What Are In Text Citations? (Best solution)

An in-text citation is the brief form of the reference that you include in the body of your work. It gives enough information to uniquely identify the source in your reference list. The brief form usually consists of: family name of the author(s), and. year of publication.6

What do you include in in text citations?

  • An in-text citation is a citation within your writing to show where you found your information, facts, quotes, and research. APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14).

Contents

What is included in an in-text citation?

In-text citations generally contain the author’s last name (surname) and page location of cited material placed within parentheses at the end of a sentence.

What are in-text citations MLA?

In-text citations: Author-page style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.

What are the three basic elements of citation?

APA Citation Guide

  • Reference Components.
  • Author.
  • Date.
  • Title.
  • Source.

How do you do an in-text citation for a website?

Luckily, writing the in-text citation for a website or webpage is easy: Simply include the author and year of publication. The URL goes in the corresponding reference list entry (and yes, you can leave the links live).

How do you MLA cite an article?

Format. Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article: Subtitle if Any.” Name of Journal, Volume Number, Issue Number, Date of Publication, First Page Number-Last Page Number.

How do you do MLA citations for websites?

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Work.” Title of Site, Sponsor or Publisher [include only if different from website title or author], Date of Publication or Update Date, URL. Accessed Date [only if no date of publication or update date].

What are the 5 important parts to a citation?

Generally, a citation will include: the name of the book, article, or other resource; the name of its author; information (if applicable) about the journal it came from; the date it was published; and when it was accessed if it was read online.

What are the 3 types of citations?

How to do I choose a citation style?

  • APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education, Psychology, and Sciences.
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities.
  • Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine Arts.

What is citation example?

Using In-text Citation APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.

How do you cite a website example?

When citing a web page or online article in APA Style, the in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).

How do you in text cite with multiple authors?

Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses. In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

How do you do in text citations APA for websites?

When citing a web page or online article in APA Style, the in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).

In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab

Note:This page contains the most recent edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (APA 7), which was issued in October 2019. You may find the similar material for the older APA 6 style in this section. The Publication Manual’s pages 261-268 provide guidance on how to use reference citations in text. Some general principles for citing other people’s work in your essay are provided below for your convenience. It is recommended on pages 117-118 of the Publication Manual that writers of research articles use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal words that appear in the literature review and technique descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) discovered or Jones (1998) has discovered.) Jones (1998) discovers that the simple present tense may be used in contexts other than those associated with typically organized research writing.

APA Citation Basics

When writing in APA format, the author-date technique of in-text citation should be used. This implies that the last name of the author, as well as the year of publication for the source, should be included in the text, such as, for example (Jones, 1998). The reference list at the conclusion of the document should contain one complete reference for each source cited throughout the study. If you are referring to an idea from another work but are not directly quoting the material, or if you are making reference to an entire book, article, or other work, you only need to include the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and do not need to include the page number in your reference.

Before providing the page number, use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) to indicate that it is the first page (s).

If you want to write (Jones, 1998, p.

199–201), for example, you might write This information is restated in the next section.

Capitalization, quotations, and italics/underlining are all acceptable in-text citations.

  • Proper nouns, including author names and initials, should always be capitalized: Jones, D.
  • Jones, D. If you make reference to the title of a source inside your work, be sure to capitalize any terms that are four letters or longer in length within the title of a source, such as: The concepts of permanence and change are intertwined. Short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs are exempt from this rule. Examples include: There is nothing left to lose when it comes to new media writing.

(Please keep in mind that just the first word of a title will be capitalized in your References list: Writing new media.)

  • Titles that contain a hyphenated compound word should be capitalized on both words: Cyborgs that were born naturally
  • After a dash or a colon, capitalize the first word that follows: Hitchcock’s Vertigo serves as a case study in “Defining Film Rhetoric.” For works whose titles are italics in your reference list, italicize them in the text as well, and use title case capitalization in the text: Friends
  • The Wizard of Oz
  • The Closing of the American Mind
  • The Closing of the American Mind If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even if the reference list is written in sentence case): “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
  • ” “The One in which Chandler is unable to cry.”

Short quotations

It is necessary to mention the author, publication year, and page number for a reference when directly quoting from a book (preceded by “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for a span of several pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash). Using a signal phrase that comprises the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. Jones (1998) states that “students frequently had problems utilizing APA style, particularly when it was their first time” (p.

Jones (1998) discovered that “students frequently had trouble employing APA style” (p.

Wherever possible, omitting the author’s last name but including his or her year of publication and page number in the text of the sentence will be accepted as proper citation practice.

Jones (1998) said that “students frequently had problems employing the APA style,” however she could not provide an explanation as to why this was the case.

Long quotations

Direct quotations that are 40 words or more should be included in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, with quotation marks omitted if possible. Starting on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, or at the same spot as you would begin a new paragraph, insert the quotation at the beginning of the paragraph. Create a new margin and indent any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by separating them by 1/2 inch from the new margin. Type the full quotation on the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraphs within the quotation by 1/2 inch from the new margin.

The parenthetical citation should appear after the period at the end of the paragraph.

An example of how to format block quotes in the APA 7 style.

Quotations from sources without pages

It is not necessary to include a page number in direct quotations from sources that do not contain any pages. As an alternative, you may refer to another piece of logical identification, such as a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else entirely. Older works (such as religious writings) may additionally include particular location identifiers, such as verse numbers, to help readers find their way around. For the most part, choose a page number replacement that makes sense for your original material.

Summary or paraphrase

The author and year of publication are all that are required in your in-text reference if you are paraphrasing a concept from another book. The page numbers are not required in this case. According to APA rules, however, giving a page range for a summary or paraphrase where it will assist the reader in finding the material in a lengthier work is strongly encouraged. As Jones (1998) points out, the APA style is a tough citation format to master for first-time learners. For first-time learners, APA style is a tough citation system to master (Jones, 1998, p.

LibGuides: Referencing: In-Text Citations

When quoting an idea from another book, you just need to provide the author and year of publication in your in-text citation and you can exclude the page numbers from your in-text reference. A page range is recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA) when a summary or paraphrase will assist the reader in finding the material in a larger book.

According to Jones (1998), the APA style is a tough citation format for first-time learners to understand and master. If you are a first-time student, you may find the APA style citation format tough (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Page range

(Wang, 2018, pages. 27-31) (Wang, 2018, pp. 27-31)

Paragraph number

2020, para. 3; Vrajlal, 2020, para. 3).

Section name

(From Beyond Blue, n.d., part on Planning for the Future) If the section title is lengthy, you can condense it to the first few words of the section title. Place quote marks around the title of the abbreviated section. (From the World Health Organization’s “How to Cope” section in 2020.) Write the type of section (e.g., chapter or figure) out in full, beginning with a capital letter, if you want to refer to that specific sort of section. More examples may be found here. Thompson (2019, Slide 14) defines formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized (Thornton, 2019, Slide 14) Sheridan (2006) describes a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized (Sheridan, 2006, Chapter 2) (National Museum of the American Indian, 2016, Standard 5)

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Time stamp

To quote from an audiovisual work, give a time stamp indicating the exact instant at which the quotation begins to be heard or shown. (Boisvert, 3:38 p.m., 2019) Some classic works (such as Shakespeare’s works or the Bible) employ a numbering system that is consistent across editions, and it can be more helpful to use that system rather than page numbers when citing specific portions, for example, citing lines in Act 5, Scene 1: (Shakespeare, 1623/1963, 5.1.38-43). For additional information on works having canonically numbered parts, visit the APA Style page.

What Are In-Text Citations?

When a reference is made within the body of text of an academic essay, it is known as an in-text citation. The in-text reference directs the reader’s attention to a source that has influenced your own work and vice versa. The specific syntax of an in-text citation will vary depending on the style you are writing in, for example, APA or Chicago. Examine the in-text citations with your academic institution to confirm that you offer them in the manner that they require, and then use Cite This For Me’s citation generator to generate them for you instantly.

How to write an in-text citation

When citing a quotation or paraphrase, it is often sufficient to mention simply the author’s last name, date of publication, and page number from which the quotation or paraphrase was taken, with the entire reference appearing in your bibliography (or works cited) page at the conclusion of your essay. Because it is so obvious to the reader, the in-text citation should be placed in brackets immediately after the passage you have quoted or paraphrased, so that the reader may easily recognize it.

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APA Format In-Text Citations

APA style allows in-text citations to be used after a direct quotation or after paraphrased information. In the case of direct quotations, the in-text citation should be given shortly after. It is customary to include the author’s surname as well as the year of publication and the relevant page number or numbers in the in-text citation of a book. If you are citing a book, the in-text citation will typically include the author’s surname as well as the relevant page number or numbers, enclosed by parentheses.

  • For example, Gandalf remarked, “All we have to determine is what we will accomplish with the time that has been granted to us” (Tolkien, 1954, p.
  • If you make a direct reference to the author inside the text, you are not required to mention the author’s name in the in-text citation.
  • Tolkien says, “All we have to determine is what to do with the time that is given us,” in the first book of the Lord of the Rings trilogy, The Fellowship of the Ring, in which the character Frodo Baggins is introduced.
  • If you’re citing content that has been paraphrased, a page number is not usually required.
  • Examples include the conflict between good and evil that runs through The Lord of the Rings and other films (Tolkien, 1954).

20). Don’t forget to provide standard citations for your sources in your bibliography at the conclusion of the paper as well as at the beginning of the document.

MLA and Chicago Formatting

In order to keep you on your toes, the different formats use varied requirements for in-text citations to keep things interesting. When using MLA format in-text citations, for example, the author’s last name or the first item contained in the entire citation if the author’s name is not included is commonly used instead of the publication date to avoid confusion. For example, let’s take the identical in-text citation example from earlier and convert it to MLA style for simplicity. “All we have to determine is what we will do with the time that has been granted to us,” Gandalf explained (Tolkien 20).

  • A source’s identification information that is contained in the paragraph is unnecessary in the parenthetical citation.
  • The parenthetical reference would not be necessary in this scenario, either the source did not offer page numbers or because it was not important to add the page number.
  • Alternatively, some writers who adhere to the Chicago style opt to employ a notes and bibliography system, which eliminates the need for in-text citations entirely and instead relies on numbered footnotes or endnotes to provide additional information.
  • You may discover helpful citation instructions for the APA, MLA, and Chicago styles on the Cite This For Me website, which can assist you in learning how to make in-text citations.

Do’s and Don’ts of In-text Citations

Make an effort to maintain consistency. One of the most crucial components of citation creation is to ensure that you select a citation style and adhere to it throughout the entirety of your document. Before you begin writing your paper, double-check the criteria for in-text citations in your chosen style, whether you’re using APA format or a different style. From the beginning to the conclusion, follow those regulations. DON’T BELIEVE EVERYTHING. In situations where you are including material from another source, it might be all too simple to think to yourself, “the reader will know where this originated from.” Citations should not be treated in this manner since failing to provide in-text references might result in you being accused of plagiarism and obtaining a negative score on your paper.

  1. Make your in-text citations as soon as possible.
  2. Last-minute paper tension might result from delaying your paper till the last minute.
  3. DON’T OVERUSE THIS FORMULA.
  4. It is sufficient to include a single in-text citation at the beginning or conclusion of a paragraph or group of sentences that incorporates material from a single source throughout the paragraph or group of statements.
  5. It is usually a good idea to double-check your in-text citations after you have finished writing your paper and before submitting it to your teacher for review.
  6. Make one last pass through your in-text citations before submitting your paper for grading to ensure that they are accurate.
  7. If you are unclear of how to begin creating your in-text citations for your paper, it is always a good idea to consult with your instructor for guidance.
  8. It is probable that the assignment instructions they offer will provide specifics on how to format citations in the manner in which they anticipate them to be formatted.

Cite This For Me is a tool that allows you to create a bibliography as well as format in-text citations. You will find hundreds of styles on the site, as well as a Harvard referencing generator and many different source kinds, when you visit it.

Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

Rather than appearing at the conclusion of long clauses or phrases, in-text references should occur immediately after the title, word, or phrase to which they are closely related. References inside the text should always come before punctuation marks. The following are some examples of in-text citations. The following is the author’s name in parentheses: According to one study, familiarity with the subject matter is the most crucial factor in interpreting non-native language speaking (GassVaronis, 1984).

Authors that belong to a group include: The first citation is as follows: (American Psychological Association, 2015) Following that, a citation is made: (APA, 2015) Several pieces of work: (separate each work with semi-colons) According to research, listening to a specific dialect increases comprehension of accented speech in general, not only in that accent (GassVaronis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

  1. The following is a verbatim quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote) “The listener’s acquaintance with the topic of discourse substantially aids the comprehension of the entire message,” according to one research (GassVaronis, 1984, p.
  2. According to Gass and Varonis (1984), “the listener’s prior knowledge of the topic of discourse substantially assists the comprehension of the entire message” (p.
  3. Note: For direct quotes of more than 40 words, the quote should be displayed as an indented block of text without quotation marks, with the names of the authors, the year of publication, and the page number of the source in parentheses at the end.
  4. That is, prior exposure to nonnative speech, such as that received by listening to the reading, makes it easier to comprehend what is being read.

77) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formal

Define What In-Text Citations Are for Academic Writing

As you begin to write for your English and history studies, you will come across a variety of new terminology. However, you may not be aware of the requirement to acknowledge your research sources, and you may be unsure of the specific meaning of each phrase.

Being familiar with the phrases that are used in academic writing will help you better grasp the process. In order to describe what in-text citations are for academic writing, we’ll first discuss what citations are in general and how they relate to citations in particular.

What Are Citations?

Regardless of the citation format your teacher requires, you must always provide the names of your sources. Your sources are the places where you gather the information that will be used in your study. Consider the following scenario: your instructor has assigned you to write an English assignment about great female poets. You might start by conducting a web search to identify websites that provide information on this issue. Then you’ll need to visit the library and look for biographies or poetry collections to finish your reading list.

Once you’ve decided on the sources you’ll be using, you’ll need to gather some basic information about them.

You could even want to put up a preliminary bibliography.

You’ll most likely utilize MLA 8 format for middle and high school English assignments.

Examples of In-Text Citations

It is possible that you may wish to include direct quotes or paraphrases from your sources when you begin writing. The use of an in-text citation indicates when you have cited or paraphrased someone else’s work. In order to avoid plagiarism, always give credit to the original author. In-text citations connect the reader to the complete source item in the bibliography, works cited list, or reference list, where the information is found. In-text citations in MLA 8 style are demonstrated in this example.

Writers and poets frequently use poetic language to describe objects, such as when they refer to the moon as “the sleeping son’s sister” (Anaya 107).

Every in-text reference corresponds to a source record in the database.

Justa Publications published this book in 1976.

How to Use Style Guides

It is possible that you may wish to use direct quotes or paraphrases from your sources as you begin writing. An in-text citation identifies where you have cited or paraphrased another person’s work in your own work. Avoid plagiarism by always giving credit to the original author. Within the text of the paper, in-text citations connect the reader to the entire source item in the bibliography, works cited list, or reference list. Examples of in-text citations in MLA 8 style are shown in the following examples: Several Examples of In-Text Citation The night sky, according to Rudolfo Anaya, is “a deer moon, sister of the sleeping son” (107).

These in-text citations direct the reader to the specific source in the works referenced list, which they may then use to complete the assignment.

A source entry is associated with every in-text reference. For the related works referenced entry, use the following example: In this example, the works cited is In the Heart of Aztlan, by Rudolpho A. Anaya. In 1976, Justa Publications published a book called “The Secret of the Secret Garden.”

What is an in-text citation?

When citing material from a source in your own writing, you must mention the author, the year of publication, and, in certain cases, the page number of the source, according to APA requirements. (The page number is only necessary when direct quotations are used.) An in-text citation is a list of information that appears within a written document. A citation in the body of your paper should be included whenever information that was not originally yours is used in your paper. Referencing your references in-text is referred to as a reference citation since it directs the reader to your reference list.

(in English).

Types of Citations Parenthetical citations Narrative citations
In-text citationvariations The researcher completed the study(Johnson, 2013). Johnson (2013) completed theresearch study.
Direct quotationcitation variations One source stated that “APA is incrediblyfun” (Johnson,2013, p. 222). Johnson (2013) stated, “APA isincredibly fun”(p. 222).

Citations should be placed in the appropriate places. Following the information that it refers to, your citation should be placed exactly following it. Most of the time, citations may be discovered in one of two places:

  • An introduction phrase appears at the start of the sentence:

According to Johnson (2013), students find the APA style to be enjoyable. According to one report, pupils prefer utilizing the APA style guide (Johnson, 2013). On the other hand, if your statement contains many quotations from different sources, you may find it necessary to insert a quotation in the midst of your phrase. For example, one source reported that APA was entertaining (Johnson, 2013), although another source disagreed (Johnson, 2013). (Smith, 2013). It is important to note that, because the first half of the statement is derived from a different source than the second, the citation of Johnson appears in the midst of the sentence, while the citation of Smith appears at the conclusion of the sentence.

  • More information about in-text citations may be found here. See our citation guidelines for information on how and when to cite in your writing. The Writing Center’s self-paced APA modules are a great way to check your own citation skills. View previously recorded APA webinars on a variety of citation-related subjects
  • Are you looking for assistance with a reference list? Examples of reference entries may be found on the Common Reference List Examples page. See What information is included in a reference citation? and What information is included in a reference citation?
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A complete guide to MLA in-text citations

Shona McCombes published a new article on July 9, 2019. On July 2, 2021, a revision was made. It is necessary to supply the author’s last name and page number in parentheses when using anMLAin-text citation. If a source has more than one author, provide the names of both. If a source includes more than two authors, just the first author should be included, followed by the phrase “et al.” If the section you’re quoting is spread across numerous pages, make sure to provide the whole page range.

You can use commas to separate the page numbers of several non-consecutive pages when citing numerous non-consecutive pages at once.

Number of authors Example
1 author (Moore 37)
2 authors (Moore and Patel 48–50)
3+ authors (Moore et al. 59, 34)

Each in-text citation must be accompanied by a complete reference in the Works Cited section of the paper. With the free Scribbr Citation Generator, you can quickly and easily generate and store your citations. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator. Manual citations can also be generated by the user. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.

  1. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
  2. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
  3. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
  4. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.
  5. MLA citations will be generated automatically using the Scribbr Citation Generator.

Where to include an MLA in-text citation

Placing the parenthetical reference immediately after the relevant quotation or paraphrase and before the period or other punctuation mark is recommended (except withblock quotes, where the citation comes after the period). If you’ve already mentioned the author in the sentence, all you need to do now is put the page number within parentheses. The phrase “and others” or “and colleagues” should be used instead of “et al.” when referencing a source with three or more authors outside of parenthesis.

  • The MLA citation style is the second most common citation style, according to Smith and Morrison (17–19). According to Smith and Morrison (17–19), the MLA citation style is the second most used citation style. The American Psychological Association (APA) is by far “the most widely used citation style in the United States” (Moore et al. 74), but it is less dominant in the United Kingdom (Smith 16)
  • Moore and colleagues state that APA is more popular in the United States than elsewhere(74)
  • Moore and colleagues state that APA is

Combining citations

Whenever more than one source is cited in support of a single statement, the citations can be combined into a single pair of parentheses. Use an asemicolon to distinguish between the two sources. Livestock production is one of the most significant contributors to climate change on a worldwide scale (Garcia 64; Davies 14).

Consecutive citations of the same source

For the first time you cite a source, you can include the full citation; however, for subsequent citations, you can just include the page number. This is especially useful when citing the same source more than once within a paragraph. Smith and Morrison (17–19) report that MLA is the second most popular citation style. It is more popular than the Chicago style, but it is less popular than the American Psychological Association style (21). You are permitted to do so as long as it is clear from the text which source you are citing.

It is necessary to match the first element of the Works Cited entry to the in-text citation for sources that do not have a named author.

It is acceptable to shorten a source title or organizational name that is more than four words long to the first word or phrase contained in the in-text citation, excluding any articles (a, an,andthe).

Titles should be formatted according to the generalMLA rules: If the source is a self-contained work (for example, a whole website or an entire book), the title should be in italics; if the source is a part of a larger whole (for example, a page on a website or a chapter of a book), the title should be enclosed in quotes.

Full source title or organization name In-text citation
Amnesty International Report 2017/2018: The State of the World’s Human Rights (Amnesty International Report187)
“Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions” (“Sources”)
“A Quick Guide to Proofreading” (“Quick Guide”)
National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Academy (National Academy 24)

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Citing sources with no page numbers

For sources that do not contain page numbers but are separated into numbered sections (e.g., Chapters and Scenes in a Book of Mormon; Bible Books and Verse; Articles of the Constitution; or timestamps), utilize these numbers to identify the appropriate portion. It is sufficient to provide merely the author’s name as part of the in-text citation if the source does not employ a numerical system. Except if explicitly numbered in the source, do not add paragraph numbers when citing sources.

Source type What to do Example
Source divided into numbered parts Add a comma after the author and give a paragraph, section, or chapter number with a relevant abbreviation. (Luxemburg, ch. 26)
Playwith numbered lines Include the act, scene, and line numbers, separated by periods, instead of a page number. (Shakespeare1.2.95)
Audiovisual source Include the time range as displayed in the media player. (Wynn 10:23–45)
Source with no numbered divisions Include only the author’s name (or, if there is no author, the shortened title). (Rajaram)

It is important to note that if there are no numbered divisions and you have already identified the author in your sentence, no parenthetical citation is required.

Citing different sources with the same author name

If you have more than one item under the same last name on your Works Cited page, you must make a distinction between these sources in your in-text citations in order to avoid plagiarism.

Multiple sources by the same author

To indicate which source you are referring to when you mention more than one work by the same author, use a shorter title in your bibliography. It is acceptable to cite numerous sources by the same author (Butler, Gender Trouble27) (Butler, “Performative Acts” 522) According to this example, the title of the first source is italicized, while the title of the second source is in quote marks since it is an article that has been published in a journal, respectively.

Different authors with the same last name

Use the authors’ initials (or, if they are the same, the authors’ complete first names) in your in-text citations to distinguish between separate writers who have the same last name: Citing various writers with the same last name (A. Butler 19) is an example of plagiarism (J. Butler 27)

Citing sources indirectly

It is possible that you will wish to mention anything that you discovered was quoted in a secondary source. Always try to locate the original source and reference it explicitly if at all feasible. If you are unable to obtain access to the original source, be careful to provide the names of both the original author and the author of the source that you obtained access to. In order to specify where you found the quotation, you should use the abbreviation “qtd. in” (short for “quoted in”). As an example of an indirect quotation in MLA style, Marx describes “the two major generators of wealth” as “labour-power and land” (qtd.

26).

Frequently asked questions about MLA in-text citations

What is the proper way to reference material from a footnote in MLA format? Some types of sources, such as books and journal articles, may include footnotes (or endnotes) that provide further information about the source. The following are the criteria for referencing material from a note in an in-text citation according to MLA style:

  • Write “n” after the page number and then the note number, for example, (Smith 105n2), to quote material from a single-numbered note. To reference information from several numbered notes, use the notation “nn” followed by a range, for example, (Smith 77n1–2)
  • If you want to reference material from an unnumbered note, add “un” after the page number with a space between them, for example, (Jones 250 un)

In MLA format, how do I reference a source that does not include an author or page numbers? If a source does not have an author, the MLA Works Citedentry should begin with the source title. In your in-text citation, you should use an abbreviated version of the title. You can use an alternate locator (e.g., a chapter number for a book or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant part in your in-text citation if the source doesn’t have page numbers available.

If there are no numbered divisions in the source, only the author’s name should be used (or the title). There is no requirement for a parenthetical citation if you have already identified the author or title in your sentence and there is no locator accessible. For example:

  • As Rajaram contends, “cultural, political, and ideological objectives” influence how people see migration. “A movement for fundamentally alternative news,” according to the website of The Correspondent.

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LibGuides: Citation Resources: APA 7th Ed: In-Text Citations

The author-date citation method is used with parentheses in the APA 7 Style. After a quotation, provide parenthesis with the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) on which the quotation occurs. If a quotation is on a single page, precede the page number with the letter “p.”. Instead of “pp.”, “pp.” should be used for quotations that begin on one page and conclude on another. “Sometimes I have the distinct impression that there is a JERTAIN in the CURTAIN,” says one page (Seuss, 1974, p.

  1. “The swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog,” according to a quote on page two: (Seuss, 2007, pp.
  2. Using the letters a, b, and so on after the year indicates that you are using more than one work by the same author.
  3. 7-8).
  4. A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (D.
  5. 7-8).

Narrative Citations

When you utilize the author’s last name in the narrative of your work, do not include the author’s first and last names in the parenthesis. Dr. Seuss made the observation that “the swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound” in his scientific investigation (2007, pp. 7-8). “The swift brown fox hopped over the slow hound,” as Dr. Seuss put it in his book “The Lorax” in 2007. (pp. 7-8).

Citations with Missing Elements

When an author’s name is not accessible, the first few words of the reference list entry should be used instead (usually the title). Make use of quote marks around the names of articles or web pages, as well as italicizing the titles of books, journals, and other publications. A swift brown fox hopped over the lethargic dog, and the story goes on from there (Fox in Socks, 2007). When there are no page numbers available, paragraph numbers or other subsection identifiers should be used instead of page numbers.

5).

5-6).

Paraphrased Citations

Paraphrasing is the process of putting another person’s thoughts into your own words, which allows you to efficiently summarize and synthesize knowledge (p. 269). When paraphrasing concepts, you have the option of using either narrative or parenthetical citations. Using previously existing classroom literature education, stories may be utilized to teach social skills to kids. Emphasis should be placed on lessons that assist students analyze events and sympathize with characters (WolfBaker, 2012).

Seuss’ books to teach social skills to their pupils, based on a case study from one classroom teacher (p.

174). Keep in mind that if the source material is lengthy or difficult to understand, page numbers should be included to assist the reader in locating the text that is being paraphrased or referred to in your paper.

In-text citations

In scientific writing, it is necessary to recognize the contributions of others to your work in order to maintain credibility. The standards of good citation help authors guarantee that their contributions are understood in the context of the existing literature—how they are expanding on, critically evaluating, or otherwise engaging the work that has gone before them. It is possible to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism by following the criteria provided by the American Psychological Association Style Manual (APA Style).

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Additional resources

Academic Writer ® is a trademark of Academic Writer, Inc. Master academic writing with the help of the American Psychological Association’s vital teaching and learning resource. Adoption of the Course Is it possible to teach APA Style? Make the 7th version of the course syllabus your own. Manual of Publication Aids to Learning and Instruction Guides, checklists, seminars, tutorials, and example papers for anybody wishing to increase their understanding of the American Psychological Association (APA) style.

In-Text Citations: An Overview

In-text citations are brief, unobtrusive references that direct readers to the works-cited-list entries for the sources you consulted as well as, where applicable, to the location in the source being cited. In-text citations are used to direct readers to the works-cited-list entries for the sources you consulted. When you use an in-text citation, you begin with the shortest piece of information that directs your reader to the corresponding entry in the works-cited list. As a result, it begins with whichever of the following appears first in the entry: the author’s name or the title (or description) of the piece of writing.

Citation in prose

Naomi Baron was the first person to break fresh ground on the issue.

Parenthetical citation

At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Baron).

Work cited

Naomi S. Baron’s “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media” is available online. Pages 193–200 of PMLA’s 128, no. 1 (January 2013) are available online.

Citation in prose

Female bhakti poets, according to the article “Bhakti Poets,” “experienced insurmountable problems as a result of their rejection of traditional norms and ideals.”

Parenthetical citation

According to the author, the female bhakti poets “were confronted with insurmountable problems as a result of their rejection of society norms and values” (Bhakti Poets).

Work cited

“Introduction to the Bhakti Poets.” Women in World History, Center for History and New Media, chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson1/lesson1.php?s=0; Women in World History, Center for History and New Media, chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson1/lesson1.php?s=0 . Accessed on the 20th of September, 2020. Whenever it is appropriate, an in-text citation must include a second component: when someone quotes or paraphrases a specific part of a work and the work includes a page number, line number, time stamp, or other method of directing readers to a specific point in the work where the information can be found, the location marker must be included in parentheses.

Parenthetical citations

“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (194). One could even argue that reading is never complete until it is accompanied by writing. “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (3). It is also acceptable to include the author or title in parentheses next to the page number or other loca­tion marker.

Parenthetical citations

“Reading is only half of literacy,” says the author. “The other half of the team is writing” (Baron 194). One could even argue that reading is never complete until it is accompanied by writing. The number of people who conduct creative writing, regardless of genre (and not just literary works), climbed dramatically between 1982 and 2002 despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period, according to the study (Reading3).

Works cited

Naomi S. Baron’s “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media” is available online. Pages 193–200 of PMLA’s 128, no. 1 (January 2013) are available online. Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America is a survey of literary reading in the United States. The National Endowment for the Arts published this article in June 2004. All in-text citations should be brief and to the point. Avoid, for example, using the author’s name or the title of a work in both your text and your parentheses while writing a paper.

Citations (incorrect)

“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (Baron 194). “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (Reading3).

Citations (correct)

“Reading is only half of literacy,” according to Naomi Baron. “The other half of the team is writing” (194). “The number of individuals performing creative writing—of any type, not only literary works—increased dramatically between 1982 and 2002,” according to the report Reading at Risk, despite an apparent fall in reading during the same period (3). Only the component of an author’s name—typically his or her surname—that is essential to locate that item in a list of works referenced should be used in parenthetical citations (for more information on surnames, see sections 2.73–2.81 in The Modern Language Association’s ninth edition of the MLA Handbook).

Citation (incorrect)

At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Naomi S. Baron).

Citation (correct)

At least one researcher has made significant advancements in the field (Baron). In parenthetical citations, use abbreviated titles to save space. To learn how to reduce titles in parenthetical citations, refer to sections 6.10–6.14 of the MLA Handbook, ninth edition, for more information. In order to save space, do not include the prefix p.orpp. before a page number in a parenthetical reference, as you would in a list of works cited (where such abbreviations lend clarity). You should precede any number other than a page number in a parentheti­cal citation with a name such aschapterorsection (commonly abbreviated in parentheses) orlineorlines (typically abbreviated in parentheses) (do not abbreviate).

Your reader will be led to believe that the numeral represents a page number if you don’t specify otherwise.

What is an In-Text Citation? – APA Style Citations

Create an in-text reference if you wish to use material from a source in your article that you have already read and understood well. As previously stated, in-text citations make use of only a few facts about the source, which are sufficient to identify the source’s corresponding reference citation in the reference list. For all in-text citations in APA style, regardless of whether you are referencing a book, a journal or trade piece, a website, or any other object, you must provide the following elements:

  • When quoting directly from a source, provide the author’s family name(s) or the group name, the year, and the page number or other locator* if you are quoting word for word.

* Instructors may prefer that all in-text citations include the location of the source, so be sure to verify with your instructor. What is the best spot to put citations in my writing? The proper placement of in-text citations is critical since they inform your reader as to which ideas are your own and which ideas are the property of another author or authorship. When it comes to including in-text citations into your work, there are two methods to consider:

  • In your final sentence, use an aparenthetical reference. as an anarrative citationas a component of a sentence

Examples 1. An example of an in-text citation for a paraphrase To find out more about the parenthetical and narrative citations used in these paraphrases, simply click on the symbol. 2. Examples of in-text citations for a brief quotation To learn more about how to provide in-text citations for brief quotes, please click on the icon (less than 40 words). Citation in the Narrative Citation in the Parentheses 3. Examples of in-text citations for a lengthy quote To learn more about how to provide in-text citations for long quotes, please click on the icon (more than 40 words).

  • Because some sources do not contain page numbers, you should try to give some other identifier so that your reader can find the quotation more quickly if it is not on the page.
  • The picture below illustrates various instances of location information and the abbreviations that are acceptable for them.
  • What happens if there isn’t an author?
  • What happens if there isn’t a date?
  • Please refer to the APA Citation Handbook for answers to these and other issues, and if you want more assistance, please contact us.
  • Image credit information: “Two Ways To Insert Your Citation” by the University of Alberta Library’sAPA Style Citation Tutorial is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

“When to mention precise geographical information,” from the University of Alberta Library’sAPA Style Citation Tutorial, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

LibGuides: Citing Information: In-Text Citations

MLA style dictates that an in-text citation should direct the reader to the appropriate source in the “Works Cited.” For the most part, an in-text reference consists of the author’s last name and the page number of the referenced work. Multiple items are separated by a space in a parenthetical citation when more than one element is utilized in it. If a resource does not have any pages, the author will be the only thing that appears in the in-text citation. Except in the case of block quotes, parenthetical citations should be put immediately before the last punctuation mark of the phrase that mentions the book in question.

For Exact Quotes:

Whenever a quotation is less than four lines long, it should be enclosed in quotation marks, with the author’s name and page number inserted in parentheses after the quotation.

Example:

Although the corporate boss was obeyed, says Joseph Conrad in Heart of Darkness, “he inspired neither love nor dread, nor even respect” in those who knew him (87). When the author’s name does not occur in the signal phrase, the author’s name and the page number(s) should be included in the parenthetical citation, according to the rule.

Example:

“If the discovery of a signing ape was unpleasant news for linguists, it was much more shocking news for animal behaviorists,” says the author (Davis 26). It is not necessary to use quote marks when a quotation spans more than four lines; instead, you should indent it one inch from the main body of your text. The block quotation should be double spaced. Incorporate the author’s name or the title of the article into a signal phrase that precedes the quotation to make it more memorable. Finally, in parenthesis, directly after the final punctuation of the quotation, include the page number(s) of the passage you just read.

Example:

Towards the book’s climax, Ralph and the other lads come to grasp the magnitude of their actions: His eyes welled up with tears, and he was shaken by sobbing. It was the first time on the island that he really surrendered himself to them; he had big, shuddering spasms of anguish that seemed to rip his entire body apart. In the thick black smoke before the engulfing wreckage of the island, his voice soared over the din of sobbing and shaking. The other small boys were swept up in the emotion and began to tremble and sob as well.

(186)

For Paraphrased Ideas:

If the author(s) of the paraphrased content is clearly identifiable in your work, simply the page number should be included in the parenthetical citation.

Example:

Children who attend pre-school, according to Jakobson and Smith, are better socially adjusted than children who do not attend pre-school (156). It is necessary to give the author(s) and page number in the citation when paraphrasing when an individual author(s) is not readily defined within your text.

Example:

Between 1968 and 1988, the way presidential elections were covered on television underwent significant changes (Hallin 5).

Citing from Indirect Sources:

Using the word “qtd in” (quoted in) after a reference that was not originally from the source you have, provide the author(s) of the source you have, the volume of the source (if there is more than one), and the page number of the source you have. An indirect source may be documented in the Works Cited section of the website.

Example:

Edmund Burke was described as a “amazing man” by Samuel Johnson, who also praised him (qtd. in Boswell 2: 450).

Citing Audio/Video Materials:

The following rule should be followed when citing a reference from a time-based media source: provide the applicable time ranges in the format of hours, minutes, and seconds

Example:

Buffy’s assurance that “there won’t be any occurrences like there were at my last school” is clearly not one that she will be able to keep (” Buffy ” 00:03:16-17).

Subject guides: Citing and referencing: In-text citations

It is necessary to put the in-text citation directly after the text that relates to the source that is being cited. According to one source, “the darkest days were still to come.” Round brackets are used to indicate this. According to one source, “the worst days were still ahead.” (1) Using square brackets: “the worst days were still ahead.” The following is written in superscript: “The worst days were yet ahead,” as one author put it. 1 It is also possible to incorporate the author’s name within the text.

Page numbers should be included with in-text citations: It is not uncommon for page numbers to be omitted from the citation number.

More than one reference should be cited at a time: The preferable way is to list each reference number one after another, separated by a comma or a dash if the numbers are in a sequence of consecutive integers.

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