How To Cite Apa In Text? (TOP 5 Tips)

How do you format a text citation in APA style?

  • How to Do an In-Text Citation in APA Format. When writing in APA style, cite your sources in two places: in the text and at the end of your paper in a reference list. Cite an article or book with a single author using the author-date method of citation. If you refer both to the author and date of publication in the text,


How do you do in text citations for APA?

Using In-text Citation APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.

How do you cite in text citations?

In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.

How do you cite in text APA 7?

APA 7 Style uses the author-date citation method with parentheses. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) the quote appears. For quotations that are on one page, type “p.” before the page number.

How do you in text cite a whole paragraph in APA?

In paragraphs that contain one overall instance of paraphrased information, “ cite the source in the first sentence in which it is relevant and do not repeat the citation in subsequent sentences as long as the source remains clear and unchanged ” (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 254).

How do you cite APA with no author?

Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication. When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline” style capitalization, and the year.

How do you write et al in APA?

The abbreviation “et al.” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten in-text citations with three or more authors. Here’s how it works: Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).

Do you cite every sentence in APA?

You need to make clear where someone else’s narration stops and you begin with your own words. Therefore, putting one citation at the end of a paragraph paraphrase is NOT APA compliant. If paraphrasing multiple consecutive sentences from the same source, cite each sentence to avoid plagiarism.

How do I cite a source in APA format?

Your in-text citation should include both authors: the author(s) of the original source and the author(s) of the secondary source. For example: (Habermehl, 1985, as cited in Kersten, 1987). In your reference list you should provide the details of the secondary source (the source you read).

Can you cite a whole paragraph APA?

Simply including one citation at the end of a paragraph is NOT APA compliant. The reader cannot know with one citation which ideas are yours and which are from the article.

In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab

Note:This page contains the most recent edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (APA 7), which was issued in October 2019. You may find the similar material for the older APA 6 style in this section. The Publication Manual’s pages 261-268 provide guidance on how to use reference citations in text. Some general principles for citing other people’s work in your essay are provided below for your convenience. It is recommended on pages 117-118 of the Publication Manual that writers of research articles use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal words that appear in the literature review and technique descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) discovered or Jones (1998) has discovered.) Jones (1998) discovers that the simple present tense may be used in contexts other than those associated with typically organized research writing.

APA Citation Basics

When writing in APA format, the author-date technique of in-text citation should be used. This implies that the last name of the author, as well as the year of publication for the source, should be included in the text, such as, for example (Jones, 1998). The reference list at the conclusion of the document should contain one complete reference for each source cited throughout the study. If you are referring to an idea from another work but are not directly quoting the material, or if you are making reference to an entire book, article, or other work, you only need to include the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and do not need to include the page number in your reference.

Before providing the page number, use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) to indicate that it is the first page (s).

If you want to write (Jones, 1998, p.

199–201), for example, you might write This information is restated in the next section.

Capitalization, quotations, and italics/underlining are all acceptable in-text citations.

  • Proper nouns, including author names and initials, should always be capitalized: Jones, D.
  • Jones, D. If you make reference to the title of a source inside your work, be sure to capitalize any terms that are four letters or longer in length within the title of a source, such as: The concepts of permanence and change are intertwined. Short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs are exempt from this rule. Examples include: There is nothing left to lose when it comes to new media writing.

(Please keep in mind that just the first word of a title will be capitalized in your References list: Writing new media.)

  • Titles that contain a hyphenated compound word should be capitalized on both words: Cyborgs that were born naturally
  • After a dash or a colon, capitalize the first word that follows: Hitchcock’s Vertigo serves as a case study in “Defining Film Rhetoric.” For works whose titles are italics in your reference list, italicize them in the text as well, and use title case capitalization in the text: Friends
  • The Wizard of Oz
  • The Closing of the American Mind
  • The Closing of the American Mind If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even if the reference list is written in sentence case): “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “The One in which Chandler is unable to cry.”

Short quotations

It is necessary to mention the author, publication year, and page number for a reference when directly quoting from a book (preceded by “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for a span of several pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash). Using a signal phrase that comprises the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. Jones (1998) states that “students frequently had problems utilizing APA style, particularly when it was their first time” (p.

Jones (1998) discovered that “students frequently had trouble employing APA style” (p.

Wherever possible, omitting the author’s last name but including his or her year of publication and page number in the text of the sentence will be accepted as proper citation practice.

Jones (1998) said that “students frequently had problems employing the APA style,” however she could not provide an explanation as to why this was the case.

Long quotations

Direct quotations that are 40 words or more should be included in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, with quotation marks omitted if possible. Starting on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, or at the same spot as you would begin a new paragraph, insert the quotation at the beginning of the paragraph. Create a new margin and indent any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by separating them by 1/2 inch from the new margin. Type the full quotation on the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by 1/2 inch from the new margin.

The parenthetical citation should appear after the period at the end of the paragraph.

An example of how to format block quotes in the APA 7 style.

Quotations from sources without pages

It is not necessary to include a page number in direct quotations from sources that do not contain any pages. As an alternative, you may refer to another piece of logical identification, such as a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else entirely. Older works (such as religious writings) may additionally include particular location identifiers, such as verse numbers, to help readers find their way around. For the most part, choose a page number replacement that makes sense for your original material.

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Summary or paraphrase

The author and year of publication are all that are required in your in-text reference if you are paraphrasing a concept from another book. The page numbers are not required in this case. According to APA rules, however, giving a page range for a summary or paraphrase where it will assist the reader in finding the material in a lengthier work is strongly encouraged. As Jones (1998) points out, the APA style is a tough citation format to master for first-time learners. For first-time learners, APA style is a tough citation system to master (Jones, 1998, p.

Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

Rather than appearing at the conclusion of long clauses or phrases, in-text references should occur immediately after the title, word, or phrase to which they are closely related. References inside the text should always come before punctuation marks. The following are some examples of in-text citations. The following is the author’s name in parentheses: According to one study, familiarity with the subject matter is the most crucial factor in interpreting non-native language speaking (GassVaronis, 1984).

Authors that belong to a group include: The first citation is as follows: (American Psychological Association, 2015) Following that, a citation is made: (APA, 2015) Several pieces of work: (separate each work with semi-colons) According to research, listening to a specific dialect increases comprehension of accented speech in general, not only in that accent (GassVaronis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

  1. The following is a verbatim quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote) “The listener’s acquaintance with the topic of discourse substantially aids the comprehension of the entire message,” according to one research (GassVaronis, 1984, p.
  2. According to Gass and Varonis (1984), “the listener’s prior knowledge of the topic of discourse substantially assists the comprehension of the entire message” (p.
  3. Note: For direct quotes of more than 40 words, the quote should be displayed as an indented block of text without quotation marks, with the names of the authors, the year of publication, and the page number of the source in parentheses at the end.
  4. That is, prior exposure to nonnative speech, such as that received by listening to the reading, makes it easier to comprehend what is being read.

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SOM Library: APA Citation Style Guide (6th Ed.): Overview

The numbers in parentheses correspond to particular pages in the American Psychological Association’s 6th Edition manual. Textual Citation Using the Author-Date System (p. 174)

  • References are referenced in the text of the document using an author-date citation system, and then they are listed alphabetically in the reference list at the conclusion of the publication

EXAMPLE: Throughout the text:The conquering of pellagra is most often connected with a single name: Joseph Goldberger (Bryan, 2014). This entry is included in the Reference list: C.S. Bryan is an author who lives in the United States (2014). With the help of an asylum doctor, James Woods Babcock was able to stop the Red Plague of Pellagra. The University of South Carolina Press is located in Columbia, South Carolina. Ensure that you double-space the whole manuscript, including the References list and any block quotes (pp.

(See page 228) Page numbers and a running head are included (p.

  • Once your work is finished, number the pages in a sequential manner, starting with the title page. Include a “running head” at the top of every page (p. 229). Use the following format on the title page: “Running head: EXAMPLE OF TITLE” (without the quotation marks). On all future pages, use the format “EXAMPLE OF TITLE” to distinguish one page from the next (without quotation marks). See the sample paper on page 41 of the Manual for further information.

Tip: To set up the page numbers and running head in your word processor, use the “header” feature on your word processor. Because the running head format on the title page differs from that on the remaining pages, you will need to choose “different first page” from the header function of your word processor.

Beginner’s guide to APA in-text citation

Raimo Streefkerk published a new article on November 4, 2020. On December 15, 2021, a revision was made. This article is written in accordance with the American Psychological Association’s 7th edition criteria. The American Psychological Association’s sixth edition guidelines may be found here. In-text citations are used to identify the source of information within the body text of a piece of writing. In your work, they correlate to a complete reference entry at the conclusion of the manuscript.

Whenever possible, provide a page number or range of pages when referencing a specific section of a source, for example: (Parker, 2020, p.


The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself. The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.

The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself. The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself. The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself. The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself. The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.

The Scribbr Reference Generator will automatically write a faultless APA citation, or you may manually cite it yourself.

Worried about in-text citation errors?

Before submitting your work, do a fast check to discover how many APA citation problems you have in your article.

  • Over 100 APA guidelines were reviewed and approved. Within one minute, you will get a response. American Psychological Association Style (6th/7th Edition)

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APA in-text citations explained in 4 minutes

Depending on the situation, the in-text citation may be provided in parentheses or organically blended into the statement.

  • Parenthetical: According to Parker (2019), there is a link between teens’ use of social media and their anxiety symptoms. An explanation is provided by Parker(2019), who discovered a link between social media use and anxiety symptoms in adolescents.

When writing in the narrative format, the year of publication appears right below the author’s name at the top of the page. The parenthetical citation can be used within a sentence or at the conclusion of a sentence, immediately before the period, depending on the situation. Take a look at a complete sample paragraph that includes in-text citations. A parenthetical citation or the word “and” in a narrative citation should be used to separate the names of two authors if a work has more than one author.

Author type Parenthetical Narrative
One author (Harris, 2020) Harris (2020)
Two authors (HarrisCook, 2020) Harris and Cook (2020)
Three or more authors (Harris et al., 2020) Harris et al. (2020)
Group authors (Scribbr, 2020) Scribbr (2020)
Abbreviated group author
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)(CDC, 2020) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020)CDC (2020)

No author, date or page number

Unknown element Solution In-text citation
Author Use the source title. (Source Title, 2020)
Date Write “n.d.” for “no date”. (Harris, n.d.)
Page number Use an alternative locator oromit the page number. (Harris, 2020, 03:46) or(Harris, 2020)

No author

Whether the author of a source is not known, attempt to figure out if there is an organization or government that is accountable for the creation of the information. If so, mention the name of the organization in the in-text citation (and reference entry). In the last three years, the cost of solar energy has dropped by 34%, which is a significant reduction (Tesla, 2020). Alternatively, you may substitute the title of the source for the author. If the title is italicized in the reference entry, italicize it here as well (except forcourt cases, which are italicized in the in-text citation but not the reference entry).

Titles should be capitalized in all cases, and extended titles should be condensed.

  • (“Flood Risk in the United States,” 2015)
  • (Thinking, Fast and Slow, 2017)

No publication date

If the publishing date is not known, the in-text reference should be written as “n.d.” (no date). (Johnson,n.d.).

No page number (alternative locators)

In APA style, page numbers are only necessary when direct quotes are used. It is acceptable to use an alternate locator when quoting from a work that does not include page numbers (for example, online pages or YouTube movies). Examples include:

  • (Liu, 2020,03:26)
  • (Johnson, 2019,Chapter 3)
  • (McCombes, 2016,para. 4)
  • (Davis, 2016,Slide 15)
  • (Flores, 2020,Table 5)
  • (Streefkerk, 2020,”No page number” section)
  • (Liu, 2020,03:26)
  • (Davis, 2016,Slide 15

Even in cases where page numbers are available, Bible citations usually utilize chapter and verse numbers. For example, According to the English Standard Version Bible (2001), Joshua 2:7.

Multiple sources in one parenthesis

It is acceptable to incorporate numerous in-text citations into a single pair of parentheses when a statement is backed by many sources. Order the sources alphabetically, then separate them with a semicolon between each one of them.

The years of publication should be listed after each work by a single author when numerous works by that author are cited. These findings have been confirmed by a number of other investigations (Brown, 2009; Porter, 2004; Smith, 2015, 2017).

Avoiding ambiguity in APA in-text citations

The remedies mentioned in the table below should be used when in-text citations are confusing because they relate to several reference entries.

Situation Solution In-text citation
Multiple works by the same author in the same year. Add a lowercase letter after the year. (Cooper, 2018a)(Cooper, 2018b)
Different authors with the same last name. Include the authors’ initials. (H. Taylor, 2019)(B. J. Taylor, 2016)
Multiple works with 3+ authors that shorten to the same form (i.e., same first author(s) and date). Include as many names as needed to distinguish the citations. (Cooper, Lee, et al., 2015)(Cooper, Ross, et al., 2015)

Citing indirect sources (“as cited in”)

The original or main source should always be used when referencing an item that was discovered in another source, while the secondary source should never be used. If, on the other hand, you are unable to locate the original source, you should credit it through the secondary source that brought you to it, using the phrase “as cited in.” Bloom et al., 2017 quote from Parker (1978), which is mentioned in Bloom et al., 2017). If the publication date of the original source is not available, just the year of publication of the secondary source should be included in the citation.

Citing personal communication

Personal communications, such as phone conversations, emails, and interviews, are not included in the reference list since readers will not be able to obtain access to these materials. In addition, the in-text reference is structured in a different way. Identify the individual you corresponded with by including his or her initials and last name, the phrase “personal conversation,” and the date you communicated with in parenthesis. During the second quarter, sales are decreasing (P. G. Brown, personal communication, June 13, 2019).

General mentions of websites and software

General references of a website or program do not need to be accompanied by an in-text citation or a reference list item in order to be considered credible. Replace this information with appropriate information that is included into the running text.

  • Many excellent materials may be found on the Scribbr website ( The data was analyzed with the help of the statistical softwareSPSS (version 25)

Example paragraph with in-text citations

Adapted version of the example paragraph Use of social media has been consistently linked to negative body image concerns, particularly among young women (Perloff, 2014). According to Grabe et al. (2008), exposure to mass media is associated with female body image dissatisfaction, which is supported by several studies and research findings. TiggermannSlater (2013) and MeierGray (2014) conducted empirical investigations on Facebook usage in teenage females, while Holland and Timmerman (2016) conducted an extensive review of the literature to demonstrate a link between social networking and body image in both women and men.

Frequently Asked Questions

What does an in-text reference for a website look like in the APA format? An in-text citation for a web page or online article in APA Style is comprised of the author’s last name and the year of publication, as shown in the example. As an illustration: (WorlandWilliams, 2015). It should be noted that the author might also be a company or organization. As an illustration: (American Psychological Association, 2019). It is recommended that you include a locator when quoting. Because web pages do not contain page numbers, you can use one of the following methods to navigate between them:

  • Smith (2018) provides the following paragraph number: (15). heading or section name: (CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
  • Heading or section name: (CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)
  • Abbreviated heading:

When using APA Style, how can I reference several sources written by the same author? If you reference many sources by the same author or group of writers, you’ll use the year of publication to distinguish between them in your APA in-text citations. Whenever you need to reference many sources by the same author(s) at the same time, you may just write the author name(s) once and separate the different years with commas, for example, et al (Smith, 2020, 2021). To distinguish between sources with the same author(s) and the same publication year, use a different lowercase letter after the year for each source, e.g., a different lowercase letter after the year for each source (Smith, 2020, 2021a, 2021b).

Add the identical letters to the appropriate reference entries to complete the sentence. You have already cast your vote. Thanks:-) Your vote has been recorded:-) Your vote is being processed.

Library Guides: APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation

In-text citations are used to quickly document the source of your information in an APA research paper. In-text citations are introduced into the body of your research paper to document the source of your information. Citations that are only a few sentences long direct the reader to more extensive information in the Reference list. When citing in-text sources in APA format, use the author-date method of citation. According to this approach, the author and date are included in the main body of the document, and a reference to the author and date is included in the References section of the article.

When you cite another work or when you paraphrase another work in your own words, you must include an in-text reference to acknowledge the source.

In-text Citations Have Two Formats

  1. In parenthesis, the author’s name and the date of publication (or any comparable information) are listed, as in the example above. Using the example of falsely balanced news coverage, Burnside (2016) shows how the public’s sense of expert consensus on a particular subject can be distorted. If the work is a narrative, the author’s name appears in running text immediately after the author name, and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. For example, Burnside (2016) has warned about the hazards of deceptively balanced news coverage in the media.

If you are paraphrasing or summarizing a concept from another work rather than explicitly citing it, you just need to provide the author’s name and the year of publication in your in-text reference rather than the page number of the original work. It is necessary to provide the page number at the end of the parenthetical reference if you are directly citing or borrowing from another piece of writing. As an illustration (Burnside, 2016, p. 199).

CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations

In APA Style, an in-text citation informs the reader about the source of any and all material that did not originate from your own brain or other sources. This is more clear when you are explicitly quoting from a source, but it is equally necessary when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source, and even when you have gotten an idea from someplace else, to cite sources properly. It is critical that you properly cite all of the words and ideas that you have borrowed from other sources in order to avoid being accused of plagiarism.

If you are writing an APA Style paper, the author-date citation method is used to reference your sources.

It is possible for readers to identify sources used in the article by looking for author and date information inside the paper’s text, and then simply locate the relevant reference in the alphabetical reference list, using this citation method.

There are two sorts of in-text citations that can be used.

A narrative citation is a sort of citation in which the author’s name appears inside the text of the sentence; on the other hand, a parenthetical citation is a type of reference in which the author’s name and the date appear in parentheses at the conclusion of the phrase.

How do I create narrative or parenthetical citations?

In APA Style, you should cite your sources by placing the information about the source in parentheses at the end of a sentence or in the text of your paper, rather than using a footnote, which places the source information at the bottom of the page, or an endnote, which places the information about the source at the end of the paper. There are subtle variances in appearance based on which style you choose.

  • Include the last name of the author as well as the year of publication. Only use page numbers or paragraph numbers when quoting directly from a source. Check to ensure that the source information in parentheses corresponds to the source information in your reference list. The punctuation for the statement is placed AFTER the parenthesis
  • Nonetheless, When quoting less than forty words, use quotation marks around the words that are being quoted. Sources with defined page numbers should be referenced in narrative citations where the author and date are presented in the sentence. The page number should be included in parentheses at the conclusion of each quote. Instead of using page numbers when the source doesn’t have any, you can use a paragraph number, heading, or a mix of heading and paragraph number. It is acceptable to add the author and date with the page or paragraph number if the author and date are not presented as part of the content itself. The period should appear after the parenthesis
  • Otherwise, it is incorrect. If your quote is longer than forty words, set it off in a block text by starting the block quote on a new line, indenting 0.5 inches (one-half inch), and without using quotation marks around the block quote (see example). After the last word of the phrase, place a period after it, followed by the parenthesis, to mark the conclusion of the quote. More information may be found atBlock Quote

Additional Resources

For further information on parenthetical and narrative citations, read pages 253-278 of the 7th edition of the American Psychological Association Manual for a detailed discussion and examples.

LibGuides: Citation Resources: APA 7th Ed: In-Text Citations

The author-date citation method is used with parentheses in the APA 7 Style. After a quotation, provide parenthesis with the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) on which the quotation occurs. If a quotation is on a single page, precede the page number with the letter “p.”. Instead of “pp.”, “pp.” should be used for quotations that begin on one page and conclude on another. “Sometimes I have the distinct impression that there is a JERTAIN in the CURTAIN,” says one page (Seuss, 1974, p.

  • “The swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog,” according to a quote on page two: (Seuss, 2007, pp.
  • Using the letters a, b, and so on after the year indicates that you are using more than one work by the same author.
  • 7-8).
  • A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (D.
  • 7-8).

Narrative Citations

When you utilize the author’s last name in the narrative of your work, do not include the author’s first and last names in the parenthesis. Dr. Seuss made the observation that “the swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound” in his scientific investigation (2007, pp. 7-8). “The swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound,” as Dr. Seuss put it in his book “The Lorax” in 2007. (pp. 7-8).

Citations with Missing Elements

When an author’s name is not accessible, the first few words of the reference list entry should be used instead (usually the title). Make use of quote marks around the names of articles or web pages, as well as italicizing the titles of books, journals, and other publications. A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (Fox in Socks, 2007). When there are no page numbers available, paragraph numbers or other subsection identifiers should be used instead of page numbers.

5). “The swift brown fox hopped over the slow dog,” according to more than one paragraph (Seuss, 2007, paras. 5-6). “The swift brown fox hopped over the slow dog,” according to the presentation slide (Seuss, 2007, Slide 7).

Paraphrased Citations

Paraphrasing is the process of putting another person’s thoughts into your own words, which allows you to efficiently summarize and synthesize knowledge (p. 269). When paraphrasing concepts, you have the option of using either narrative or parenthetical citations. Using previously existing classroom literature education, stories may be utilized to teach social skills to kids. Emphasis should be placed on lessons that assist students analyze events and sympathize with characters (WolfBaker, 2012).

Seuss’ books to teach social skills to their pupils, based on a case study from one classroom teacher (p.

Keep in mind that if the source material is lengthy or difficult to understand, page numbers should be included to assist the reader in locating the text that is being paraphrased or referred to in your paper.

Author–date citation system

Cite references in the text using the author–date citation method in accordance with APA Style. Each work cited in a publication has two elements in this system: an in-text citation and a reference list item matching to the work cited in the article. In-text citations might take the form of parenthetical or narrative references.

  • To prevent ambiguity in parenthetical citations, include an ampersand () between names for a work with more than one author or before the last author’s name when all authors’ names must be mentioned. In narrative quotations, the word “and” should always be capitalized.

This advice has been updated from the previous edition (6th edition).

Number of authors to include in in-text citations

It is necessary to adjust the structure of the author element of the in-text citation depending on the number of authors. In certain circumstances, the author element is shortened.

  • When there are just one or two writers for a work, mention the author’s name(s) in every citation. When there are three or more authors on a work, just the first author’s name should be used in every citation (including the first citation)

The following table outlines the most common in-text citation formats:

Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020)
Two authors (SalasD’Agostino, 2020) Salas and D’Agostino (2020)
Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020)
Group author with abbreviationFirst citationaSubsequent citations (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020)(NIMH, 2020) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)NIMH (2020)
Group author without abbreviation (Stanford University, 2020) Stanford University (2020)

A group author’s abbreviation should be defined only once in the text, and it should be in either the parenthetical or narrative format. After then, whenever the group is mentioned in the text, the abbreviation should be used.

Exceptions to the basic in-text citation styles

  • The year in the in-text citation should be the same year as the year in the reference list item, unless otherwise specified. Even if the reference list item has a more exact date (e.g., year, month, and day), just the year should be used in the in-text citation. In-text citations for works that do not have a date should use “n.d.” Work that has been approved for publication but has not yet been published should be identified with the phrase “in press.”

Repeating a citation

APA Style requires that you repeat a reference in its entirety; do not, for example, give merely a page number (the abbreviation “ibid.” is not permitted in APA Style). Instead, follow the procedures outlined below:

  • Include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication for each parenthetical in-text reference. When using narrative in-text citations, do not repeat the year on the second and subsequent occasions that they appear in a single paragraph. This guideline should be followed with each new paragraph (for example, the year should be included in the first narrative citation in a new paragraph). To avoid confusion, add the publication year in every in-text citation if you are citing several works by the same author or authors, regardless of when the works were first published. Example: If you reference Mohammed and Mahfouz (2017) and Mohammed and Mahfouz (2019), include the year with each citation, even when one of the references is used more than once in the same paragraph.

Further guidelines for in-text citations

  • Each in-text citation must match to a single reference list entry in the reference list. In-text citations should not include suffixes such as “Jr.” or “Sr.” Work with an unknown author (see Section 9.12) should be referenced in-text by including both the title and the year of publication. Each of the more than 100 reference examples in Chapter 10 of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) provides examples of both parenthetical and narrative citations. More information and examples may be found in the Publication Manual.

Originally published on: September 1, 2019.

APA in-text citations : quick help : student writing support : center for writing : university of minnesota

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Phone612.625.1893 (Monday–Thursday, 10:00 a.m.–2:00 p.m.) When you’re there in person Visit our front desk in 15 Nicholson Hall, which is open Monday through Thursday from 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Zooming in and out Visit our virtual front desk (open Monday–Thursday, 9:00–4:00 p.m., and Friday, 9:00–2:30 p.m.) to get in touch with us. [email protected] Center for Writing FAQscenter for writing|student writing support|documenting sources|APA in-text citationsCenter for Writing FAQs The American Psychological Association (APA) documentation style makes use of a combination of in-text citations and a reference list at the conclusion of the publication.

Reference lists are lists of comprehensive publishing information from the resources you referenced in your article, organized alphabetically by the last name of each author who contributed to it. If you want further information about the reference list, please read the APA reference list quicktip.

In-text citations for paraphrased material always include dates, but can be formatted in two ways.

For signal phrases that contain the author’s name, just the date must be enclosed in parentheses: Patterson (1998) has seen a similar phenomena and has documented it. If you only make a passing reference to a research, you must provide both the author’s last name and the year in parentheses: This identical behavior has been observed in other places (Patterson, 1998).

Citations for direct quotes require the author’s last name, the publication date, and the location of the quote in the original source.

It is acceptable to use the abbreviationp.orpp.followed by the page number(s) to mark the location of a quote if the original source provides page numbers: “The possibility that adopted children will grow properly is strongly dependant on the attitude of their parents” (Patterson, 1998, p. 201). If the original source does not have page numbers (for example, if it is a non-paginated online source), indicate the location of the quote by using the section title and the abbreviationpara.followed by the paragraph number: “Social workers act honestly and.

promote ethical practices on the part of the organizations with which they are affiliated” (NASW, 1999, Ethical Principles section, para.

Pay attention to variations.

It is common for in-text citations to differ in situations where there are multiple works by the same author(s) published in the same year, where there are multiple authors or institutions or groups as authors, where there are specific parts of a source, when there is personal communication, and so on. If you want to learn more about different variants, look at pages 174–179 in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition).

  • If you use more than one article published by the same author(s) in the same year, distinguish between them using letters that you assign to them in the reference list. For example, if you use more than one article published by the same author(s) in the same year, differentiate between them using letters: Smith (1999a, 1999b)
  • Smith (1999c)
  • A large number of research publications are written by many authors. As long as there are no more than five writers, all of the authors’ names are listed the first time a source is referenced (e.g. Patterson, Stevens, Thompson, and Williams)
  • As long as there are three to five authors, subsequent references use simply the first author’s last name and et al (e.g.,Patterson et al.). There are six or more writers in a given work, and the first author’s last name and et al are utilized throughout. When an institution or organization is listed as the author of a source, provide the complete name of the institution or group in your reference list item. In-text citations are also made using the full name unless doing so would be inconvenient or the abbreviation would be clearly understood. Provide the abbreviation in brackets in the first parenthetical reference, for example, (National Association of Social Workers, 1999)
  • Then in subsequent parenthetical citations of the same source, use simply the abbreviation, such as (National Association of Social Workers), 1999
  • And so on. In parenthetical citations, whenever you refer to a specific part of a source (a table, a graph, a figure, an equation, or anything else), include the page number in your parenthetical citation (for example, Vandenberg, 1999, p. 62)
  • When you refer to the same author of a source as part of the narrative multiple times within one paragraph, do not repeat the year in subsequent nonparenthetical references, but always use the year in parenthetical Personal communications are the only sources that are cited in-text only and are not included in the reference list. Personal communications For a personal message, each in-text citation should include the author’s first and last names, the phrase personal communication, and the date in full (for example, S. White, personal communication, August 11, 2005).

Common structures for signal phrases

The use of signal words by writers to bring quoted or cited information into their works may be accomplished in a variety of ways. The following are some of the most often encountered: Vandenberg asserts the following: (1999),. Smith (1998a) made the suggestion. According to Hacker (2003), she stated in her introduction that Many researchers (Grimm, 1996 and 1999), as well as Mick (1999) and Trimbur (1987), have made this point.

Common verbs for signal phrases

When making your selection from the list, double-check that you’re using the proper transitive and intransitive verbs. If you need assistance, use a reputable Learner’s Dictionary, such as the one linked to each term below. admitted, added, argued, asserted, believed, claimed, commented, compared, concluded, confirmed, continued, declared, denied, described, disputed, emphasized, explained, found, granted, implied, noted, observed, pointed out, proposed, reasoned, rejected, responded, reported, responded, showed, studied, suggested, written, wrote D.



More information may be found at the American Psychological Association (2010).

American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Author. American Psychological Association (2012). APA format is used. Hacker, D., and Sommers, N. (2012). Retrieved on June 26, 2012 from Hacker, D., and Sommers, N. (2011). a writer’s point of reference (7th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin’s is a neighborhood in Boston.

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