between each one of them.

The years of publication should be listed after each work by a single author when numerous works by that author are cited. These findings have been confirmed by a number of other investigations (Brown, 2009; Porter, 2004; Smith, 2015, 2017).

Avoiding ambiguity in APA in-text citations

The remedies mentioned in the table below should be used when in-text citations are confusing because they relate to several reference entries.

Situation Solution In-text citation
Multiple works by the same author in the same year. Add a lowercase letter after the year. (Cooper, 2018a)(Cooper, 2018b)
Different authors with the same last name. Include the authors’ initials. (H. Taylor, 2019)(B. J. Taylor, 2016)
Multiple works with 3+ authors that shorten to the same form (i.e., same first author(s) and date). Include as many names as needed to distinguish the citations. (Cooper, Lee, et al., 2015)(Cooper, Ross, et al., 2015)

Citing indirect sources (“as cited in”)

The original or main source should always be used when referencing an item that was discovered in another source, while the secondary source should never be used. If, on the other hand, you are unable to locate the original source, you should credit it through the secondary source that brought you to it, using the phrase “as cited in.” Bloom et al., 2017 quote from Parker (1978), which is mentioned in Bloom et al., 2017). If the publication date of the original source is not available, just the year of publication of the secondary source should be included in the citation.

Citing personal communication

Personal communications, such as phone conversations, emails, and interviews, are not included in the reference list since readers will not be able to obtain access to these materials. In addition, the in-text reference is structured in a different way. Identify the individual you corresponded with by including his or her initials and last name, the phrase “personal conversation,” and the date you communicated with in parenthesis. During the second quarter, sales are decreasing (P. G. Brown, personal communication, June 13, 2019).

General mentions of websites and software

General references of a website or program do not need to be accompanied by an in-text citation or a reference list item in order to be considered credible. Replace this information with appropriate information that is included into the running text.

  • Many excellent materials may be found on the Scribbr website (http://www.scribbr.com/). The data was analyzed with the help of the statistical softwareSPSS (version 25)

Example paragraph with in-text citations

Adapted version of the example paragraph Use of social media has been consistently linked to negative body image concerns, particularly among young women (Perloff, 2014). According to Grabe et al. (2008), exposure to mass media is associated with female body image dissatisfaction, which is supported by several studies and research findings. TiggermannSlater (2013) and MeierGray (2014) conducted empirical investigations on Facebook usage in teenage females, while Holland and Timmerman (2016) conducted an extensive review of the literature to demonstrate a link between social networking and body image in both women and men.

Frequently Asked Questions

What does an in-text reference for a website look like in the APA format? An in-text citation for a web page or online article in APA Style is comprised of the author’s last name and the year of publication, as shown in the example. As an illustration: (WorlandWilliams, 2015). It should be noted that the author might also be a company or organization. As an illustration: (American Psychological Association, 2019). It is recommended that you include a locator when quoting. Because web pages do not contain page numbers, you can use one of the following methods to navigate between them:

  • Smith (2018) provides the following paragraph number: (15). heading or section name: (CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
  • Heading or section name: (CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)
  • Abbreviated heading:

Smith (2018) has a paragraph number of 15; (CDC, 2020, Flu Season section); heading or section title: Heading abbreviated: (CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section);

LibGuides: MLA Style Guide, 8th & 9th Editions: In-text Examples

There is just one author. Place the author’s name and the page number or page range in parenthesis after the page number or page range. If the author’s name is mentioned in the sentence, the page number should be placed in parenthesis at the next natural stop in the text, which is normally at the conclusion of the phrase. (Alexander 22-29; ad lib.) Alexander points out that race was a significant issue in the 1968 presidential election (22-29). There are two writers. When putting the names in the body of a phrase or in parenthesis, separate them with the term and if necessary.

  • (47).
  • Three or more writers are required.
  • for the parenthetical citation and Works Cited citation, respectively.
  • (157-65).
  • (James and colleagues, 157-65.) The same author has written a number of different books.

(347) Dickens, David Copperfield (Dickens, David Copperfield) In a single sentence, many citations from the same author When you have two citations for the same author in a single phrase, often quotes from two distinct pages, you can merge them into a single citation at the conclusion of the sentence, as in the following example: (Ibsen 1700, 1704; Shakespeare 1700, 1704) There are other authors with the same surname.

  1. The in-text citation should contain the first initial of the author whose work you are mentioning if the authors of two different works in your Works Cited list share the same surname as the author of the work you are referencing in the Works Cited list.
  2. Smith, p.
  3. The first author’s last name and page reference should be included, followed by a semi-colon, and then the last name and page reference for the following author.
  4. Organizations as authors/Corporate authorList the corporate author, followed by the page reference, in the body of the text.

(American Library Association, number 17) Organizations as authors/Corporate author who is also the publisher/Organizations as authors Instead of beginning with the author’s name, the Works Cited citation for an organization or company that also happens to be the publisher will start out with the organization or corporation’s name.

  1. (Publication3).
  2. Make use of acronyms for commonly used terms such as Department (as “Dept.”).
  3. Works that are not the work of any one author If the Works Cited item begins with a title because there is no author listed, use the title followed by the page reference in the in-text citation to indicate where the work is located.
  4. Utilize as few words as feasible to summarize a title, eliminating articles and prepositions while retaining the initial word of the title as it appears alphabetically in the works cited section of your paper.
  5. Article, chapter, or web page titles should be enclosed in double quote marks, but titles of a magazine or book should be italicized; titles of a complete website, report, or brochure should be italicized.
  6. THE BOOK’S TITLE (Open Box18).
  7. Anonymous is credited as the creator of the work.
  8. Immediately after that, add the page reference.
  9. Do not use the word Anonymous to refer to works that do not have any authors listed.
  10. (83).
  11. When mentioning a website or webpage (without include page numbers), just the author’s last name should be used in the in-text reference.

(United States of America, Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary) The entire body of work The author or title of the work from your Works Cited list may be used to identify the work in your text rather than a parenthetical reference in cases when you are referring to a complete piece of work.

  • Works in several volumes (one volume consulted) The page reference should be included in the parenthetical citation if your Works Cited entry refers to only one volume of a multiple-volume collection, otherwise leave it out.
  • Norat 27 is a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized (Norat 27).
  • 1, Salem Press, 2006, pp.
  • Works in several volumes (more than one volume consulted) You should include both the volume number and the page number in the parenthetical citation if your Works Cited entry references more than one volume of a multivolume collection.
  • (Noteworthy, 1: 27.) Among the most well-known Latino writers is Volume 1, published by Salem Press in 2006 in three volumes.

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Author–date citation system

Authors are a few in number Provide in parenthesis the name of the author as well as the page number or page range. As soon as the author’s name is mentioned in a sentence, always include the page number in parentheses at the next natural stop in the text, which is normally at the conclusion of the paragraph. (Alexander 22-29; adverbial citation). During the 1968 presidential election, Alexander points out that race was a major issue (22-29). There are two of them. When include both names in the text of a phrase or in parentheses, separate them with the word and.

  • Wilson and Schlosser (47).
  • for the parenthetical citation and the Works Cited reference.
  • (157-65).
  • (1957–1965).
  • The same author has written a number of books.

(347) Dickens, David Copperfield (Dickens, David Copperfield ) One phrase that contains multiple citations from the same author When you have two citations for the same author in a single phrase, generally quotes from two distinct pages, you can merge them into a single citation at the conclusion of the sentence, as in the following example: The year is 1700 or 1704 in the case of Ibsen.

  • The in-text citation should include the first initial of the author you are mentioning when the authors of two independent publications in your Works Cited list have the same surname.
  • In a single reference, many works by various authors are included.
  • (193) (Smith 93; Fayett 131-32) (193) Organizations as authors/Corporate authorList the corporate author, followed by the page reference, in the body of the paragraph.
  • (16) American Library Association, p.
  • Abridged versions of the title and the page reference should be used in corresponding in-text citations.
  • Authorization by the government if the author is a government or a government entity, include the administrative levels specified in the Works Cited column, separated by commas, if they are part of the same organization.
  • (United States of America, Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, No.
  • When a Works Cited entry begins with a title due to the absence of an author, include the title followed by the page reference as part of the in-text citation.

Use as few words as feasible to summarize a title, eliminating articles and prepositions but preserving the initial word of the title as it appears in your Works Cited list, for example: As a noun phrase, the shortened title will most likely include the first noun in the title, as well as any adjectives that come before it.

  1. NAME OF ARTICLE (“New Deal” 121).
  2. THE BOOK HAS A LONG TERM (Handbook of Geriatric Therapy26).
  3. Once Anonymous is specified as the author’s name, the author’s name should be listed as Anonymous as well.
  4. You can skip the author element and go on to the next element if the author’s name is just vaguely familiar.
  5. It was said by Anonymous.
  6. (Courtesy of Anonymous 83.
  7. The name of the author should be included solely in the in-text citation when mentioning a website or webpage (without page numbers).

the House of Representatives’ Committee on the Judiciary (United States of America’s Congress).

For more than fifty years, To Kill a Mockingbird has been a classic, and it is still widely read by students.

The volume number has already been mentioned in the Works Cited section of the website.

‘Isabel Allende: Chilean and American Novelist,’ by Gisela Norat, published in Notable Latino Writers, vol.

27-34 (in Spanish).

Notable at 1:27 is the fact that Among the most well-known Latino writers is Volume 1, published by Salem Press in 2006 in three volumes: There are no page numbers on media with a timestamp.

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  • To prevent ambiguity in parenthetical citations, include an ampersand () between names for a work with more than one author or before the last author’s name when all authors’ names must be mentioned. In narrative quotations, the word “and” should always be capitalized.

This advice has been updated from the previous edition (6th edition).

Number of authors to include in in-text citations

It is necessary to adjust the structure of the author element of the in-text citation depending on the number of authors. In certain circumstances, the author element is shortened.

  • When there are just one or two writers for a work, mention the author’s name(s) in every citation. When there are three or more authors on a work, just the first author’s name should be used in every citation (including the first citation)

The following table outlines the most common in-text citation formats:

Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020)
Two authors (SalasD’Agostino, 2020) Salas and D’Agostino (2020)
Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020)
Group author with abbreviationFirst citationaSubsequent citations (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020)(NIMH, 2020) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)NIMH (2020)
Group author without abbreviation (Stanford University, 2020) Stanford University (2020)

A group author’s abbreviation should be defined only once in the text, and it should be in either the parenthetical or narrative format. After then, whenever the group is mentioned in the text, the abbreviation should be used.

Exceptions to the basic in-text citation styles

  • The year in the in-text citation should be the same year as the year in the reference list item, unless otherwise specified. Even if the reference list item has a more exact date (e.g., year, month, and day), just the year should be used in the in-text citation. In-text citations for works that do not have a date should use “n.d.” Work that has been approved for publication but has not yet been published should be identified with the phrase “in press.”

Repeating a citation

APA Style requires that you repeat a reference in its entirety; do not, for example, give merely a page number (the abbreviation “ibid.” is not permitted in APA Style). Instead, follow the procedures outlined below:

  • Include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication for each parenthetical in-text reference. When using narrative in-text citations, do not repeat the year on the second and subsequent occasions that they appear in a single paragraph. This guideline should be followed with each new paragraph (for example, the year should be included in the first narrative citation in a new paragraph). To avoid confusion, add the publication year in every in-text citation if you are citing several works by the same author or authors, regardless of when the works were first published. Example: If you reference Mohammed and Mahfouz (2017) and Mohammed and Mahfouz (2019), include the year with each citation, even when one of the references is used more than once in the same paragraph.

Further guidelines for in-text citations

  • Each in-text citation must match to a single reference list entry in the reference list. In-text citations should not include suffixes such as “Jr.” or “Sr.” Work with an unknown author (see Section 9.12) should be referenced in-text by including both the title and the year of publication. Each of the more than 100 reference examples in Chapter 10 of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) provides examples of both parenthetical and narrative citations. More information and examples may be found in the Publication Manual.

Originally published on: September 1, 2019.

Research Guides: APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Three to Five Authors or Editors

In the following example, a book with three or more authors is represented by the generic format described below. You would simply enter the names of the editors in lieu of the writers’ names, followed by the phrase “(Eds.)” without the quotation marks if you were dealing with a book that had three to five editors rather than authors (as per the example). Besides that, everything else would remain the same. Generally Accepted Format Citation (paraphrase) inside the text: (Author Surname et al., Year) NOTE: For works with three or more authors, the in-text citation is abbreviated to the first author’s name followed by et al.

Citation inside the text (direct quote): (Author Surname et al., Year, page number) Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial (Year).

  1. Publisher.
  2. 72) Johnson, N.
  3. C., and Worell, J.
  4. G., Roberts, M.
  5. (Eds.).
  6. A unique perspective on adolescent females that goes beyond their physical looks.

How do I cite a source with multiple authors in MLA style (in-text)?

In the following example, a book with three or more writers is represented using the generic format described above. As an example, if you are working with a book with three to five editors rather than writers, you would simply enter the names of the editors in the area where the authors’ names are presently, followed by “(Eds.)” (without the quotation marks) (as per the example). Besides that, everything else would be the same. Formalized Formalized Formalized Format Reference (paraphrase) in the text: (Author Surname et al., Year) In the case of works having three or more authors, the in-text citation is abbreviated as follows: the first author’s name followed by et al., followed by the year Citation inside the text (direct quotation): (Author Surname et al., Year, page number) Referencing:Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial.,Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial.

Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial.

Subtitle is the title of the book in question.

Example Reference (paraphrase) in the text: (Johnson et al., 1999) Citation inside the text (direct quotation): (Johnson et al., 1999, p.

72) National Geographic Society (National Geographic Society), Johnson et al (Nature), Roberts et al (Nature), Worell et al (Nature), Johnson et al (Nature), Johnson et al (Eds.). (1999). Insights about young girls that go beyond appearances Affiliation with the American Psychological Association

General Format

Citation in the Parentheses (Author page ) Author said that in his or her citation in prose. The following is an example of a page.

For Example

Citation in the Parentheses (Ramugondo 189) That was noted in a citation in ProseRamugondo (189).

Two Authors

Citation in the Parentheses (Leon and Andrews 250-258) In their argument, Javier F. Leon and Ronald Andrews state : (250-258).

Three or More Authors

Citation in Parentheses (Leon and Andrews 250-258) In their argument, Javier F. Leon and Ronald Andrews assert that (250-258).

More Information

Information on this page is intended to be used as a guideline only, not as professional advice. Please consult with your lecturer on the proper method of citing sources in your class assignments and projects.

Campus Students

Tutoring and mentoring may be accessed within your Brightspace course by visiting the Academic Support pulldown menu and selecting “Tutoring and mentoring.”

Online Students

Visit Academic Support via the following modules in Brightspace to get help with citations and other issues:

  • The Complete Guide on Using Brightspace for Academic Support is available here. This link will open in a new tab or window. Obtaining Writing STEM Assistance This link will open in a new tab or window.

How to cite in APA when there are multiple authors

Copy and paste into Google Classroom The date of publication is October 28, 2020. The most recent update was made on December 28, 2021. When there are several authors on a reference, this article explains how to cite them in APA style (7th edition). In general, the term “author” refers to the person(s) or group(s) who should be given credit for the work that is being mentioned in an APA style. An overview of everything on this page is provided below:

  • Add to Google Classroom by clicking here. To be released on the 28th of October, 2020. On December 28, 2021, an update was published. When there are several authors on a reference, this article explains how to cite them in APA style (7th ed.). In general, the term “author” refers to the person(s) or group(s) who should be given credit for the work that is being mentioned in an APA style document. A quick run-down of everything on this page is provided below.

When referencing references in text, the American Psychological Association’s 7th edition follows the author-date citation method. Authors’ last name and surname are included in parentheses, followed by a comma and the year of publication. This style is used for parenthetical citations in academic journals. In narrative citations, this information is included into the sentence as part of the sentence structure. One author’s citation should be in parentheses: (Last name of author, year of publication) (Curtis, 2020) The following is an example of a narrative citation for one author: Curtis is the last name of the author, and the year of publication is Curtis (2020)

Two authors

The last names of both authors should be included in every in-text citation, whether it is narrative or parenthetical, for a work having two authors. When using parenthetical citations, place an ampersand () between the last names of the authors. A citation for two writers in the parentheses: (First Author, Second Author, Year of Publication) (CurtisWilliams, 2020) The following is an example of a narrative citation for two authors: CurtisWilliams is the first author and the second author (in the order of publication) (2020)

Three or more authors

If there are three or more authors on a paper, just the last name of the first author named should be included, with the words “et al.” after it. Because “et al.” is Latin for “and others,” it is often used as a substitute for two or more authors’ last names.Parenthetical citation for three or more authors: (First Author et al., Year Published)(Harris et al., 2020)Narrative citation for three or more authors: (First Author et al., Year Published)(Harris et al., 2020)Narrative citation for three or more authors: ( (2020)

Group authors

When the authors of a source are a separate group or organization, such as a government agency, an association, a nonprofit organization, a corporation, a hospital, a task force, or a research group, the same in-text citation standards apply as when the writers are individuals. Check the cover or title page of a reference to see if it was authored by a solitary author or by a group of authors. Consider the following: for an online resource, the author may be the name of the company that is hosting the webpage or website, rather than the name of a single content contributor to the webpage or website.

Following that, throughout the remainder of the document, utilize the abbreviation for the group’s name.

Avoidingambiguity in in-text citations

When employing the et al. abbreviation, in-text citations that include three or more authors, some of whom have the same last name, and the same publication year might appear to be the same reference when they are not. If Curtis and colleagues (2020) are referring to Curtis and colleagues (2020), then Curtis and colleagues (2020) are referring to Curtis and colleagues (2020) ORCurtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, Maxey, Key, Smith, and Esparza are the members of the ORCurtis team (2020) If you want to prevent this kind of ambiguity and confusion for the reader, you should type out as many names as possible for your in-text citation until the references are distinct, and then add “et al.” to shorten the names of the remaining authors.

Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, and others are examples of this (2020) Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, Maxey, et al.

For example: Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, and Tyler (2020); Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, and Esparza (2020); Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, and Tyler (2020).

Reference listentries when there are multiple authors

Each source type (e.g., book, internet, journal article, etc.) has a somewhat distinct reference structure in the American Psychological Association (APA), although each structure typically contains the following: Author’s last name and initials are included.

(Date of Publication) Title. If a URL or DOI is available, include it. Do you require further assistance with referencing a specific source? Additional information may be found in this APA citations guide.

One or two authors

When there are just one or two writers in a reference, the four-part structure should be used. For example, two individual authors: Smith, J., and Jones, S. (1994). Making a cinematic star out of nothing. Backstage Stories: A Journal of Celebrity Life, volume 44, number 2, pages 192–200. The American Marine Society is an example of a group that has written a book (2003). The patterns of whale mating in the new millennium. Magazine of the American Marine Society, pages 17-20.

2 – 20 authors

According to the Seventh Edition of the American Psychological Association, a reference list item should contain up to 20 authors. Fill in the blanks with the last name and first initial(s) of each participant. Authors with 2–20 names are as follows: Wright, A., Komal, G., Siddharth, D., Boyd, G.; Cayson, N.; Beverley, K.; Travers, K.; Begum, A.; Redmond, M.; Mills; Ferry; Fox; Ferry; Almond; B.; Howell; T.; Berger; B.; Bostock; T.; Fountain; A.; Wright; Komal (2020). Royalty in the world of fashion.

21+ authors

After naming the 19th author, replace any more author names with an ellipsis (.) followed by the final mentioned author’s last name and first initial, if there are more than 20 writers in the citation (s). 21+ authors, for example: Wright, A., G., Siddharth, D., G., Boyd, G., Cayson (N.), Beverley (K.), Travers (K.), Begum (A.), Redmond (M.), Mills (M.), Cherry (D.), B., Fox (M.), Ferry (F.), Almond (B.), Howell (E.), Gould (T.), Berger (B (2020). Eating well: Advice from 23 writers of lifestyle books.

Troubleshooting

After naming the 19th author, replace any more author names with an ellipsis (.), followed by the last mentioned author’s last name and first initial, if there are more than 20 writers given in the reference (s). 21+ writers, for example: Wright, A., G., Siddharth, D., G., Boyd, G., Cayson (N.), Beverley (K.), Travers (K.), Begum (A.), Redmond (M.), Mills (M.), Cherry (D.), B., Fox (M.), Ferry (F.), Almond (B.), Howell (E.), T., Berger (B.), Bostock (2020). Tips on how to eat healthy from 23 writers of books on lifestyle.

Solution2: How to cite an article with more than 20 authors in APA style

If there are more than 20 writers on an article, all of the authors do not need to be named in the reference section. Instead, include the first 19 authors, followed by an ellipsis (.), and then include the name of the last author on the list. The ellipsis serves as a stand-in for all of the names that appear between the first 19 and the last writers. There is no requirement for an ampersand () before the final name. As an illustration, Richards, B.A., Lillicrap, T. P., Beaudoin, P., Bengio, Y., Bogacz, R., Christensen, A., Clopath, C.Costa, R.

J., Hafner, D., Kepecs, A., Kriegeskorte, N., La K.

Kording is an author who works in the field of education (2019).

Nature Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1761–1770. Only the first author’s last name and the words “et al.” should be used in an in-text citation. Neither parenthetical nor narrative citations are excluded from this rule. As an illustration: (Richard et al., 2019) Those named Richard et al (2019)

Solution3: How to cite an article written by an organization in APA style

APA format (author, date, title, publisher) should be used when an article is created by an organization, and the organization should be cited as the author of the piece. As an illustration, the American Nurses Association (2019). annual report2018.pdf, American Nurse Today, 14 (6), 29-36, 2018 Annual Report If the organization that published the article is also the organization that created it, the publisher’s name should be omitted from the reference.

  1. In-text citation when an organization is an author

Assign the authorship to the organization’s name. As an illustration, the American Nurses Association (2019) If the name of an organization is lengthy, you can shorten it by performing the following:

  1. After writing the organization’s name in full the first time, use the abbreviation in parenthesis after it to indicate that it is a first-time writer. Following that, you are free to use the abbreviation without mentioning the full name
  2. Nevertheless,

As an illustration: American Nurses Association is the first in-text narrative citation (2019) (American Nurses Association) is the first in-text citation (2019) Following the establishment of this distinction, abbreviations in text can be employed as illustrated below: Citations in the form of narratives: The ANA is a non-profit organization (2019) Citations within parentheses: (Source: ANA, 2019) The date of publication is October 28, 2020.

  • In APA style, how do I properly credit a source that has several authors and editions?
  • A book with several authors and an edition number should be cited in the same way that a journal article or a book reference with multiple authors should be cited in the same way.
  • are the authors’ surnames (Publication Year) LeBuffe and colleagues (2012) (Author Surname et al., Publication Year) Parenthetical information (LeBuffe et al., 2012) Template for reference list entry and an example: Author Surname, F.
  • M., Author Surname, F.
  • M., Author Surname, F.
  • M.
  • The title of the book (edition number).

A.

A.

Manderth collaborated on this study (2012).

Kaplan Early Learning Company is a for-profit corporation that provides early learning services to children and their families.

It is common to use the abbreviation “ed” to refer to the term “edition.” Italicize the title of the book and capitalize the words in the following sentence case.

Citing a source that has numerous writers with the same last name and initials is the same as citing a source that contains many authors with distinct last names and initials.

The following are examples of a book reference with three writers that have the same last name and initials, as well as their respective templates: Template for in-text citations with an example: Narrative The author’s surname and the year of publication are Dunn et al (2007) (Author Surname et al., Publication Year) Parenthetical information (Dunn et al., 2007) Template for reference list entry and an example: Author Surname, F.Author Surname, F.Author Surname, F.

(Publication Year). The title of the book. Publisher. L. M. Dunn, L. M. Dunn, L. M. Dunn, L. M. Dunn, L. M. Dunn, L. M. Dunn, L. M. Dunn, L. M. (2007). The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IV is administered by the American Guidance Service.

The Proper Use of Et Al. in APA Style

Chelsea Lee contributed to this article. Academic writing is full of small traditions that might be confusing to those who are not familiar with them. One of them is the Latin phraseet al., which is an abbreviation for “and others.” Another is the phraseet al. It is used to condense lists of author names in text citations in order to make repeated citing shorter and easier to read and understand. Keep in mind that et al. is italics in this post because I am using it as a linguistic example; nevertheless, it should not be italicized when you are citing a source in your own words.

is used in a general sense.

In particular, articles with one or two authors include all names in every in-text citation; articles with three, four, or five authors include all names in the first in-text citation but are abbreviated to the first author name pluset al.on subsequent citations; and articles with six or more authors are abbreviated to the first author name pluset al.for all in-text citations; and articles with six or more authors are abbreviated to the first author name pluset

Number of authors First text citation (either parenthetical or narrative) Subsequent text citations (all)
One or two PalmerRoy, 2008 PalmerRoy, 2008
Three, four, or five Sharp, Aarons, Wittenberg,Gittens, 2007 Sharp et al., 2007
Six or more Mendelsohn et al., 2010 Mendelsohn et al., 2010

Keeping Ambiguity to a Minimum However, abbreviating to the first author’s name pluset al. can occasionally lead to confusion and misunderstanding. As previously described in a previous post concerning reference twins, here are two examples of references to consider. Marewski, J. N., Gaissmaier, W., and Gigerenzer, G. (in press) (2010). Good judgment does not need complicated cognitive processes. Journal of Cognitive Processing, 11(1), 103–121. doi:10.1007/s10339-009-0337-0. A review of the literature by Marewski et al.

Recognition-based models for multi-alternative inference are being extended and tested in the context of decision making.

Psychonomic BulletinReview, 17(3), 287–309.

  • (Marewski, Gaissmaier, Schooler, Goldstein, Gigerenzer, 2010)
  • (Marewski, Gaissmaier, Schooler, Goldstein, Gigerenzer, 2010)
  • (Marewski, Gaiss

It is customary for us to shorten the first author’s name pluset al. for future in-text citations; but, doing so here would result in two Marewski et al. (2010) citations, leaving the reader unable to distinguish which one you are referring to (if the citations were from different years we would not have this problem, because the years would tell them apart). The answer in this case is to spell out as many names as necessary (in this case, to the third name) in future citations in order to distinguish between the two:

  • (Marewski, Gaissmaier, Gigerenzer, 2010)
  • (Marewski, Gaissmaier, Schooler, et al., 2010)

Take note that, in the case of the first reference, this means that all subsequent citations to this source will have all three names. toet al. can be used to shorten the two remaining names in the second reference. Et cetera has a quirk all their own. Finally, keep in mind that the wordet al. has a peculiarity in that it is plural—that is, it must replace at least two different names (or, put another way, it cannot stand for only one name). To distinguish between the two, if you have gone through a reference and there is only one name left to shorten, you must spell out all of the names every time in order to distinguish between them.

  • R., Berry, C.
  • N.
  • N.
  • (2006).
  • C.
  • Berry, D.
  • Shanks, and R.
  • A.
  • The work of Merikle and Reingold (1991) on the status of unconscious memory has been reconsidered.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 925–934. Specifically, for all citations of these two references, the correct in-text citations should be worded as follows:

  • (Berry, Henson, and Shanks, 2006)
  • (Berry, Henson, and Shanks, 2006)
  • (Berry, Shanks, and Henson, 2006)

Avoid using the following often wrong methods of referencing these sources in your text:

  • (Berry, Henson, et al., 2006)
  • (Berry, Shanks, et al., 2006)
  • (Berry, Henson, et al., 2006)
  • (Berry, Henson, e

A Concluding Remark For cases when all of the authors have precisely the same last names, as well as cases where both studies were published in the same year, the citation procedure outlined in the reference twins article will be followed. To be specific, useet al. as normal, but after the year, use lowercase letters (2010a, 2010b, etc.) to distinguish between the different references. Section 6 of our sixth edition Publication Manual (pages 174–179) contains further information and examples on citing references in text.

LibGuides: APA Style Guide: Multiple Authors

Check out the examples below to discover how to properly manage numerous authors for a single piece of work in APA parenthetical citations.

1 Author

Include the author’s last name and the year of publication in parenthesis, separated by a comma: author’s last name, year of publication According to research, polar bear numbers will suffer a significant reduction as the Arctic ice melts (Jedden, 2006).

2 Authors

The year of publication should be included after the last name of both authors, which should be separated by the ampersand sign (‘ ‘). In various campaigns, environmentalists have used polar bears as an image of climate change to draw attention to the issue. Joleah Lamb (2007, 2007).

3-5 Authors

Include the following information in the first citation in the text: Include the last names of all authors, separated by the ampersand sign (‘ ‘), and the year of publication: Over the course of the last 50 years, polar bear numbers have actually risen, despite catastrophic warnings (Holden, Michaels,White, 2008). In the case of subsequent citations, only the last name of the first author, followed by ‘et al.,’ and the year of publication should be included IF it is the first citation for that source in a paragraph.

If this source has already been cited in another paragraph, delete the year of publication: Despite catastrophic forecasts, polar bear numbers have actually risen over the past 50 years, according to the National Geographic Society (Holden et al., 2008).

6+ Authors

The year of publication, followed by the first author’s last name and the words “et al.” are all that should be included (for first and subsequent citations). The year of publication should not be included if the source has already been cited in another paragraph: for example, Arctic ice is melting at unprecedented rates as a result of global warming, which has caused temperatures to rise above normal (Jackson et al., 2005).

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