How To Do In Text Citations?

In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.

What do you include in in text citations?

  • An in-text citation is a citation within your writing to show where you found your information, facts, quotes, and research. APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14).

Contents

How do you start an in-text citation?

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

How do you in-text cite in-text MLA?

Using In-text Citation MLA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).

How do you do in-text citations in C?

Citation Rules: In-Text

  1. Include the author’s last name, year of publication, and specific part (usually page number) for a quote.
  2. Quotes: use quotation marks around the quoted material.
  3. Paraphrases and summaries: do not include quotation marks.
  4. Citations at the end of a sentence are before the period.

Where do you put citations in-text?

The in-text citation should occur in the sentence where the cited material has been used:

  1. Signal phrase reference (author’s name) appears within the sentence with page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
  2. Full parenthetical reference (author last name and page number) appears at the end of the sentence.

What is in-text citation example?

Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14).

How do you cite in a paper?

Basic Citation Elements

  1. Author(s)
  2. Title(s)
  3. Source or venue name (e.g. name of the journal it was published or conference where it was presented)
  4. Editor(s)
  5. Volume and edition.
  6. Date or year of publication.
  7. Page numbers.
  8. City and country.

How do you do MLA citations?

MLA citing format often includes the following pieces of information, in this order: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Source. ” Title of Container, Other contributors, Version, Numbers, Publisher, Publication Date, Location.

How do you do an in text citation with no author?

In-Text Citations:

  1. Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
  2. When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style” capitalization, and the year.

How do you write et al?

List only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in every citation, even the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources. In et al., et should not be followed by a period. Only “al” should be followed by a period.

How do you write et al example?

When dealing with a work by three to five authors in APA format, use the first author’s last name in the signal phrase or parentheses, followed by et al. For example: Lucas et al.

Do in-text citations go inside quotes?

Quoted text is placed inside double quotation marks. The citation appears in parentheses outside the quotation and includes the author, date and page number (p. #) separated by commas.

How do you insert a citation?

Add citations to your document Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite, and then on the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Insert Citations. From the list of citations under Insert Citation, select the citation you want to use.

Where do in-text citations appear quizlet?

What does an in-text citation in MLA mean? This means that the author’s last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.

Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

Rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences, in-text references should appear immediately after the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly related. References within the text should always come before punctuation marks. The following are some examples of in-text citations. The following is the author’s name in parentheses: According to one study, familiarity with the subject matter is the most crucial factor in interpreting non-native language speaking (GassVaronis, 1984).

Authors that belong to a group include: The first citation is as follows: (American Psychological Association, 2015) Subsequent citation:(APA, 2015) (APA, 2015) Several pieces of work: (separate each work with semi-colons) According to research, listening to a specific dialect increases comprehension of accented speech in general, not only in that accent (GassVaronis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

85).

85).

85).

For example: This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect.

(GassVaronis, 1984, p.

A complete guide to MLA in-text citations

Shona McCombes published a new article on July 9, 2019. On July 2, 2021, a revision was made. It is necessary to supply the author’s last name and page number in parentheses when using anMLAin-text citation. If a source has more than one author, provide the names of both. If a source includes more than two authors, just the first author should be included, followed by the phrase “et al.” If the section you’re quoting is spread across numerous pages, make sure to provide the whole page range. You can use commas to separate the page numbers of several non-consecutive pages when citing numerous non-consecutive pages at once.

Number of authors Example
1 author (Moore 37)
2 authors (Moore and Patel 48–50)
3+ authors (Moore et al. 59, 34)

Each in-text citation must be accompanied by a complete reference in the Works Cited section of the paper. With the free Scribbr Citation Generator, you can quickly and easily generate and store your citations.

MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user.

MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user.

Manual citations can also be generated by the user.

Manual citations can also be generated by the user.

Where to include an MLA in-text citation

Placing the parenthetical reference immediately after the relevant quotation or paraphrase and before the period or other punctuation mark is recommended (except withblock quotes, where the citation comes after the period). If you’ve already mentioned the author in the sentence, all you need to do now is put the page number within parentheses. The phrase “and others” or “and colleagues” should be used instead of “et al.” when referencing a source with three or more authors outside of parenthesis.

  • The MLA citation style is the second most common citation style, according to Smith and Morrison (17–19). According to Smith and Morrison (17–19), the MLA citation style is the second most used citation style. The American Psychological Association (APA) is by far “the most widely used citation style in the United States” (Moore et al. 74), but it is less dominant in the United Kingdom (Smith 16)
  • Moore and colleagues state that APA is more popular in the United States than elsewhere(74)
  • Moore and colleagues state that APA is

Combining citations

Whenever more than one source is cited in support of a single statement, the citations can be combined into a single pair of parentheses. Use an asemicolon to distinguish between the two sources. Livestock production is one of the most significant contributors to climate change on a worldwide scale (Garcia 64; Davies 14).

Consecutive citations of the same source

Whenever more than one source is cited to support a single statement, the citations can be combined into a single pair of parentheses. Make a semicolon to separate the two sources. Stock farming is one of the largest contributors to global climate change on a worldwide scale (Garcia 64; Davies 14).

Full source title or organization name In-text citation
Amnesty International Report 2017/2018: The State of the World’s Human Rights (Amnesty International Report187)
“Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions” (“Sources”)
“A Quick Guide to Proofreading” (“Quick Guide”)
National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Academy (National Academy 24)
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Citing sources with no page numbers

For sources that do not contain page numbers but are separated into numbered sections (e.g., Chapters and Scenes in a Book of Mormon; Bible Books and Verse; Articles of the Constitution; or timestamps), utilize these numbers to identify the appropriate portion. It is sufficient to provide merely the author’s name as part of the in-text citation if the source does not employ a numerical system. Except if explicitly numbered in the source, do not add paragraph numbers when citing sources.

Source type What to do Example
Source divided into numbered parts Add a comma after the author and give a paragraph, section, or chapter number with a relevant abbreviation. (Luxemburg, ch. 26)
Playwith numbered lines Include the act, scene, and line numbers, separated by periods, instead of a page number. (Shakespeare1.2.95)
Audiovisual source Include the time range as displayed in the media player. (Wynn 10:23–45)
Source with no numbered divisions Include only the author’s name (or, if there is no author, the shortened title). (Rajaram)

It is important to note that if there are no numbered divisions and you have already identified the author in your sentence, no parenthetical citation is required.

Citing different sources with the same author name

If you have more than one item under the same last name on your Works Cited page, you must make a distinction between these sources in your in-text citations in order to avoid plagiarism.

Multiple sources by the same author

To indicate which source you are referring to when you mention more than one work by the same author, use a shorter title in your bibliography. It is acceptable to cite numerous sources by the same author (Butler, Gender Trouble27) (Butler, “Performative Acts” 522) According to this example, the title of the first source is italicized, while the title of the second source is in quote marks since it is an article that has been published in a journal, respectively.

Different authors with the same last name

Use the authors’ initials (or, if they are the same, the authors’ complete first names) in your in-text citations to distinguish between separate writers who have the same last name: Citing various writers with the same last name (A. Butler 19) is an example of plagiarism (J. Butler 27)

Citing sources indirectly

It is possible that you will wish to mention anything that you discovered was quoted in a secondary source. Always try to locate the original source and reference it explicitly if at all feasible. If you are unable to obtain access to the original source, be careful to provide the names of both the original author and the author of the source that you obtained access to. In order to specify where you found the quotation, you should use the abbreviation “qtd.

in” (short for “quoted in”). As an example of an indirect quotation in MLA style, Marx describes “the two major generators of wealth” as “labour-power and land” (qtd. in Luxemburg, ch. 26). It is only in these instances that the source you directly consulted is included in the Works Cited list.

Frequently asked questions about MLA in-text citations

What is the proper way to reference material from a footnote in MLA format? Some types of sources, such as books and journal articles, may include footnotes (or endnotes) that provide further information about the source. The following are the criteria for referencing material from a note in an in-text citation according to MLA style:

  • Write “n” after the page number and then the note number, for example, (Smith 105n2), to quote material from a single-numbered note. To reference information from several numbered notes, use the notation “nn” followed by a range, for example, (Smith 77n1–2)
  • If you want to reference material from an unnumbered note, add “un” after the page number with a space between them, for example, (Jones 250 un)

In MLA format, how do I reference a source that does not include an author or page numbers? If a source does not have an author, the MLA Works Citedentry should begin with the source title. In your in-text citation, you should use an abbreviated version of the title. You can use an alternate locator (e.g., a chapter number for a book or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant part in your in-text citation if the source doesn’t have page numbers available. If there are no numbered divisions in the source, only the author’s name should be used (or the title).

For example:

  • As Rajaram contends, “cultural, political, and ideological objectives” influence how people see migration. “A movement for fundamentally alternative news,” according to the website of The Correspondent.

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What Are In-Text Citations?

When a reference is made within the body of text of an academic essay, it is known as an in-text citation. The in-text reference directs the reader’s attention to a source that has influenced your own work and vice versa. The specific syntax of an in-text citation will vary depending on the style you are writing in, for example, APA or Chicago. Examine the in-text citations with your academic institution to confirm that you offer them in the manner that they require, and then use Cite This For Me’s citation generator to generate them for you instantly.

How to write an in-text citation

When citing a quotation or paraphrase, it is often sufficient to mention simply the author’s last name, date of publication, and page number from which the quotation or paraphrase was taken, with the entire reference appearing in your bibliography (or works cited) page at the conclusion of your essay. Because it is so obvious to the reader, the in-text citation should be placed in brackets immediately after the passage you have quoted or paraphrased, so that the reader may easily recognize it.

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APA Format In-Text Citations

APA style allows in-text citations to be used after a direct quotation or after paraphrased information. In the case of direct quotations, the in-text citation should be given shortly after. It is customary to include the author’s surname as well as the year of publication and the relevant page number or numbers in the in-text citation of a book. If you are citing a book, the in-text citation will typically include the author’s surname as well as the relevant page number or numbers, enclosed by parentheses.

  • For example, Gandalf remarked, “All we have to determine is what we will accomplish with the time that has been granted to us” (Tolkien, 1954, p.
  • If you make a direct reference to the author inside the text, you are not required to mention the author’s name in the in-text citation.
  • Tolkien says, “All we have to determine is what to do with the time that is given us,” in the first book of the Lord of the Rings trilogy, The Fellowship of the Ring, in which the character Frodo Baggins is introduced.
  • If you’re citing content that has been paraphrased, a page number is not usually required.
  • Examples include the conflict between good and evil that runs through The Lord of the Rings and other films (Tolkien, 1954).

20). Don’t forget to provide standard citations for your sources in your bibliography at the conclusion of the paper as well as at the beginning of the document.

MLA and Chicago Formatting

In order to keep you on your toes, the different formats use varied requirements for in-text citations to keep things interesting. When using MLA format in-text citations, for example, the author’s last name or the first item contained in the entire citation if the author’s name is not included is commonly used instead of the publication date to avoid confusion. For example, let’s take the identical in-text citation example from earlier and convert it to MLA style for simplicity. “All we have to determine is what we will do with the time that has been granted to us,” Gandalf explained (Tolkien 20).

  • A source’s identification information that is contained in the paragraph is unnecessary in the parenthetical citation.
  • The parenthetical reference would not be necessary in this scenario, either the source did not offer page numbers or because it was not important to add the page number.
  • Alternatively, some writers who adhere to the Chicago style opt to employ a notes and bibliography system, which eliminates the need for in-text citations entirely and instead relies on numbered footnotes or endnotes to provide additional information.
  • You may discover helpful citation instructions for the APA, MLA, and Chicago styles on the Cite This For Me website, which can assist you in learning how to make in-text citations.

Do’s and Don’ts of In-text Citations

Make an effort to maintain consistency. One of the most crucial components of citation creation is to ensure that you select a citation style and adhere to it throughout the entirety of your document. Before you begin writing your paper, double-check the criteria for in-text citations in your chosen style, whether you’re using APA format or a different style. From the beginning to the conclusion, follow those regulations. DON’T BELIEVE EVERYTHING. In situations where you are including material from another source, it might be all too simple to think to yourself, “the reader will know where this originated from.” Citations should not be treated in this manner since failing to provide in-text references might result in you being accused of plagiarism and obtaining a negative score on your paper.

  • Make your in-text citations as soon as possible.
  • Last-minute paper tension might result from delaying your paper till the last minute.
  • DON’T OVERUSE THIS FORMULA.
  • It is sufficient to include a single in-text citation at the beginning or conclusion of a paragraph or group of sentences that incorporates material from a single source throughout the paragraph or group of statements.
  • It is usually a good idea to double-check your in-text citations after you have finished writing your paper and before submitting it to your teacher for review.
  • Make one last pass through your in-text citations before submitting your paper for grading to ensure that they are accurate.
  • If you are unclear of how to begin creating your in-text citations for your paper, it is always a good idea to consult with your instructor for guidance.
  • It is probable that the assignment instructions they offer will provide specifics on how to format citations in the manner in which they anticipate them to be formatted.

Cite This For Me is a tool that allows you to create a bibliography as well as format in-text citations. You will find hundreds of styles on the site, as well as a Harvard referencing generator and many different source kinds, when you visit it.

In-Text Citations: An Overview

In-text citations are brief, unobtrusive references that direct readers to the works-cited-list entries for the sources you consulted as well as, where applicable, to the location in the source being cited. In-text citations are used to direct readers to the works-cited-list entries for the sources you consulted. When you use an in-text citation, you begin with the shortest piece of information that directs your reader to the corresponding entry in the works-cited list. As a result, it begins with whichever of the following appears first in the entry: the author’s name or the title (or description) of the piece of writing.

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Citation in prose

Naomi Baron was the first person to break fresh ground on the issue.

Parenthetical citation

At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Baron).

Work cited

Naomi S. Baron’s “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media” is available online. Pages 193–200 of PMLA’s 128, no. 1 (January 2013) are available online.

Citation in prose

Female bhakti poets, according to the article “Bhakti Poets,” “experienced insurmountable problems as a result of their rejection of traditional norms and ideals.”

Parenthetical citation

According to the author, the female bhakti poets “were confronted with insurmountable problems as a result of their rejection of society norms and values” (Bhakti Poets).

Work cited

“Introduction to the Bhakti Poets.” Women in World History, Center for History and New Media, chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson1/lesson1.php?s=0; Women in World History, Center for History and New Media, chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson1/lesson1.php?s=0 . Accessed on the 20th of September, 2020. Whenever it is appropriate, an in-text citation must include a second component: when someone quotes or paraphrases a specific part of a work and the work includes a page number, line number, time stamp, or other method of directing readers to a specific point in the work where the information can be found, the location marker must be included in parentheses.

Parenthetical citations

“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (194). One could even argue that reading is never complete until it is accompanied by writing. “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (3). It is also acceptable to include the author or title in parentheses next to the page number or other loca­tion marker.

Parenthetical citations

“Reading is only half of literacy,” says the author. “The other half of the team is writing” (Baron 194). One could even argue that reading is never complete until it is accompanied by writing.

The number of people who conduct creative writing, regardless of genre (and not just literary works), climbed dramatically between 1982 and 2002 despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period, according to the study (Reading3).

Works cited

Naomi S. Baron’s “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media” is available online. Pages 193–200 of PMLA’s 128, no. 1 (January 2013) are available online. Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America is a survey of literary reading in the United States. The National Endowment for the Arts published this article in June 2004. All in-text citations should be brief and to the point. Avoid, for example, using the author’s name or the title of a work in both your text and your parentheses while writing a paper.

Citations (incorrect)

“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (Baron 194). “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (Reading3).

Citations (correct)

“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (194). “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (3). Only the component of an author’s name—typically his or her surname—that is essential to locate that item in a list of works referenced should be used in parenthetical citations (for more information on surnames, see sections 2.73–2.81 in The Modern Language Association’s ninth edition of the MLA Handbook).

Citation (incorrect)

At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Naomi S. Baron).

Citation (correct)

At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Baron). In parenthetical citations, use abbreviated titles to save space. To learn how to reduce titles in parenthetical citations, refer to sections 6.10–6.14 of the MLA Handbook, ninth edition, for more information. In order to save space, do not include the prefix p.orpp. before a page number in a parenthetical reference, as you would in a list of works cited (where such abbreviations lend clarity). You should precede any number other than a page number in a parentheti­cal citation with a name such aschapterorsection (commonly abbreviated in parentheses) orlineorlines (typically abbreviated in parentheses) (do not abbreviate).

LibGuides: Citation Resources: APA 7th Ed: In-Text Citations

The author-date citation method is used with parentheses in the APA 7 Style. After a quotation, provide parenthesis with the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) on which the quotation occurs. If a quotation is on a single page, precede the page number with the letter “p.”. Instead of “pp.”, “pp.” should be used for quotations that begin on one page and conclude on another. “Sometimes I have the distinct impression that there is a JERTAIN in the CURTAIN,” says one page (Seuss, 1974, p.

“The swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog,” according to a quote on page two: (Seuss, 2007, pp.

Using the letters a, b, and so on after the year indicates that you are using more than one work by the same author.

7-8).

A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (D. Seuss, 2007, pp. 7-8). Citations in-text for works by two or more authors are shown in the table below under Authors: In-Text Citations.

Narrative Citations

When you utilize the author’s last name in the narrative of your work, do not include the author’s first and last names in the parenthesis. Dr. Seuss made the observation that “the swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound” in his scientific investigation (2007, pp. 7-8). “The swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound,” as Dr. Seuss put it in his book “The Lorax” in 2007. (pp. 7-8).

Citations with Missing Elements

When an author’s name is not accessible, the first few words of the reference list entry should be used instead (usually the title). Make use of quote marks around the names of articles or web pages, as well as italicizing the titles of books, journals, and other publications. A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (Fox in Socks, 2007). When there are no page numbers available, paragraph numbers or other subsection identifiers should be used instead of page numbers.

5).

5-6).

Paraphrased Citations

Paraphrasing is the process of putting another person’s thoughts into your own words, which allows you to efficiently summarize and synthesize knowledge (p. 269). When paraphrasing concepts, you have the option of using either narrative or parenthetical citations. Using previously existing classroom literature education, stories may be utilized to teach social skills to kids. Emphasis should be placed on lessons that assist students analyze events and sympathize with characters (WolfBaker, 2012).

Seuss’ books to teach social skills to their pupils, based on a case study from one classroom teacher (p.

Keep in mind that if the source material is lengthy or difficult to understand, page numbers should be included to assist the reader in locating the text that is being paraphrased or referred to in your paper.

Research Guides: Citation Guide: Home

The purpose of the parenthetical citation is to direct the reader to a specific item in the bibliography, so the first entry in the bibliography (usually the author’s last name, but sometimes the title if no author is listed) is what is included in the parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation should be followed by a period. In addition, the specific position (page number) is specified in the text. Plagiarism is defined as the act of taking someone else’s words, thoughts, or ideas and passing them off as one’s own.

  1. ” Plagiarism is defined as the intentional use of another’s verbatim words without credit or quote marks, as well as the use of someone else’s thoughts or ideas and representing them as one’s own.
  2. This provides a bit of a conundrum: students are supposed to use the research and writing of others, yet their ability to do so is severely restricted.
  3. However, due credit must be given to those who have done the study.
  4. There are a variety of note-taking methods available to aid you, but it is critical that you maintain track of which ideas came from which sources throughout the process.

It is necessary to include sound research from credible sources into your article when you have discovered valuable material. There are various ways to do this, including quote, paraphrase, and summary.” (Talman)

Subject guides: Citing and referencing: In-text citations

It is necessary to put the in-text citation directly after the text that relates to the source that is being cited. According to one source, “the darkest days were still to come.” Round brackets are used to indicate this. According to one source, “the worst days were still ahead.” (1) Using square brackets: “the worst days were still ahead.” The following is written in superscript: “The worst days were yet ahead,” as one author put it. 1 It is also possible to incorporate the author’s name within the text.

Page numbers should be included with in-text citations: It is not uncommon for page numbers to be omitted from the citation number.

More than one reference should be cited at a time: The preferable way is to list each reference number one after another, separated by a comma or a dash if the numbers are in a sequence of consecutive integers.

Library: Citing Sources in APA Style 7th edition: In-Text Citations

When you incorporate someone else’s ideas in your own work, whether as a direct quotation or as a paraphrase, you must include a reference to the original source somewhere in your writing. The in-text citation should include the author’s last name and the year the work was published, and it should relate to a reference included in the references section of your paper. An topic can be distorted through falsely balanced news coverage, which can lead to the public’s view of expert consensus being distorted (Koehler, 2016).

When Should Page Numbers Be Included?

It is not necessary to offer a page number for a paraphrase; however, you may do so if doing so will assist the reader in locating the relevant part in a lengthy or difficult text.

Specific examples from a source

If a passage in your work refers to a quotation, statistic, chart, or other similar particular example from a source, include the page (or paragraph, web page section, chapter, figure, or other such example) where the example may be located in the referenced source. Armstrong (2015) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized The findings of Armstrong (2015) revealed a broad range of communication preferences across people of different ages (p.

172). Examples that do not appear on a page (Shadid, 2020, para. 8) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, section on Vaccine Benefits) (KovacicHorvat, 2017, Table 1)

One author

This topic has already been raised and discussed (Tannen, 2012). orTannen (2012) has made a similar argument.

Two authors

Salas and D’Agostino (2018), as well as Salas and D’Agostino (2018), found the same results.

Three or more authors

Use the first author and et al. (Martin et al., 2013) instead of the last author. This is what Martin and colleagues (2013) discovered in their research:.

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Group authors

Stanford University published a paper in 2016 stating that Authors are grouped together using abbreviations. The first citation is as follows: (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020) Citations in the following paragraphs: (NIMH, 2020)

Works without authors

Use the title of the book as well as the year it was published. Make sure to italicize the title in the reference list and in the in-text citation if it is italics in the reference list. To indicate that the title is not emphasized in the reference list, surround the title with double quotation marks (double quotation quotes). No author for this book: (Interpersonal Competencies, 2019) An article in a magazine with no author: (“Understanding Sensory Memory,” 2018)

Works without a date

When the publishing date of a book is unknown or cannot be ascertained, the abbreviation “n.d.” should be used (which stands for “no date”). Gagnon (n.d.) or Gagnon et al. Gagnon created an idea that is comparable to this one (n.d.).

Different works with the same author and date

After the year, a lowercase letter should be used (in both the in-text citation and the reference entries). (2012) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012a) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012b) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012a) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012b)

Citing multiple works

In order to properly reference numerous works parenthetically, arrange the citations in alphabetical order, with semicolons separating each one. (Adams and colleagues, 2019; Shumway and Shulman, 2015)

Citing a secondary source

If at all feasible, locate the original source and include it in your citation. If the original source is not available, include a reference item for the secondary source that you utilized instead of the original source. The in-text citation should include the primary source, followed by “as referenced in” and the secondary source you utilized to support your claim. The term “Rabbitt” refers to an author who published in 1982 and is mentioned in Lyon et al. (2014).

Personal communication (in personelectronic)

Give the initial(s) and last name of the communicator, the phrase “personal communication,” and as accurate a date as you can as a reference. The following was said by T. Nguyen in a personal communication on August 8, 2019: The author’s personal correspondence with me on August 8, 2019). Personal correspondence should not be included in the list of references.

CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations

In APA Style, an in-text citation informs the reader about the source of any and all material that did not originate from your own brain or other sources. This is more clear when you are explicitly quoting from a source, but it is equally necessary when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source, and even when you have gotten an idea from someplace else, to cite sources properly. It is critical that you properly cite all of the words and ideas that you have borrowed from other sources in order to avoid being accused of plagiarism.

If you are writing an APA Style paper, the author-date citation method is used to reference your sources.

It is possible for readers to identify sources used in the article by looking for author and date information inside the paper’s text, and then simply locate the relevant reference in the alphabetical reference list, using this citation method.

There are two sorts of in-text citations that can be used.

A narrative citation is a sort of citation in which the author’s name appears inside the text of the sentence; on the other hand, a parenthetical citation is a type of reference in which the author’s name and the date appear in parentheses at the conclusion of the phrase.

How do I create narrative or parenthetical citations?

In APA Style, you should cite your sources by placing the information about the source in parentheses at the end of a sentence or in the text of your paper, rather than using a footnote, which places the source information at the bottom of the page, or an endnote, which places the information about the source at the end of the paper. There are subtle variances in appearance based on which style you choose.

  • Include the last name of the author as well as the year of publication. Only use page numbers or paragraph numbers when quoting directly from a source. Check to ensure that the source information in parentheses corresponds to the source information in your reference list. The punctuation for the statement is placed AFTER the parenthesis
  • Nonetheless, When quoting less than forty words, use quotation marks around the words that are being quoted. Sources with defined page numbers should be referenced in narrative citations where the author and date are presented in the sentence. The page number should be included in parentheses at the conclusion of each quote. Instead of using page numbers when the source doesn’t have any, you can use a paragraph number, heading, or a mix of heading and paragraph number. It is acceptable to add the author and date with the page or paragraph number if the author and date are not presented as part of the content itself. The period should appear after the parenthesis
  • Otherwise, it is incorrect. If your quote is longer than forty words, set it off in a block text by starting the block quote on a new line, indenting 0.5 inches (one-half inch), and without using quotation marks around the block quote (see example). After the last word of the phrase, place a period after it, followed by the parenthesis, to mark the conclusion of the quote. More information may be found atBlock Quote

Additional Resources

For further information on parenthetical and narrative citations, read pages 253-278 of the 7th edition of the American Psychological Association Manual for a detailed discussion and examples.

Parenthetical versus narrative in-text citations

In-text citations can be presented in two different ways: in parentheses or in narrative style.

  • Parenthetical citations and narrative citations are both acceptable formats for in-text references.

Parenthetical citations

A parenthetical citation is one in which the author’s name and the date are both enclosed in parentheses and separated by a comma. A parenthetical reference can appear anywhere inside a sentence, or it might appear at the conclusion of a sentence. An topic can be distorted through falsely balanced news coverage, which can lead to the public’s view of expert consensus being distorted (Koehler, 2016). If the parenthetical reference is followed by additional content, place commas around the year of publication.

When text and a citation occur together in parentheses, use a semicolon to separate the citation from the text; do not use parenthesis inside parentheses to divide the citation from the rest of the paragraph.

Narrative citations

A narrative citation includes the author’s surname appearing in running text, and the date appearing in parentheses directly after the author’s name for a chronological citation. If it makes sense, the author’s name can be inserted in the sentence at any point within the sentence. Koehler (2016) made a point on the hazards of inaccurately balancing news reporting. In rare instances, the author’s name and the date of publication may both appear in the story. There is no need to use parenthesis in this situation.

The date of creation is February 2020.

LibGuides: Citing Information: In-Text Citations

It is customary to include in-text citations directly before the final punctuation mark of a phrase that refers to a source, except for those following block quotes (which are discussed further below). To avoid confusion, commas are used to separate items in all citations (such as the author, the year of publication, and the page number).

For Exact Quotations:

The page numbers are indicated in the citations in the instances below (using the abbreviation “p.”). In addition to chapter numbers (“Chapter 6”), paragraph numbers (“para. 4”), section numbers, equation numbers, table numbers, or any other organizational numbering that exists in the source to indicate the reference for a citation, one may use any other numbering system that exists in the source to indicate the reference.

Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that comprises the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, as described in the following rule: In parenthesis at the end of the quotation, just before the last punctuation mark, provide the page number.

Example:

According to Davis (1978), “If the discovery of a signing ape was disconcerting news for linguists, it was likewise stunning news for animal behaviorists” (if a signing ape existed) (p. 26). Whenever the author’s name does not occur in the signal phrase, insert the author’s name, the date, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation at the conclusion of the paragraph. Use commas to separate the things within the parenthesis.

Example:

“If the discovery of a signing ape was unpleasant news for linguists, it was much more shocking news for animal behaviorists,” says the author (Davis, 1978, p. 26). It is recommended that you do not use quote marks when the quotation is more than 40 words long in the text. Instead, indent the quotation into a separate block of text. It is important to note that in the case of blocks of text, the citation comes after the last punctuation of the cited text.

Example:

It is not a new occurrence for students to have difficulty locating database resources. They, too, are experiencing difficulties at the University of Washington. Many students were having trouble obtaining the databases they required due to the addition of so many additional databases to the university online system. At the same time, the job of the Session Manager had changed significantly. Because of the rising significance of the Session Manager as a selection tool, it has become an integral element of the navigation process.

510; Eliasen, 1997, p.

For Paraphrased Ideas:

When paraphrasing thoughts, it is not necessary to use quote marks in most cases. If a specific section of the text is being cited, page numbers or other precise indications of specific portions of the source are not required.

Examples:

According to Davis (1978), when linguists and animal behaviorists learnt about an ape’s capacity to communicate using sign language, they were both taken aback. Both linguists and animal behaviorists were caught aback when they discovered that an ape had the ability to communicate via sign language (Davis, 1978).

Additional Circumstances:

Rule: When working with two writers, provide the names of both authors in the initial reference to the work.

Examples:

Koko, the gorilla studied by Patterson and Linden (1981), was found to have learned language more slowly than a normal-speaking youngster. Koko developed her linguistic skills more slowly than a typical speaking youngster (PattersonLinden, 1981). Work with 3-5 authors, according to the rule: Include the names of all writers in the initial reference to such a work.

Example:

Between the 1920s and the 1970s, the study found that the divorce rate in Middletown fluctuated a lot (Caplow, Bahr, Chadwick, Hill,Williamson, 1982). If more than one author is cited, use the first author’s name followed by the phrase “et al” (note the period after the word “al”). Rule: Collaborate with a minimum of six authors (for first and subsequent citations). Work done by a group of people, a government body, or a company is prohibited. When referencing from a source that does not include page numbers (for example, an electronic source), use paragraph numbers if they are available, or the name of the section followed by the number of the paragraph within that section if no paragraph numbers are provided.

Titles of articles, web pages, chapters, and sections should be enclosed in double quotation marks, and the titles of books, magazines, reports, and websites should be italicized.

When the author of a work is labeled as “Anonymous,” include the words “Anonymous” in the text, followed by a comma and the date: (Anonymous, 1998).

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