How To Cite In Text Apa? (Question)

How do you do an in text citation for APA format?

  • Begin with the author. You also need to create a citation to use in the text.
  • Abbreviate WHO when you mention it again. Once you’ve told the reader you’ll use the abbreviation WHO by adding it after the name,you must use it in later
  • Add the date after the author’s name.
  • Place a page number or paragraph number at the end.


How do you do in-text citations for APA?

Using In-text Citation APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.

How do you cite in-text citations?

In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.

How do you in-text cite APA 7th?

Parenthetical Citations APA 7 Style uses the author-date citation method with parentheses. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) the quote appears. For quotations that are on one page, type “p.” before the page number.

How do you in-text cite part of a sentence APA?

APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14).

How do you in text citation APA no author?

In-Text Citations:

  1. Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
  2. When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style” capitalization, and the year.

How do you cite an online article in APA in text?

When citing a web page or online article in APA Style, the in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).

Do you cite every sentence in APA?

You need to make clear where someone else’s narration stops and you begin with your own words. Therefore, putting one citation at the end of a paragraph paraphrase is NOT APA compliant. If paraphrasing multiple consecutive sentences from the same source, cite each sentence to avoid plagiarism.

How do you cite et al in APA?

The abbreviation “et al.” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten in-text citations with three or more authors. Here’s how it works: Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).

How do you in-text cite a whole paragraph in APA?

In paragraphs that contain one overall instance of paraphrased information, “ cite the source in the first sentence in which it is relevant and do not repeat the citation in subsequent sentences as long as the source remains clear and unchanged ” (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 254).

Can you cite mid sentence in APA?

When multiple studies support what you have to say, you can also include mid-sentence in-text citations. You can also use mid -sentence in-text citation if the study supports only a part of the sentence so that it is clear which material has come from which source.

Are in-text citations capitalized?

Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.

Should APA citations be capitalized?

APA style has different rules for title capitalization and italics than other forms of documentation. In general, only the first word of a book or article’s title is capitalized. Proper nouns are always capitalized. Also, if the title contains a colon or dash, the word immediately following it is capitalized.

In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab

Note:This page contains the most recent edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (APA 7), which was issued in October 2019. You may find the similar material for the older APA 6 style in this section. The Publication Manual’s pages 261-268 provide guidance on how to use reference citations in text. Some general principles for citing other people’s work in your essay are provided below for your convenience. It is recommended on pages 117-118 of the Publication Manual that writers of research articles use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal words that appear in the literature review and technique descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) discovered or Jones (1998) has discovered.) Jones (1998) discovers that the simple present tense may be used in contexts other than those associated with typically organized research writing.

APA Citation Basics

When writing in APA format, the author-date technique of in-text citation should be used. This implies that the last name of the author, as well as the year of publication for the source, should be included in the text, such as, for example (Jones, 1998). The reference list at the conclusion of the document should contain one complete reference for each source cited throughout the study. If you are referring to an idea from another work but are not directly quoting the material, or if you are making reference to an entire book, article, or other work, you only need to include the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and do not need to include the page number in your reference.

Before providing the page number, use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) to indicate that it is the first page (s).

If you want to write (Jones, 1998, p.

199–201), for example, you might write This information is restated in the next section.

Capitalization, quotations, and italics/underlining are all acceptable in-text citations.

  • Proper nouns, including author names and initials, should always be capitalized: Jones, D.
  • Jones, D. If you make reference to the title of a source inside your work, be sure to capitalize any terms that are four letters or longer in length within the title of a source, such as: The concepts of permanence and change are intertwined. Short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs are exempt from this rule. Examples include: There is nothing left to lose when it comes to new media writing.

(Please keep in mind that just the first word of a title will be capitalized in your References list: Writing new media.)

  • Titles that contain a hyphenated compound word should be capitalized on both words: Cyborgs that were born naturally
  • After a dash or a colon, capitalize the first word that follows: Hitchcock’s Vertigo serves as a case study in “Defining Film Rhetoric.” For works whose titles are italics in your reference list, italicize them in the text as well, and use title case capitalization in the text: Friends
  • The Wizard of Oz
  • The Closing of the American Mind
  • The Closing of the American Mind If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even if the reference list is written in sentence case): “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “The One in which Chandler is unable to cry.”

Short quotations

It is necessary to mention the author, publication year, and page number for a reference when directly quoting from a book (preceded by “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for a span of several pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash). Using a signal phrase that comprises the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. Jones (1998) states that “students frequently had problems utilizing APA style, particularly when it was their first time” (p.

You might be interested:  What Does Ion Mean In Text? (Solution)

Jones (1998) discovered that “students frequently had trouble employing APA style” (p.

Wherever possible, omitting the author’s last name but including his or her year of publication and page number in the text of the sentence will be accepted as proper citation practice.

Jones (1998) said that “students frequently had problems employing the APA style,” however she could not provide an explanation as to why this was the case.

Long quotations

Direct quotations that are 40 words or more should be included in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, with quotation marks omitted if possible. Starting on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, or at the same spot as you would begin a new paragraph, insert the quotation at the beginning of the paragraph. Create a new margin and indent any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by separating them by 1/2 inch from the new margin. Type the full quotation on the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by 1/2 inch from the new margin.

The parenthetical citation should appear after the period at the end of the paragraph.

An example of how to format block quotes in the APA 7 style.

Quotations from sources without pages

It is not necessary to include a page number in direct quotations from sources that do not contain any pages. As an alternative, you may refer to another piece of logical identification, such as a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else entirely. Older works (such as religious writings) may additionally include particular location identifiers, such as verse numbers, to help readers find their way around. For the most part, choose a page number replacement that makes sense for your original material.

Summary or paraphrase

The author and year of publication are all that are required in your in-text reference if you are paraphrasing a concept from another book. The page numbers are not required in this case. According to APA rules, however, giving a page range for a summary or paraphrase where it will assist the reader in finding the material in a lengthier work is strongly encouraged. As Jones (1998) points out, the APA style is a tough citation format to master for first-time learners. For first-time learners, APA style is a tough citation system to master (Jones, 1998, p.

Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

Rather than appearing at the conclusion of long clauses or phrases, in-text references should occur immediately after the title, word, or phrase to which they are closely related. References inside the text should always come before punctuation marks. The following are some examples of in-text citations. The following is the author’s name in parentheses: According to one study, familiarity with the subject matter is the most crucial factor in interpreting non-native language speaking (GassVaronis, 1984).

Authors that belong to a group include: The first citation is as follows: (American Psychological Association, 2015) Following that, a citation is made: (APA, 2015) Several pieces of work: (separate each work with semi-colons) According to research, listening to a specific dialect increases comprehension of accented speech in general, not only in that accent (GassVaronis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

  1. The following is a verbatim quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote) “The listener’s acquaintance with the topic of discourse substantially aids the comprehension of the entire message,” according to one research (GassVaronis, 1984, p.
  2. According to Gass and Varonis (1984), “the listener’s prior knowledge of the topic of discourse substantially assists the comprehension of the entire message” (p.
  3. Note: For direct quotes of more than 40 words, the quote should be displayed as an indented block of text without quotation marks, with the names of the authors, the year of publication, and the page number of the source in parentheses at the end.
  4. That is, prior exposure to nonnative speech, such as that received by listening to the reading, makes it easier to comprehend what is being read.

77) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formal

SOM Library: APA Citation Style Guide (6th Ed.): Overview

The numbers in parentheses correspond to particular pages in the American Psychological Association’s 6th Edition manual. Textual Citation Using the Author-Date System (p. 174)

  • References are referenced in the text of the document using an author-date citation system, and then they are listed alphabetically in the reference list at the conclusion of the publication

EXAMPLE: Throughout the text:The conquering of pellagra is most often connected with a single name: Joseph Goldberger (Bryan, 2014). This entry is included in the Reference list: Bryan, C.S. (2014). (2014). Asylum Doctor: James Woods Babcock and the Red Plague of Pellagra. The University of South Carolina Press is located in Columbia, South Carolina. Ensure that you double-space the whole manuscript, including the References list and any block quotes (pp. 229, 171, 180) Typeface to Use: Recommended Typeface: Twelve-point Times New Roman is the preferred typeface, orfont, for the American Psychological Association.


  • Once your work is finished, number the pages in a sequential manner, starting with the title page. Include a “running head” at the top of every page (p. 229). Use the following format on the title page: “Running head: EXAMPLE OF TITLE” (without the quotation marks). On all future pages, use the format “EXAMPLE OF TITLE” to distinguish one page from the next (without quotation marks). See the sample paper on page 41 of the Manual for further information.

Tip:Use the”header”function on your word processor to set up the page numbers and running head. Since the running head format is different on the title page than the remaining pages, you will need to choose”different first page”within your word processor header function.

Scribbr APA Citation Generator

Stop spending time attempting to figure out the proper citation format. Search for your source using the title, URL, ISBN, or DOI of the document and produce precise APA citations in seconds using Scribbr’s citation builder. There is no prior experience required.

Rely on accurate citations, verified by experts.

You don’t want any points deducted from your grade because of inaccurate citations. We have spent numerous hours improving our algorithms, thanks to the efforts of our APA citation specialists. As a consequence, we are honored to have been recommended by instructors all across the world.

Enjoy a clean look for minimal distraction.

Keeping one’s concentration is difficult enough already. Having video pop-ups and flashing banner adverts slow you down isn’t anything you need. At Scribbr, we strive to limit distractions to a bare minimum while while making the tool available to everyone for free. Get started today.


Search for your source by title, URL, DOI, ISBN, and other characteristics to automatically obtain the appropriate information.

APA 6th7th edition

You don’t have to worry about whether you’re still using APA 6 or if you’ve already moved to APA 7.

Export to Bib(La)TeX

Export your work in BibTeX format and continue working in your chosen LaTeX editor with a single click.

Export to Word

Is the reference list complete? Create a word document with proper indentation and space all set up for you.

Sorting, grouping, and filtering

You may arrange the references in any way you want: from A to Z, from new to old, or by source type, for example.

Save multiple lists

Create a separate reference list for each of your tasks to keep yourself organized and on track.


Choose from a variety of fonts, including Times New Roman, Arial, Calibri, and others, to suit your preferences.

Industry-standard technology

This tool is designed using the same citation software (CSL) as Mendeley and Zotero, but with an additional layer for increased accuracy.

Quick tips

Explanatory recommendations assist you in ensuring that all of the facts are correct in order to achieve proper citations.

Citation guides

Making sense of citation is straightforward with the aid of our well rated APA citationguides and videos, which are available on our website.

Secure backup

Your work is automatically saved after each edit and is stored in your Scribbr account in a safe manner for future reference.

LibGuides: Citation Resources: APA 7th Ed: In-Text Citations

The author-date citation method is used with parentheses in the APA 7 Style. After a quotation, provide parenthesis with the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) on which the quotation occurs. If a quotation is on a single page, precede the page number with the letter “p.”. Instead of “pp.”, “pp.” should be used for quotations that begin on one page and conclude on another. “Sometimes I have the distinct impression that there is a JERTAIN in the CURTAIN,” says one page (Seuss, 1974, p.

  • “The swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog,” according to a quote on page two: (Seuss, 2007, pp.
  • Using the letters a, b, and so on after the year indicates that you are using more than one work by the same author.
  • 7-8).
  • A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (D.
  • 7-8).

Narrative Citations

When you utilize the author’s last name in the narrative of your work, do not include the author’s first and last names in the parenthesis. Dr. Seuss made the observation that “the swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound” in his scientific investigation (2007, pp. 7-8). “The swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound,” as Dr. Seuss put it in his book “The Lorax” in 2007. (pp. 7-8).

Citations with Missing Elements

When an author’s name is not accessible, the first few words of the reference list entry should be used instead (usually the title). Make use of quote marks around the names of articles or web pages, as well as italicizing the titles of books, journals, and other publications. A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (Fox in Socks, 2007). When there are no page numbers available, paragraph numbers or other subsection identifiers should be used instead of page numbers.

You might be interested:  What Does Smh Mean In Text? (Solution)



Paraphrased Citations

Paraphrasing is the process of putting another person’s thoughts into your own words, which allows you to efficiently summarize and synthesize knowledge (p. 269). When paraphrasing concepts, you have the option of using either narrative or parenthetical citations. Using previously existing classroom literature education, stories may be utilized to teach social skills to kids. Emphasis should be placed on lessons that assist students analyze events and sympathize with characters (WolfBaker, 2012).

Seuss’ books to teach social skills to their pupils, based on a case study from one classroom teacher (p.

174). Keep in mind that if the source material is lengthy or difficult to understand, page numbers should be included to assist the reader in locating the text that is being paraphrased or referred to in your paper.

CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations

In APA Style, an in-text citation informs the reader about the source of any and all material that did not originate from your own brain or other sources. This is more clear when you are explicitly quoting from a source, but it is equally necessary when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source, and even when you have gotten an idea from someplace else, to cite sources properly. It is critical that you properly cite all of the words and ideas that you have borrowed from other sources in order to avoid being accused of plagiarism.

  • If you are writing an APA Style paper, the author-date citation method is used to reference your sources.
  • It is possible for readers to identify sources used in the article by looking for author and date information inside the paper’s text, and then simply locate the relevant reference in the alphabetical reference list, using this citation method.
  • There are two sorts of in-text citations that can be used.
  • A narrative citation is a sort of citation in which the author’s name appears inside the text of the sentence; on the other hand, a parenthetical citation is a type of reference in which the author’s name and the date appear in parentheses at the conclusion of the phrase.

How do I create narrative or parenthetical citations?

In APA Style, you should cite your sources by placing the information about the source in parentheses at the end of a sentence or in the text of your paper, rather than using a footnote, which places the source information at the bottom of the page, or an endnote, which places the information about the source at the end of the paper. There are subtle variances in appearance based on which style you choose.

  • Include the last name of the author as well as the year of publication. Only use page numbers or paragraph numbers when quoting directly from a source. Check to ensure that the source information in parentheses corresponds to the source information in your reference list. The punctuation for the statement is placed AFTER the parenthesis
  • Nonetheless, When quoting less than forty words, use quotation marks around the words that are being quoted. Sources with defined page numbers should be referenced in narrative citations where the author and date are presented in the sentence. The page number should be included in parentheses at the conclusion of each quote. Instead of using page numbers when the source doesn’t have any, you can use a paragraph number, heading, or a mix of heading and paragraph number. It is acceptable to add the author and date with the page or paragraph number if the author and date are not presented as part of the content itself. The period should appear after the parenthesis
  • Otherwise, it is incorrect. If your quote is longer than forty words, set it off in a block text by starting the block quote on a new line, indenting 0.5 inches (one-half inch), and without using quotation marks around the block quote (see example). After the last word of the phrase, place a period after it, followed by the parenthesis, to mark the conclusion of the quote. More information may be found atBlock Quote

Additional Resources

For further information on parenthetical and narrative citations, read pages 253-278 of the 7th edition of the American Psychological Association Manual for a detailed discussion and examples.

Library Guides: APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation

In-text citations are used to quickly document the source of your information in an APA research paper. In-text citations are introduced into the body of your research paper to document the source of your information. Citations that are only a few sentences long direct the reader to more extensive information in the Reference list. When citing in-text sources in APA format, use the author-date method of citation. According to this approach, the author and date are included in the main body of the document, and a reference to the author and date is included in the References section of the article.

When you cite another work or when you paraphrase another work in your own words, you must include an in-text reference to acknowledge the source.

In-text Citations Have Two Formats

  1. In parenthesis, the author’s name and the date of publication (or any comparable information) are listed, as in the example above. Using the example of falsely balanced news coverage, Burnside (2016) shows how the public’s sense of expert consensus on a particular subject can be distorted. If the work is a narrative, the author’s name appears in running text immediately after the author name, and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. For example, Burnside (2016) has warned about the hazards of deceptively balanced news coverage in the media.

If you are paraphrasing or summarizing an idea from another work rather than directly quoting it, you only need to include the author’s name and the year of publication in your in-text reference rather than the page number of the original work. It is necessary to provide the page number at the end of the parenthetical reference if you are directly citing or borrowing from another piece of writing. As an illustration (Burnside, 2016, p. 199).

Author–date citation system

Cite references in the text using the author–date citation method in accordance with APA Style. Each work cited in a publication has two elements in this system: an in-text citation and a reference list item matching to the work cited in the article. In-text citations might take the form of parenthetical or narrative references.

  • To prevent ambiguity in parenthetical citations, include an ampersand () between names for a work with more than one author or before the last author’s name when all authors’ names must be mentioned. In narrative quotations, the word “and” should always be capitalized.

This advice has been updated from the previous edition (6th edition).

Number of authors to include in in-text citations

It is necessary to adjust the structure of the author element of the in-text citation depending on the number of authors. In certain circumstances, the author element is shortened.

  • When there are just one or two writers for a work, mention the author’s name(s) in every citation. When there are three or more authors on a work, just the first author’s name should be used in every citation (including the first citation)

The name(s) of the author(s) should be included in every citation for a work that has one or two authors. The first author’s name plus “et al.” should be included in every citation (including the first citation) of a work having three or more authors.

Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020)
Two authors (SalasD’Agostino, 2020) Salas and D’Agostino (2020)
Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020)
Group author with abbreviationFirst citationaSubsequent citations (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020)(NIMH, 2020) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)NIMH (2020)
Group author without abbreviation (Stanford University, 2020) Stanford University (2020)

A group author’s abbreviation should be defined only once in the text, and it should be in either the parenthetical or narrative format. After then, whenever the group is mentioned in the text, the abbreviation should be used.

Exceptions to the basic in-text citation styles

  • The year in the in-text citation should be the same year as the year in the reference list item, unless otherwise specified. Even if the reference list item has a more exact date (e.g., year, month, and day), just the year should be used in the in-text citation. In-text citations for works that do not have a date should use “n.d.” Work that has been approved for publication but has not yet been published should be identified with the phrase “in press.”

Repeating a citation

APA Style requires that you repeat a reference in its entirety; do not, for example, give merely a page number (the abbreviation “ibid.” is not permitted in APA Style). Instead, follow the procedures outlined below:

  • Include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication for each parenthetical in-text reference. When using narrative in-text citations, do not repeat the year on the second and subsequent occasions that they appear in a single paragraph. This guideline should be followed with each new paragraph (for example, the year should be included in the first narrative citation in a new paragraph). To avoid confusion, add the publication year in every in-text citation if you are citing several works by the same author or authors, regardless of when the works were first published. Example: If you reference Mohammed and Mahfouz (2017) and Mohammed and Mahfouz (2019), include the year with each citation, even when one of the references is used more than once in the same paragraph.

Further guidelines for in-text citations

  • Each in-text citation must match to a single reference list entry in the reference list. In-text citations should not include suffixes such as “Jr.” or “Sr.” Work with an unknown author (see Section 9.12) should be referenced in-text by including both the title and the year of publication. Each of the more than 100 reference examples in Chapter 10 of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) provides examples of both parenthetical and narrative citations. More information and examples may be found in the Publication Manual.
You might be interested:  How Do I Leave A Group Text? (Best solution)

Originally published on: September 1, 2019.

APA: Citing Within Your Paper

For each source you use, add the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number (or the place of the quotation within the source if a page number is not provided), for example: If you are quoting from a book, include the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number.

  • The following are the page number(s): (p. 3)or(pp. 3-4)
  • The following are the paragraph number(s): (para. 3)or(paras. 3-4)
  • The following are the paragraph within a chapter or section: (Chapter 3, para. 3)or (Plant-Based Foods section, para. 3)
  • The following are the slide number or table number: (Slide 3) or (Table 3)
  • The following are the time stamp: (1:03:03

Beginning with a signal phrase that contains the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. As an illustration: Cook-Gumperz (1986) writes that “the methodical growth of literacy and schooling resulted in a new split in society, between the learned and the uneducated” (p. 27). As Carr (2008) points out, “As we begin to rely on computers to filter our view of the world, it is our own intellect that flattens into artificial intelligence” (Chapter 3, para.

  1. You only need to provide the author’s last name and year of publication in your in-text citation when paraphrasing or summarizing material from a source, according to the American Psychological Association.
  2. Some believe that leaning too much on the Internet for information may impair our mental skills as well as our capacity to read books and other lengthy pieces of writing (Carr, 2008).
  3. It is necessary to mention the author’s last name and the date of publication when referencing a paraphrase or summary from an eBook in the citation.
  4. According to the American Psychological Association, “Adult development is the scientific study of changes in behaviors, ideas, and emotions that occur during adulthood” (Mossler, 2013, Adult Development section, para.
  5. It is necessary to add the author’s last name and the date on the web page or at the bottom of the website when paraphrasing or summarizing content from a web page in your citation.
  6. Wherever possible, indicate the most direct position of the quote, such as a section title and/or a paragraph number, where there are no page numbers.

Other web sites do not identify a specific individual as the author, but instead identify a firm or organization as the author. When mentioning a web page, it is important to identify whether the author is a person or a company.

Author is an Individual

. (Dunn, 2016, Plant-Based Foods section, para. 10). Even if you are unable to identify an individual author, if you are able to identify an organization or group that is responsible for the content of a web page, you should attribute the authorship of the web page to that group, organization, corporation, university, government agency, or association.

Author is an Organization/Company/University/Agency

. (United States Coast Guard, 2018, para. 6).

No Author

If there is no author listed on your web page, you should provide the title of the piece between quotation marks (“”). The title of the web page should be included in quotation marks (“”) if there is no obvious title for the article. If the title is lengthy, only the first few words should be used: (“Policies and Procedures for Patrol,” 2018, p. 3).

No Date

The publishing date of a web page may frequently be seen at the top or bottom of the page, depending on the browser. If no date is provided, the abbreviation n.d. is used (for no date). Thompson (n.d., Teaching for Success section, para. 12) describes the process of teaching for success as follows: The speaker (or screen name), the year of the recording, and the moment at which the quotation begins in the recording should all be included in the citation when referencing a media source such as a video or audio recording that does not include page numbers but does have time stamps: “There were 300,000 individuals in jails and prisons in 1972; now, there are 2.3 million people in jails and prisons” (Stevenson, 2016, 05:52).

If your content does not include the name of the author, insert the title of the web page or article between quotation marks (” “) and capitalize it in title case (if the title is lengthy, only use the first few words of it) like follows: A collapse of the main ramp of the San Jose mine traps 33 workers 2,300 feet below for two months, stranding them for two months (“All 33 Chile Miners,” 2010).

When a group or an organization develops a work, that organization, company, university, government agency, or association can be considered as the author of that work under certain circumstances.

(University of Arizona Global Campus, 2017).

2 Authors for a Source

Whenever your source includes two authors, use an ampersand () for your end-of-sentence (parenthetical)citation, but use the word “and” when the final names are a part of your sentence (narrative citation): JonesFraenza (2017) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized Jones and Fraenza (2017) made the following statement.

(See p.

3 or More Authors for a Source

When there are three or more authors named, just the last name of the first author listed should be included, followed by the phrase “et al.”:. (Lekkerkerk and colleagues, 2014, para. 2) That was examined by Lekkerkerk et al. (2014).

Group Author with Acronym Abbreviation

When referencing a group or organization with a name that is widely abbreviated, write down the full name of the group or organization the first time you mention it: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020, paragraph 2). That information was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). For each additional citation from a source, use the abbreviation for the organization that it belongs to: Paragraph 2 of the CDC’s 2020 report. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supplied this information.

Example: If you read an article by Brown (2020) that mentions a previous work by Smith (2017), Brown is regarded the secondary or indirect source (since the article was produced later) and Smith is considered the direct or original source (because the earlier work was written earlier) (because it was written first).

When citing a source that you discovered in another source, credit the original author and year first, followed by ” as referenced in ” the secondary author’s last name and year, and then the source in question.

More Examples:

According to Lee’s 2014 study, which was quoted in Brown’s (2019) article: “Coffee helps students stay awake while studying” (Lee, 2014, as cited in Brown, 2019). According to Parker (2016), who was also mentioned on page 5 of an article by Miles (2020), the writer would like to include a quote from Parker (2016): The statement made by Parker (2016), as mentioned in Miles, 2020, is that “drinking coffee black is more healthful” (p. 5). Sometimes, when conducting research, you will discover that there are several sources for a single statement.

Single Idea Sentence

The citations for all sources should be included at the conclusion of the sentence, with the sources listed alphabetically after that. For example, researchers generally agree that drinking coffee has health advantages (Centanni, 2020; Dunn et al., 2019; JonesHemerda, 2020).

Multiple Idea Sentence

The citation should be included immediately after the information from the source. Research has hypothesized, for example, that the absence of social cues and pressures in electronic communications may reduce the anxiety associated with asking for help (KisantisChow, 2017), and that this may result in a more comfortable, open environment in which all members are treated on an equal footing (Sullivan, 2012).

LibGuides: Citing Online Business Resources using APA Style (7th Edition): APA In-text Citation Examples


  • In-text citations for quotations should also contain the page number of the original source. If there isn’t a page number, use a paragraph number, section title, or a time stamp to indicate the location of the document (for audiovisual material). As an illustration:
  • (Yu et al., 2019, p. 25)
  • (ExxonMobil, n.d., Protecting the Environment part)
  • (ExxonMobil, n.d., Protecting the Environment section)

Single quotes are used to separate short quotations (less than 40 words) from their context in the sentence text. When you have a long quotation, use the block quotation style (40 words or more). For example, short quotes (less than 40 words) occur in the text of a phrase and are enclosed by double quotation marks. Parenthetical According to the findings of a recent study on sustainable fashion consumption, “there is a clear match between the related expenses of sustainable fashion and enhanced perceptions of value” (LundbladDavies, 2015, p.

Narrative Lundblad and Davies (2015) discovered that “there is a clear matching of the related costs of sustainable fashion with greater perceptions of value” in their study on sustainable fashion consumption (p.

Examples of Long Quotations include the following: When you have a long quotation, use the block quotation style (40 words or more).

As a racist, one supports the notion of a racial hierarchy, while as an anti-racist, one supports the idea of racial equality.

Racial disparities can be perpetuated either by allowing them to exist or by combating them, as in the case of a racist or an anti-racist.

9) describes a formalized formalized formalized formalized (Kendi, 2019).

It is referred to as ‘anti-racist.’ What’s the difference between the two?

As a racist, one believes that issues are founded in certain groups of individuals, whereas as an anti-racist, one believes that problems are inherent in institutions and policies.

There is no safe haven in the middle that is ‘not racist.’ (Second edition, p.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *