How to make an in text citation?
- On the References tab,in the Citations Bibliography group,click the arrow next to Style and click the style that you want to use for the citation and source.
- Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite.
- On the Reference tab,click Insert Citation and then do one of the following: To add the source information,click Add New Source,and then,in the Create Source dialog
- If you chose to add a source,enter the details for the source. To add more information about a source,click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.
- Click OK when finished. The source is added as a citation at the place you selected in your document.
- 1 How do you cite in text MLA?
- 2 How do you in text cite a cite?
- 3 How do you in text cite comments MLA?
- 4 How do you do in text citations with no author?
- 5 How do you cite a chapter in a book MLA?
- 6 How do you in text cite a quote from a website?
- 7 How do you cite a tweet MLA?
- 8 How do you cite QTD in MLA?
- 9 How do you cite sources in an essay?
- 10 A complete guide to MLA in-text citations
- 11 Where to include an MLA in-text citation
- 12 Citing sources with no page numbers
- 13 Citing different sources with the same author name
- 14 Citing sources indirectly
- 15 Frequently asked questions about MLA in-text citations
- 16 Library Guides: MLA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation
- 17 In-Text Citations: An Overview
- 17.0.1 Citation in prose
- 17.0.2 Parenthetical citation
- 17.0.3 Work cited
- 17.0.4 Citation in prose
- 17.0.5 Parenthetical citation
- 17.0.6 Work cited
- 17.0.7 Parenthetical citations
- 17.0.8 Parenthetical citations
- 17.0.9 Works cited
- 17.0.10 Citations (incorrect)
- 17.0.11 Citations (correct)
- 17.0.12 Citation (incorrect)
- 17.0.13 Citation (correct)
- 18 Research Guides: MLA (Modern Language Association) Style: In-text citations
- 19 LibGuides: MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): In-Text Citation
- 20 MLA In-text Citations and Sample Essay 8th Edition
- 21 Two Ways to Cite Your Sources In-text
- 22 Commonly used in-text citations in parentheses
- 23 Using MLA in-text citations
- 24 Citing books, articles, and other sources parenthetically in your paper
- 25 Formatting quotations according to the MLA guidelines
- 26 Research, Citation, & Class Guides: MLA Style: In-Text Citation
- 26.1 Key Elements (p. 3)
- 26.2 One Author: Direct Quotes (p. 3)
- 26.3 One Author: Paraphrasing (p. 9)
- 26.4 Two Authors (p. 116)
- 26.5 Three or More Authors (p. 116)
- 26.6 No Author (p. 117)
- 26.7 No Page Numbers (p. 123)
- 26.8 Has Volume (p. 119)
- 26.9 Common Literature with Many Editions (p. 120)
- 26.10 Video (p. 57)
- 26.11 Play (p. 80)
- 26.12 Poem (p. 121)
- 26.13 Quoting a Quote (p. 124)
- 26.14 Two Citations in One Sentence (p. 58)
- 26.15 Web Resource
- 27 LibGuides: MLA Style Guide: 8th Edition: In-Text Citations
- 28 UCF Research Guides: MLA 7th Edition: Home
How do you cite in text MLA?
In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.
How do you in text cite a cite?
Your in-text citation should include both authors: the author(s) of the original source and the author(s) of the secondary source. For example: (Habermehl, 1985, as cited in Kersten, 1987). In your reference list you should provide the details of the secondary source (the source you read).
How do you in text cite comments MLA?
To indicate that you are citing a comment, follow the name with a period and then the words Comment on, followed by the title of the source (for example, the name of the article) in quotation marks. This is then followed by the title of the website in italics, and the publisher, if applicable.
- Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
- When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style” capitalization, and the year.
How do you cite a chapter in a book MLA?
The basic format for citing a book chapter in MLA format is: Author(s) of Chapter. “Title of Chapter: Subtitle of Chapter.” Title of Book, edited by Editor of Book, Publisher, Publication Date, page numbers.
How do you in text cite a quote from a website?
Luckily, writing the in-text citation for a website or webpage is easy: Simply include the author and year of publication. The URL goes in the corresponding reference list entry (and yes, you can leave the links live).
How do you cite a tweet MLA?
Last name, First name [Username]. “Tweet Message. ” Twitter, date posted, URL. Note: When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation.
How do you cite QTD in MLA?
Use “qtd. in ” (for “quoted in”) in your parenthetical citation, followed by the last name of the author of the source in which you find the reference (the indirect source) and the page number where the reference appears. List the indirect source in your list of works cited.
How do you cite sources in an essay?
You must cite all information used in your paper, whenever and wherever you use it. When citing sources in the body of your paper, list the author’s last name only (no initials) and the year the information was published, like this: (Dodge, 2008). (Author, Date).
A complete guide to MLA in-text citations
Shona McCombes published a new article on July 9, 2019. On July 2, 2021, a revision was made. It is necessary to supply the author’s last name and page number in parentheses when using anMLAin-text citation. If a source has more than one author, provide the names of both. If a source includes more than two authors, just the first author should be included, followed by the phrase “et al.” If the section you’re quoting is spread across numerous pages, make sure to provide the whole page range. You can use commas to separate the page numbers of several non-consecutive pages when citing numerous non-consecutive pages at once.
|Number of authors||Example|
|1 author||(Moore 37)|
|2 authors||(Moore and Patel 48–50)|
|3+ authors||(Moore et al. 59, 34)|
Each in-text citation must be accompanied by a complete reference in the Works Cited section of the paper. With the free Scribbr Citation Generator, you can quickly and easily generate and store your citations. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
- MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
- MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
- MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
- MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
Where to include an MLA in-text citation
Placing the parenthetical reference immediately after the relevant quotation or paraphrase and before the period or other punctuation mark is recommended (except withblock quotes, where the citation comes after the period). If you’ve already mentioned the author in the sentence, all you need to do now is put the page number within parentheses. The phrase “and others” or “and colleagues” should be used instead of “et al.” when referencing a source with three or more authors outside of parenthesis.
- The MLA citation style is the second most common citation style, according to Smith and Morrison (17–19). According to Smith and Morrison (17–19), the MLA citation style is the second most used citation style. The American Psychological Association (APA) is by far “the most widely used citation style in the United States” (Moore et al. 74), but it is less dominant in the United Kingdom (Smith 16)
- Moore and colleagues state that APA is more popular in the United States than elsewhere(74)
- Moore and colleagues state that APA is
Whenever more than one source is cited in support of a single statement, the citations can be combined into a single pair of parentheses. Use an asemicolon to distinguish between the two sources. Livestock production is one of the most significant contributors to climate change on a worldwide scale (Garcia 64; Davies 14).
Consecutive citations of the same source
Whenever more than one source is cited to support a single statement, the citations can be combined into a single pair of parentheses.
Make a semicolon to separate the two sources. Stock farming is one of the largest contributors to global climate change on a worldwide scale (Garcia 64; Davies 14).
|Full source title or organization name||In-text citation|
|Amnesty International Report 2017/2018: The State of the World’s Human Rights||(Amnesty International Report187)|
|“Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions”||(“Sources”)|
|“A Quick Guide to Proofreading”||(“Quick Guide”)|
|National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Academy||(National Academy 24)|
What is your plagiarism score?
Compare your work to more than 60 billion online pages and 30 million magazines to see how it stacks up.
- The best plagiarism checker for the year 2021
- Plagiarism report %
- Largest plagiarism database
- Plagiarism report percentage
Copyscape’s plagiarism detection tool
Citing sources with no page numbers
For sources that do not contain page numbers but are separated into numbered sections (e.g., Chapters and Scenes in a Book of Mormon; Bible Books and Verse; Articles of the Constitution; or timestamps), utilize these numbers to identify the appropriate portion. It is sufficient to provide merely the author’s name as part of the in-text citation if the source does not employ a numerical system. Except if explicitly numbered in the source, do not add paragraph numbers when citing sources.
|Source type||What to do||Example|
|Source divided into numbered parts||Add a comma after the author and give a paragraph, section, or chapter number with a relevant abbreviation.||(Luxemburg, ch. 26)|
|Playwith numbered lines||Include the act, scene, and line numbers, separated by periods, instead of a page number.||(Shakespeare1.2.95)|
|Audiovisual source||Include the time range as displayed in the media player.||(Wynn 10:23–45)|
|Source with no numbered divisions||Include only the author’s name (or, if there is no author, the shortened title).||(Rajaram)|
It is important to note that if there are no numbered divisions and you have already identified the author in your sentence, no parenthetical citation is required.
If you have more than one item under the same last name on your Works Cited page, you must make a distinction between these sources in your in-text citations in order to avoid plagiarism.
To indicate which source you are referring to when you mention more than one work by the same author, use a shorter title in your bibliography. It is acceptable to cite numerous sources by the same author (Butler, Gender Trouble27) (Butler, “Performative Acts” 522) According to this example, the title of the first source is italicized, while the title of the second source is in quote marks since it is an article that has been published in a journal, respectively.
Use the authors’ initials (or, if they are the same, the authors’ complete first names) in your in-text citations to distinguish between separate writers who have the same last name: Citing various writers with the same last name (A. Butler 19) is an example of plagiarism (J. Butler 27)
Citing sources indirectly
It is possible that you will wish to mention anything that you discovered was quoted in a secondary source. Always try to locate the original source and reference it explicitly if at all feasible. If you are unable to obtain access to the original source, be careful to provide the names of both the original author and the author of the source that you obtained access to. In order to specify where you found the quotation, you should use the abbreviation “qtd. in” (short for “quoted in”). As an example of an indirect quotation in MLA style, Marx describes “the two major generators of wealth” as “labour-power and land” (qtd.
Frequently asked questions about MLA in-text citations
What is the proper way to reference material from a footnote in MLA format? Some types of sources, such as books and journal articles, may include footnotes (or endnotes) that provide further information about the source. The following are the criteria for referencing material from a note in an in-text citation according to MLA style:
- Write “n” after the page number and then the note number, for example, (Smith 105n2), to quote material from a single-numbered note. To reference information from several numbered notes, use the notation “nn” followed by a range, for example, (Smith 77n1–2)
- If you want to reference material from an unnumbered note, add “un” after the page number with a space between them, for example, (Jones 250 un)
In MLA format, how do I reference a source that does not include an author or page numbers? If a source does not have an author, the MLA Works Citedentry should begin with the source title. In your in-text citation, you should use an abbreviated version of the title. You can use an alternate locator (e.g., a chapter number for a book or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant part in your in-text citation if the source doesn’t have page numbers available.
If there are no numbered divisions in the source, only the author’s name should be used (or the title). There is no requirement for a parenthetical citation if you have already identified the author or title in your sentence and there is no locator accessible. For example:
- As Rajaram contends, “cultural, political, and ideological objectives” influence how people see migration. “A movement for fundamentally alternative news,” according to the website of The Correspondent.
You have already cast your vote. Thanks:-) Your vote has been recorded:-) Your vote is being processed.
Library Guides: MLA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation
MLA style allows you to put the author’s name either inside the narrative body of your work or after the source’s citation in parentheses after the source’s citation. The following is an excerpt from the tale that includes the author’s name: According to Gass and Varonis, familiarity with the topic is the most essential factor in interpreting non-native communication in a foreign language (163). The following is the author’s name in parentheses: According to one study, familiarity with the subject matter is the most crucial factor in interpreting non-native language speaking (Gass and Varonis 163).
- The following is a direct quote: “The listener’s acquaintance with the topic of discourse substantially aids the comprehension of the entire message,” according to one research (Gass and Varonis 85).
- Note: For quotations that are longer than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, quotations should be displayed as an indented block of text (one inch from the left margin) and quotation marks should be omitted.
- In addition to boosting awareness, it has been demonstrated that practicing listening to accented speech can increase one’s listening comprehension.
- Even a little exposure to accented speech can assist listeners improve their understanding, which in turn can enhance the level of service provided to international customers in general.
In-Text Citations: An Overview
In-text citations are brief, unobtrusive references that direct readers to the works-cited-list entries for the sources you consulted as well as, where applicable, to the location in the source being cited. In-text citations are used to direct readers to the works-cited-list entries for the sources you consulted. When you use an in-text citation, you begin with the shortest piece of information that directs your reader to the corresponding entry in the works-cited list.
As a result, it begins with whichever of the following appears first in the entry: the author’s name or the title (or description) of the piece of writing. The citation can be included anywhere in your writing, including in parenthesis.
Citation in prose
Naomi Baron was the first person to break fresh ground on the issue.
At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Baron).
Naomi S. Baron’s “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media” is available online. Pages 193–200 of PMLA’s 128, no. 1 (January 2013) are available online.
Citation in prose
‘Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media,’ by Naomi S. Baron. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. Pages 193–200 of PMLA’s 128, number 1 (January 2013).
According to the author, the female bhakti poets “were confronted with insurmountable problems as a result of their rejection of society norms and values” (Bhakti Poets).
“Introduction to the Bhakti Poets.” Women in World History, Center for History and New Media, chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson1/lesson1.php?s=0; Women in World History, Center for History and New Media, chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson1/lesson1.php?s=0 . Accessed on the 20th of September, 2020. Whenever it is appropriate, an in-text citation must include a second component: when someone quotes or paraphrases a specific part of a work and the work includes a page number, line number, time stamp, or other method of directing readers to a specific point in the work where the information can be found, the location marker must be included in parentheses.
“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (194). One could even argue that reading is never complete until it is accompanied by writing. “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (3). It is also acceptable to include the author or title in parentheses next to the page number or other location marker.
“Reading is only half of literacy,” says the author. “The other half of the team is writing” (Baron 194). One could even argue that reading is never complete until it is accompanied by writing. The number of people who conduct creative writing, regardless of genre (and not just literary works), climbed dramatically between 1982 and 2002 despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period, according to the study (Reading3).
Naomi S. Baron’s “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media” is available online. Pages 193–200 of PMLA’s 128, no. 1 (January 2013) are available online. Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America is a survey of literary reading in the United States. The National Endowment for the Arts published this article in June 2004. All in-text citations should be brief and to the point. Avoid, for example, using the author’s name or the title of a work in both your text and your parentheses while writing a paper.
“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (Baron 194).
“The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (Reading3).
“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (194). “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (3). Only the component of an author’s name—typically his or her surname—that is essential to locate that item in a list of works referenced should be used in parenthetical citations (for more information on surnames, see sections 2.73–2.81 in The Modern Language Association’s ninth edition of the MLA Handbook).
“Reading” is only half of literacy, according to Naomi Baron. One side of the team is working on a piece of writing” (194). However, despite an apparent fall in reading over the same time period, “the number of persons engaged in creative writing—of any genre, not just literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to Reading at Risk (3). Only the component of an author’s name—typically his or her surname—that is essential to locate that item in a list of works referenced should be used in parenthetical citations (for further information on surnames, see sections 2.73–2.81 in The Modern Language Association’s Handbook, Ninth Edition).
At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Baron). In parenthetical citations, use abbreviated titles to save space. To learn how to reduce titles in parenthetical citations, refer to sections 6.10–6.14 of the MLA Handbook, ninth edition, for more information. In order to save space, do not include the prefix p.orpp. before a page number in a parenthetical reference, as you would in a list of works cited (where such abbreviations lend clarity). You should precede any number other than a page number in a parenthetical citation with a name such aschapterorsection (commonly abbreviated in parentheses) orlineorlines (typically abbreviated in parentheses) (do not abbreviate).
Research Guides: MLA (Modern Language Association) Style: In-text citations
In-text citations are also referred to as parenthetical references, which is easy to recall because the parenthetical reference occurs in the same sentence as the in-text citation. Author-pagestyle is used by the MLA. In your report, you will cite the author’s last name as well as the page number from where you took your quotation. You will use the last name in either the phrase or the parentheses, depending on your preference. You can see both in action in the video below: “Our personas are really masks that we put on in order to sell ourselves to others” (Berger 87).
This is normally the initial word in the bibliographical item, followed by the word (name) that appears between the parenthesis.
The quote should be included in the text in quotation marks and followed by (author’s last name page number) for prose quotations of four lines or less. Block quotations should be used for prose quotes that are longer than four lines.
- A colon should be placed at the end of the line that you write to start your lengthy quotation. Indent the long quotation by 0.5 inch from the rest of the text, so that it appears as a block of text. It is not necessary to use quotation marks around the quotation. After the quotation, provide the following information: (author’s last name, page number)
- The period should be placed before your in-text citation rather than after, as it would be with regular quotations
For example, near the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, the boys are confronted with the reality of their actions: “The tears began to pour and sobs rocked him.” It was the first time on the island that he really surrendered himself to them; he had big, shuddering spasms of anguish that seemed to rip his entire body apart. In the thick black smoke before the engulfing wreckage of the island, his voice soared over the din of sobbing and shaking. The other small boys were swept up in the emotion and began to tremble and sob as well.
- / is used to denote line breaks between stanzas.
- as an illustration: (Donne, lines 26-28) Poetry quotations that are longer than four lines are cited in the same way as prose quotes that are longer than four lines are quoted.
- Our imperfection is both a lovely fault and a horrible ornament.
- (Brooks, lines 1 through 6)
LibGuides: MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): In-Text Citation
What Is the Definition of a Long Quotation? In the case of a quotation that is more than four lines lengthy, it is termed a long quotation. This is also referred to as a block quote in some circles. Rules for Quotations that are more than a few words long It is important to remember that extended quotes must adhere to four specific guidelines that differ from typical quotations:
- A colon should be placed at the end of the line that you write to start your lengthy quotation. Indent the long quotation by 0.5 inch from the rest of the text, so that it appears as a block of text. It is not necessary to include quote marks around the quotation. The period should be placed before your in-text citation rather than after, as it would be with standard citations
An Illustration of a Long Quotation When it comes to growing as a reader, Vivian Gornick views it as a process of coming to terms with one’s own limitations: Suddenly, literature, politics, and analysis all came together, and I was able to think more broadly about the emotional incarceration of the mind and spirit that all human beings are heirs to, rather than just focusing on myself. The course of analytical time revealed that the effort necessary to achieve any semblance of inner liberation, whether under the load of social justice or without it, was remarkable.
In the light of this realization, I began to interpret the lives and work of women and men who had dedicated their lives to the creation of literary works over the years.
MLA In-text Citations and Sample Essay 8th Edition
Documenting your sources at the end of your essay in the Works Cited section is merely the beginning of a thorough and successful documentation procedure. Appropriate source citation necessitates a two-step procedure. You must also provide a reference to the source of your paraphrased information or the source of directly cited content within the body of your essay. In-text citations are citations that appear within the body of an essay. You must cite all words, ideas, and facts from sources that have been cited, paraphrased, or summarized.
Citations within the text direct the reader to the information about the sources contained in the works cited page.
As a result, the first item listed on the works cited page for a given source should be that item in the in-text citation, which is usually the author’s last name (or the title if there is no author), and the page number if one is provided.
Two Ways to Cite Your Sources In-text
Cite your source in parenthesis at the end of any content that has been cited or paraphrased. Using a page number as an example: To paraphrase, “it is critical to note that in-text citations should be used for both your paraphrased content and any explicitly quoted material,” says the author (Habib 7). Without a page number, here’s an example: It is “frequently the ideal choice since direct quotes should be reserved for source material that is particularly well-written in terms of style and/or clarity,” according to the American Psychological Association (Ruiz).
Within the sentence, through the use of a “signal phrase,” which informs the reader of the exact source from which the idea or quote came, the thought or quote is identified. If the page number(s) are supplied, put them in parentheses at the conclusion of the sentence. Using a page number as an example: As Habib points out, “It is critical that you remember to include in-text citations for both your paraphrased content and your explicitly quoted material” (7). Without a page number, here’s an example: “Paraphrasing is frequently the ideal choice,” says Ruiz, “since direct quotations from source materials that are particularly well-written in terms of style and/or clarity should be kept for such sources.” See our handout “Signal Phrases” for further examples and advice on how to utilize signal phrases for in-text citations in the most effective way.
Do you need to include a page number in your in-text citation?
A page number must be included in the citation for printed publications like as books, periodicals, journals, or the internet, as well as for digital sources such as PDF files that display an actual printed page number. Page numbers are not required in the citation for internet and digital sources that have a continually scrolling page and do not include a page number.
Commonly used in-text citations in parentheses
When utilizing large quotations that are more than four lines in length in prose or more than three lines in poetry, you must use the block quotation format. The block format is one inch from the margin on both sides (you can hit the “tab” button twice to move it one inch). Furthermore, block quotations do not contain quotation marks, and the parenthetical reference is placed after the period at the end of the final phrase in the block quote. See the following example of a block quotation in action in the following sample essay.
Signal Phrase Examples and Ideas
Consider the following example essay for examples of several types of signal phrases and parenthetical in-text citations, which correlate to the sample Works Cited page at the conclusion of the document. In addition, the Writing Center provides a handout on signal phrases that includes a variety of verb alternatives. Reviewing this handout will help you learn more about the MLA Works Cited page. For more information about the academic integrity policy at STLCC, please see this page.
Using MLA in-text citations
Information regarding parenthetical citations in general
How do I cite sources in my paper?
The following procedures apply to both print and electronic sources and are essentially the same in both cases. When you quote or paraphrase a specific section of a text from a source, include enough information — most commonly the author’s last name and the page number — to let the reader to locate the exact section of the text that you are referencing. The title of the work, as well as the name of the author, will need to be referenced, either in the sentence itself or in the parenthetical citation, if you are referencing two sources written by the same author.
The parenthetical information should not repeat material that has already been provided in your text (for example, if you have included the author’s name in your text, you should not add it in the reference).
For further information and examples of citations, see Citing books, papers, and other sources parenthetically in your paper (also available in Spanish).
How should I format my quotations and citation information?
If the direct reference, paraphrase, or quote is less than four lines in length, provide the citation information in parentheses at the end of the sentence, immediately following any quotation marks and just before the sentence’s final punctuation. When you have a quotation that is more than four lines long, you should use the block quotation format: indent one-half inch from the left margin, double space the quotation, and do not use quotation marks. The parenthetical citation should be placed after the period (or other mark of punctuation) that marks the conclusion of the block quotation.
Instead of using page numbers, if an electronic source uses paragraph or section numbers instead of page numbers, use the appropriate abbreviation (e.g., “par.”; do not count paragraphs if they are not numerically referenced in the electronic source; do not include any numbers in your citation if the electronic source does not provide page or paragraph numbers).
After that, include any other identifying information—such as abbreviations for “chapter” and “section”—and then the appropriate number.
Citing books, articles, and other sources parenthetically in your paper
The examples on this page, in conjunction with the instructions regarding organizing and formatting in–text citations provided here, demonstrate how a variety of different source types are appropriately mentioned in accordance with MLA’s citation requirements. –Includes the author’s name in the text Magny elaborates on his point of view (67-69). –The author’s name appears in the reference This is an argument that has been previously explored (Magny 67-69). Indirect or “secondhand” sources were used to find this quotation.
- in Magny 66).
- –The names of two writers appear in the reference list.
- A reference to the volume and page in a multivolume book is necessary.
- The reference is to the entire volume.
- –On the list of works referenced, there are two works by the same author.
- And while this relationship may seem odd given the themes and substance of A Clockwork Orange, Frye’s unique viewpoint on the nature of genres gives light on this uncommon pairing (“Rhetorical Criticism: Theory of Genres”).
- –There are two sources given.
–Personal interview; the interviewer’s name is stated in the text Phys ed instructors must comprehend the link between physical exercise and fitness, according to Parsons, who tackles this issue.
Quote from a play with page numbers is provided.
Quotation from a play that includes division and line numbers As demonstrated by the Duke’s admonition that the best answer to sadness is to move on (Othello1.3.208–209), this is a valid point.
“What is it to realize the absolute value / of negative grace.?” Barry inquires with a cutting tone.
Source that makes use of paragraph numbers in its electronic form The workplace in the semiconductor industry is extremely hazardous (Ross par.
35). –Electronic source that makes use of chapter and section numbers to organize information “Once we begin to rely heavily on a tool, it begins to rely heavily on us” (Rawlins ch. 1, sec. 1).
Formatting quotations according to the MLA guidelines
When a direct reference, summary, paraphrase, or quote is used, parenthetical citations are used at the conclusion of the sentence in which the reference is made. Citations for quotes that are less than four lines should be placed after the closing quotation marks and before the sentence’s concluding punctuation (see example below). When you have a quotation that is longer than four lines long, use theblock quotationformat:
- In the majority of circumstances, a colon should be used to introduce the quotation
- One-half inch from the left margin, indent the quotation. The quotation should be double spaced. It is not necessary to use quote marks.
After the period (or other mark of punctuation) that concludes the block quote, include the parenthetical citation (author and page number) in the block quotation.
Research, Citation, & Class Guides: MLA Style: In-Text Citation
|Key Elements||No Author||Poem|
|One Author: Direct Quotes||No Page Number||Video|
|One Author: Paraphrasing||Specific Volume||Quoting a Quote|
|Two-Three Authors||Common Literature with Many Editions||Two Citations in One Sentence|
|Four or More Authors||Play||Web Resources|
Key Elements (p. 3)
When you borrow ideas and quotes from others, give credit to the source by giving the following information: As an example, the in-text reference (see page 214 of the book written by the Modern Language Association) directs the reader to the complete citation on the Works Cited list; the Works Cited list will provide the entire publishing data. “Typically, the author’s last name and a page reference are sufficient to identify the source and the precise place from which you obtained the content,” says the author (Modern Language Association 214).
In order to optimize the efficacy of your work, you are urged to use a variety of citation formats in your in-text citations.
- The last name of the author and the page number are included in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
As an example, “When his father told him that he would be able to return to school again, Charles’s eyes welled up with tears of thankfulness” (Hibbert 83).
- Page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence, with the author’s name appearing in the text.
Ex. President John F. Kennedy, according to Andrea Tone, used up to eight drugs a day to treat illness and stress (112).
- When there are no page numbers (for example, web pages), include as much information about the source as feasible in the phrase.
Take, for example, copyright researcher Lawrence Lessig, who reported in his widely read blog that, as of March 2009, over 100 million photographs on Flickr were licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license.
One Author: Direct Quotes (p. 3)
Include the last name of the author as well as the page number. “When Charles’ father told him that he would be able to return to school, his eyes welled up with tears of thankfulness” (Hibbert83).
One Author: Paraphrasing (p. 9)
Cite the author’s name as well as the paraphrased page numbers. For example, many insects and animals have a wider range of color vision than humans, including the ability to see in the ultraviolet and infrared (Kimura 163-65).
Two Authors (p. 116)
Include the last name of each author, followed by the page number of their work. For example, Facebook’s impact over online privacy standards extends far beyond its 500 million users; its privacy rules, “more than those of any other firm, are contributing to the definition of standards for privacy in the Internet age,” according to the company (Helft and Wortham B1).
Three or More Authors (p. 116)
Give the last name of the first author, followed by the preposition “et al,” which signifies “and others.” Ex. According to one study, people “may not comprehend the possible ramifications of sharing personal information for public display in an online social networking group,” which is a contributing factor to the problem (Foulger et al. 1-2). CitationsFoulger, Teresa S., and colleagues, “Moral Spaces on MySpace: Preservice Teachers’ Perspectives on Ethical Issues in Social Networking,” Journal of Educational Technology, vol.
Journal of Research on Technology in Education, volume 42, number 1, 2009, pages 1-28. Academic OneFile (accessed July 29, 2010).
No Author (p. 117)
When a citation does not have an author, the title of the citation should be used in place of the author. When possible, provide page numbers in your document. If the title of a work appears in the Works Cited list, it should be used in the in-text citation. For example, even though many online social networking sites are provided free of charge to users, “They are operated by commercial organizations that, understandably, strive to earn a profit at any costs. Because they are unable to charge access fees, they collect data.” ” (“Online Privacy” 28).
No Page Numbers (p. 123)
Include as much information as possible in the text, such as the title, the author’s name, the website, and so on. When the chapter is available, include a reference to it. For example, Kurosawa’s Throne of Blood is an adaptation of Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” for the Japanese market (Evans).
Has Volume (p. 119)
When you utilize two volumes from the same set, just the volume number should be cited in the in-text reference. If you just mention one volume, simply add that information in the Works Cited section of the bibliography. Include the name of the author, the volume number, and the page number in your document. His crisp and clear narrative style, which has had a significant impact on modern writing, is best seen in The Sun Also Rises and The Old Man and the Sea, among other works (Aviero 3: 23-5).
Common Literature with Many Editions (p. 120)
Include the author’s name, page number, and chapter number in your document. A dark-haired girl appears in Winston’s dream as a white body with smooth skin: “Her body was white and smooth, yet it arouse[d] no desire in him, indeed he hardly glanced at it.” (56; see also ch. 3)
Video (p. 57)
Because videos do not have page numbers, the time stamp should be included. Cheetahs, for example, can go from “zero to sixty in three seconds, or three strides” (Smithsonian Channel 0:45).
Play (p. 80)
Do not use the page number when citing the act, scene, and line number.
- Start with the biggest division (typically an act) and work your way down to the smallest division (usually a scene or a line)
- Each division should be separated by a period. If the author’s name appears elsewhere in your article, it is not necessary to provide it here. alternatively, use the first major word in the title instead
The quote should be included into the main body of the text. Nora, for example, has a revelation when she realizes that her husband will never be able to repay her for the sacrifices she has made to defend his pride. She ultimately confronts Helmer, telling him, “You don’t think or speak like the kind of man I would want to associate myself with” (Dollact 3). (Please keep in mind that Ibsen’s A Doll House is split exclusively by act, thus this is the only division you may use.) Ex. Although Oedipus blames the gods for his terrible fate, he acknowledges that his most recent affliction is the result of his own actions when he sobs, “I am the cause of my own misery.” “The blinding hand, on the other hand, was mine!
How could I endure to look when everything in my field of vision was filled with horror?” (OedipusExodus.2.114-16). (Please note that Oedipus Rex is divided into multiple sections; the citation includes all of the divisions that are accessible.)
Two or More Characters
- Insert an indentation of one inch from either side of the margin and double-space the quotation
- It is necessary to indent these lines by 1/4 inch if a character’s dialogue goes onto the following line of your document
- Write the names of the characters in all capital letters, followed by a period. It is not necessary to use quote marks.
OEDIPUS. What kind of web has God been spinning for me, I wonder? IOCASTÊ. Oedipus! What exactly bothers you about this? OEDIPUS. Please do not inquire of me at this time. First, describe how Laos seemed to you, and then tell me how old he was. IOCASTÊ. He was tall, with white hair that was just a touch lighter than yours, and he had a shape that was similar to yours. OEDIPUS. I’m beginning to believe that I’ve been damned by my own dumb decree. (Oedipus2.2.211-16)
Shakespearean Play (p. 121)
If you want to reference a work more than once in your paper, you can shorten its title. When the title is first stated in your content, use the full title with the abbreviation in parenthesis, and then use the abbreviation in subsequent references to the title in your text. Cite the line numbers, for example. In All’s Well That Ends Well (AWW), Helena feels she is in control of her own destiny, stating, “Our remedies oft lie in ourselves, / Which we assign to heaven” (Our remedies oft lie in ourselves) (AWW, 1.1.199-200).
Poem (p. 121)
Cite specific line numbers. There are no line numbers? If there is only one page, there is no need to reference a page number. If there are more than one page, include the page numbers.
3 Lines or Fewer
The quotation should be incorporated into the body of your writing.
- Make use of quote marks. Line breaks should be indicated by slashes (/), and other punctuation should be left as it occurs in the poem. If the author’s name appears elsewhere in your article, it is not necessary to provide it here. substitute the first major word in the poem’s title for the first significant word
- The title of the poem should be included in the sentences immediately preceding the quotation
- Otherwise, just the line number should be included.
Example: In “Hands,” Jeffers humanizes prehistoric cave paintings by giving the drawers a voice, saying, “Look: we, too, were humans; we had hands, not paws” (line 10) For example, Eliot instantly engages the reader with his use of the second person in the opening lines: “Let us go then, you and I / When the evening is stretched out against the sky” (When the evening is spread out against the sky) (“Prufrock” 1-2).
Four or More Lines
Begin the citation on a new line with a capital letter.
- You should not use quote marks unless they are necessary in the poetry
- Each line should be indented 1 inch from the left margin and double-spaced
- Line breaks should be indicated by slashes (/), and other punctuation should be left as it occurs in the poem.
Ex. Yeats, himself an Irish nationalist, knew some of the Easter Monday rebels personally, and he specifically names them by name in his poem “Easter Monday Rebellion.” He also mentions his erstwhile antagonist, Major John MacBride, who was temporarily married to Yeats’s love, Maude Gonne, during the course of their relationship. Despite the fact that he recognizes MacBride’s gallantry, he does it with reluctance: A booze-addled, conceited braggart He had done the most grievous injustice to certain people who were close to my heart.
Quoting a Quote (p. 124)
Begin with the phrase “qtd. in,” which means “quoted in,” and then mention the author of the text in which the quotation appears, as well as the page number on which the quote appears. Gala Dali was comfortable in her place as Dali’s primary lifelong lover and muse, according to Anders, despite his numerous liaisons with her (qtd. in Chahine 13).
Two Citations in One Sentence (p. 58)
Include the names of the writers as well as page numbers.
For example, eating a vegetarian or vegan diet has been linked to several health advantages; nevertheless, eating a diet consisting mostly of fresh foods is prohibitively expensive for the majority of the world’s poor (Nejem 12; McRay 153).
Use the same guidelines as you would for print resources. In MLA style, URLs are not utilized for in-text citations. To give an example, as creative entrepreneurship and networking become increasingly vital to artistic achievement, the new paradigm is being referred to as “the displacement of depth by width” (Deresiewicz). For example, the Hövding is a novel style of cycling helmet that is worn like a collar and “protects even more of the head than regular helmets,” according to the publication “This Invisible.”
LibGuides: MLA Style Guide: 8th Edition: In-Text Citations
Prose Using a term or phrase that is grammatically valid inside your statement can make it evident that you have left out some of the original source material: Pride and Prejudice author Jane Austen declares that it is “a truth commonly accepted” that all unmarried men with money desire to find a wife in the first words of the novel (1). You must use an ellipsis (three spaced periods with a space on either side) to show that your citation does not entirely duplicate the original, however, if your quotation is lengthier and you leave out portions of the original source.
- their daughters,” which further emphasizes the entrenchment of this social norm (1).
- She credits Angelou with.
- Poetry The requirements for omission and the use of an ellipsis are largely the same for both prose and poetry, with a few exceptions.
- It was the dead of winter.
- (1-3, 6-7)
UCF Research Guides: MLA 7th Edition: Home
Your works cited list will contain all of the references you used throughout the body of your article. Only items that were directly cited in your article should be included. There are five basic aspects to any piece of art cited:
- The name of the author (Last name, First name) (end with a period)
- The title of the book Title in its entirety (as it appears on the title page) (end with a period)
- The location of publishing (which is denoted by a colon)
- Use standard abbreviations followed by a comma to identify the publisher (omit articles). Year of publication (the year should be followed by a period)
If you are using an internet source, you must additionally include the date on which you viewed the content.
In order to properly structure the works mentioned list, you must follow a precise standard.
- Make use of the heading Citations are provided for the works cited. The header should be centered 2.5 cm from the top of the page. List the works in alphabetical order by last name of the author
- All lines should be double spaced
- A hanging indent should be used for the second and following lines of an entry. Italicize the titles of books, journals, periodicals, newspapers, websites, online databases, films, and other media sources, if appropriate. Put quote marks around the names of articles, essays, tales, chapters in books, pages on websites, and so on. Except for short words such as on, in, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and, and