What Does Psa Mean In Text? (Solved)

What causes elevated PSA results?

  • Sometimes PSA readings are elevated because of something benign, such as ejaculating within 24 hours of the test, or because of a problem that needs treatment, such as a urinary tract infection, but that isn’t cancer.


What does PSA mean slang?

PSA means Public Service Announcement. It is a message for the public that they would be interested in, used a lot over social media.

What does PSA mean on Tik Tok?

PSA ( Public Service Announcement )

What does PSA mean in memes?

The More You Know is an NBC public service announcement (PSA) campaign that is popular to parody and use as a meme. The meme is used to explain information in a humorous, incorrect, or absurd way.

What does PSA mean in gaming?

[deleted] • 7 yr. ago. Additional comment actions. public service announcement.

What does POV mean slang?

POV stands for ‘ Point Of View ‘ and refers to a trend in which the video shows the viewer’s point of view of a certain situation.

How do you use PSA in a sentence?

Psa Sentence Examples The case of the new PSA test is not atypical. The PSA test, although imperfect, remains our best means of detecting prostate cancer at a stage when it can still be cured.

What is PSA on Instagram?

” Public Service Announcement ” is the most common definition for PSA on Snapchat, WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and TikTok.


PSA is an abbreviation for “Public Service Announcement” and PSA stands for “Prostate-Specific Antigen.”

Summary of Key Points

Snapchat, WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and TikTok all use the term “Public Service Announcement” as the most frequent description for PSAs on their respective platforms.

Definition: Public Service Announcement
Type: Abbreviation
Guessability: 3: Guessable
Typical Users: Adults and Teenagers

Second Definition of PSA

In medical circles, the term “Prostate-Specific Antigen” (PSA) is commonly used to refer to PSA.

Definition: Prostate-Specific Antigen
Type: Abbreviation
Guessability: 4: Difficult to guess
Typical Users: Specialists

Example of PSA Used in a Text

PSA: Please Contribute to the Improvement of Cyber Definitions.

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See Also

BLOCKCHAIN (public online ledger (cryptocurrency word)) is a type of public online ledger (also known as a blockchain. CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test) (completely automated public Turing test to tell computers and humans apart) GNU General Public License (general public license) IPO (Initial Public Offering) (initial public offering) NPR (National Public Radio (U.S.)) is an acronym for National Public Radio. PBS is a public broadcasting system (public broadcasting service)

Best 12 Definitions of Psa

(A utomationS ervices rofessionalS ervices) To increase the productivity and efficiency of the workforce, an information system must be in place that allows for the management of all opportunities, work, resources, expenses, revenues, and bills. PSOs, such as IT consulting companies and accountancy firms, or professional service divisions (PSDs) inside a corporation that bill for services provided by their personnel are the primary target of this document. From the beginning until the end An integrated system provides assistance for all aspects of the project, from the initial contact through the collection of funds and the posting of profits.

  • A project management system (PSA) assists in the conversion of project sizing and scope (the presales effort) into implementation timelines.
  • It also reserves and assigns individuals based on skills and availability, as well as career aspirations and travel preferences.
  • When it comes to firms that sell items, the system may connect inventory management with billing.
  • SeeCRM.
  • Management of Projects and Engagements Knowledge Management and Resource Management are two terms that come to mind.

Assignment of resources and scheduling of activities Reporting of Time and Expenses Accounting for Projects Billing and Revenue Management are two important aspects of running a business.

What does PSA mean? – PSA Definition – Meaning of PSA – InternetSlang.com

This could be the only web page dedicated to explaining the meaning ofPSA(PSA acronym/abbreviation/slang word).Ever wondered whatPSAmeans? Or any of the other 9309slang words, abbreviations and acronyms listed here atInternet Slang? Your resource for web acronyms, web abbreviations and netspeak.
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What is PSA?

The definition of PSA is “Publice Service Announcement”

The Meaning of PSA

PSA means “Publice Service Announcement”
So now you know – PSA means “Publice Service Announcement” – don’t thank us. YW!What does PSA mean? PSA is an acronym, abbreviation or slang word that is explained above where the PSA definition is given.
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Other terms relating to ‘service’:
�CAS Close Air Support Confidence, Appearance, Swagger Creativity, Action, Service
�CSR Customer Service Representative
�DDOS Distributed Denial of Service (network attack)
�DHS Department of Homeland Security Department of Health Services
�DNS Domain Name Service Did Not Start
�DOS Disk Operating System Denial Of Service (attack) Dad Over Shoulder
�DSS Department of Social Services
�EAS End of Active Service
�EMS Emergency Medical Service
�FREEBIE Item or service one gets for free
�GMAIL Google web email service
�GPRS General Packet Radio Services
�IIS Internet Information Services
�IRS Internal Revenue Service
�ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
�ISP Internet Service Provider
�MI6 Military Intelligence Service 6
�MMS Multimedia Messaging Service
�NCIS Naval Criminal Investigative Service (TV show)
�NHS National Health Service
�PBS Public Broadcasting Service
�QANTAS Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Service
�SAS Special Air Service
�SLA Service Level Agreement
�SMS Short Message Service
�SNAIL MAIL Regular postal service
�SP2 Service Pack 2
�SSID Service Set Identifier
�TACOS terms and conditions of service
�TOS Terms Of Service
�UPS United Parcel Service Uninterruptible Power Supply
�USPS United States Postal Service
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What does PSA stand for?

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What doesPSAmean?

PROSTATE specific antigen, PSA (noun) a protein produced exclusively by the prostate gland; PSA is produced for the ejaculate, in which it liquifies the semen and allows sperm cells to swim freely; elevated serum PSA concentrations have been linked to benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. see more » For additional information, please contact us.

Know what isPSA? Got another good explanation forPSA? Don’t keep it to yourself!

  • A.Be really brilliant
  • B.Be immediately back
  • C.Be regularly back
  • D.Be outrageously bold

Hearing impaired tip:

What is the correct way to sayPSAin ASL sign language fingerspelling?


Category filter:

Acronym Definition
PSA Public Service Announcement
PSA Prostate-Specific Antigen(test)
PSA Photographic Society of America
PSA Professional Services Automation
PSA Pressure Sensitive Adhesive
PSA Public Service Association(New Zealand)
PSA Psoriatic Arthritis
PSA Pseudomonas Aeruginosa(pathogen)
PSA Pharmaceutical Society of Australia
PSA Pacific Southwest Airlines
PSA Polar Surface Area
PSA Psychosocial Assessment
PSA Pseudo-Spectral Acceleration(earthquakes)
PSA Professional Squash Association
PSA Plesk Server Administrator(SWsoft)
PSA Production Sharing Agreement
PSA Public Service Agreement(UK government)
PSA Professional Skaters Association(Rochester, MN, USA)
PSA Public Sector Accounting
PSA Pennsylvania State Archives
PSA Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis(economics)
PSA Patient Services Assistant
PSA Plastic Surgery Associates(various locations)
PSA Poetry Society of America
PSA Personal Savings Account
PSA Private Sector Assessment
PSA Performance Spectrum Analyzer(Agilent Technologies)
PSA Proudly South African(marketing campaign)
PSA Particle-Size Analysis(Comparative grain size of soil, stone, and other building materials)
PSA Psychological First Aid
PSA Polysaccharide A(bacteria)
PSA Product Service Associate(various companies)
PSA Political Studies Association
PSA Passenger Service Agent(airlines)
PSA Police Service Area(Washington, DC)
PSA Police Service Area
PSA Petroleum Safety Authority(Norway)
PSA Philosophy of Science Association
PSA Pastel Society of America
PSA Platform Security Architecture(Arm Ltd.)
PSA Probabilistic Safety Assessment
PSA Poultry Science Association
PSA Private Security Authority(Ireland)
PSA Pediatric Services of America(various locations)
PSA Public Service Administration(various schools)
PSA Primary Service Area(various organizations)
PSA Professional Services Applications
PSA Physical Sector Address
PSA Personal Shopping Assistant
PSA Product Specific Attribute
PSA Process Save Area
PSA Prefixed Storage Area
PSA Peugeot Societe Anonyme
PSA Prefixed Save Area
PSA Portable Sport Audio
PSA Parallel Signature Analysis
PSA Provider Stationary Agent
PSA Program Start Address
PSA Print Server Appliance
PSA Php Site Admin
PSA Programa Social Agropecuario(Spanish: Agricultural Social Program; Argentina)
PSA Point Source Audio(Novato, CA)
PSA Problem Statement Analyzer
PSA Plataforma Solar de Almeria(Spain)
PSA Potato Sucrose Agar
PSA Port of Singapore Authority
PSA Purchase and Sale Agreement
PSA Postal Services Act(various locations)
PSA Public Securities Association
PSA Polysialic Acid
PSA Professional Services Agreement
PSA Public Service Alliance(various locations)
PSA Preferred Spin Axis(bowling)
PSA Passenger Shipping Association(UK shipping)
PSA Penal Substitutionary Atonement(Christianity)
PSA Planning and Service Area
PSA Public Service Activity(various schools)
PSA Partnership for a Secure America(bipartisan foreign policy initiative)
PSA Pakistani Students Association
PSA Personal Service Agentur(Deutsche Telekom inhouse employment agency)
PSA Pago por Servicios Ambientales(Spanish: Payment for Environmental Services; compensation program)
PSA Product Support Agreement
PSA Probabilistic Safety Analysis
PSA Pacific Sociological Association
PSA Parasternal Short Axis(cardiology)
PSA Planning Scheme Amendment(Australia)
PSA Pacific Science Association
PSA Production-Sharing Contract
PSA Pooling and Servicing Agreement
PSA Protection Suisse des Animaux
PSA Public Service Advertisement
PSA Patient Support Assistant(health care)
PSA Philmont Staff Association
PSA Post Shakedown Availability(US Navy)
PSA Pretrial Services Agency
PSA Property Settlement Agreement
PSA Pressure Swing Absorption
PSA Public Services Association
PSA Progressive Student Alliance
PSA Phycological Society of America
PSA Public Sector Agency
PSA Pseudoaneurysm
PSA Principal Staff Assistant(OSD)
PSA Private School Affidavit(California Department of Education)
PSA Protective Services for Adults
PSA Professional Staff Association(Maricopa County, AZ community college system)
PSA Property Services Agency
PSA Partido Socialista de Andalucía(Socialist Party of Andalucia, Spain)
PSA Protein Sequence Analysis
PSA Personal Satellite Assistant
PSA Physician Scarcity Area
PSA Project South Asia(digital library)
PSA Public Speaking Anxiety
PSA Public Sector Agreement
PSA Please See Attached(email threads)
PSA Pensacola Sports Association(Pensacola, FL)
PSA Protective Security Advisor
PSA Power Supply Adapter
PSA Professional Service Association
PSA Protein Specific Antigen
PSA Personal Search Agent(job search)
PSA Pacing System Analyzer
PSA Preliminary Site Assessment(environmental consulting)
PSA Parents Staff Association(various locations)
PSA Power System Analysis
PSA Professional Sales Associate
PSA Port Security Assessment
PSA Petroleum Supply Annual(US Department of Energy)
PSA Publication Services of America(lifestyle magazines; West Palm Beach, FL)
PSA Performance Stock Award(finance)
PSA Peugeot Société Anonyme(French company/manufacturer of Peugeot and Citroen vehicles)
PSA Perinatal Substance Abuse
PSA Personnel Support Activity
PSA Pervasive System Analyzer
PSA Persistent Staging Area(SAP Business Intelligence)
PSA Penguin Secret Agency(gaming clan)
PSA Product Sharing Agreement
PSA Partido Socialista Auténtico(Authentic Socialist Party, Argentina)
PSA Portrait Society of Atlanta(Atlanta, GA)
PSA Puget Soundkeeper Alliance
PSA Power Supply Agreement
PSA Professional Standards Advisory(Public Relations Society of America)
PSA Public Stadium Authority(Washington)
PSA Precision Strike Association
PSA Paralysis Society of America
PSA Project Smash Attack
PSA Potentiometric Stripping Analysis
PSA Protezione Svizzera degli Animali
PSA Psychology Students’ Association
PSA Purchased Service(s) Agreement
PSA Patient Support Assembly(medical equipment)
PSA Port Support Activity
PSA Puget Sound Alliance(est. 1984; Washington)
PSA Pleasant Sunday Afternoon(UK rugby club)
PSA Parameter-Sweep Application
PSA Principal Scientific Advisor
PSA Partnership South Africa(US and South Africa)
PSA Parcel Shippers Association
PSA Protection Sports Association
PSA Phoenix Shooters Association(UK, target shooting)
PSA Peruvian Student Association(various organizations)
PSA Pressure Swing Adsorber
PSA Pooled Separate Account(IRS Form 5500)
PSA Programme on Space Applications(UN)
PSA Patient Staging Area
PSA Plymouth Society of Artists(UK)
PSA Pilot Symbol Assisted
PSA Project Support Agreement
PSA PolySubstance Abuse
PSA Plastic Surgery Addiction
PSA Philippine Statistical Association
PSA Presbyterian Student Association
PSA Prepayment Standard Assumption
PSA Pisa, Italy – G Galilei(Airport Code)
PSA Per Store Average
PSA Parrot Society of Australia
PSA Personal Service Assistant
PSA Programmable Services Architecture(Nortel)
PSA Product-Specific Attribute
PSA Pennsylvania Society of Anesthesiologists
PSA Potter Slash Archive(fanfiction)
PSA Philippine Society of Anesthesiologists
PSA Packet Switching ASIC(Cisco)
PSA Princeton Soccer Association(Princeton, NJ)
PSA Punjabi Students Association(Pakistan)
PSA ProceduresStandards Administration(of ANSI)
PSA Plant Systems Audit(USDA)
PSA Phase Shift Analysis
PSA Portable Sanitation Association International
PSA Province Senior Advisor(Vietnam)
PSA Program Support Agreement
PSA Provisional Site Acceptance
PSA President’s Scout Award
PSA Personal Shopping Advisor
PSA Pre-Delivery Service Agent(network service payments)
PSA Pharmacy Service Associate
PSA Pot Smokers of America
PSA Proxy Signalling Agent
PSA Provisional System Acceptance
PSA Power Supplied to the Antenna
PSA Polarizer-Sample-Analyzer
PSA Pakistan Scrabble Association
PSA Public Service Ambassador
PSA Pay Systems of America(payroll processing company)
PSA Pulse Shaping Amplifier
PSA Pakistan Society of Anaesthesiologists
PSA Peel Summer Academy(Mississauga, Ontario, Canada)
PSA Port of Singapore Association
PSA Path Signature Analysis
PSA Pre-Sunrise Authorization(for AM radio stations)
PSA Professional Speakers Association of Europe
PSA Passenger Services Act of 1886
PSA Personal Sound Architecture
PSA Pseudo Stuck-At(Fault)
PSA Pleomorphic Salivary Gland Adenoma
PSA Pension Security Act(of 2003)
PSA Power Section Assembly
PSA Pelican Sailing Association
PSA Private Security Account
PSA Print Service Appliance
PSA Protocol Specific Annex(Winsock 2)
PSA Product Service Agreement
PSA Patrol Services Area
PSA Provisions Storage Assemblies
PSA Public Safety Activity(VRE)
PSA Production Support Application(SAP)
PSA Provision Stowage Assembly
PSA Predictive Support Awareness
PSA Premier School Agendas, Inc.
PSA Pedestrian Safety Assessment
PSA Pre-Solicitation Agreement
PSA Personal Salon Assistant
PSA Personnel Status Accounting
PSA Publishing Support Assistant
PSA Printer Subassembly
PSA Policyholder Surplus Accounts(insurance industry)
PSA Presidential Support Aircraft
PSA Project Support Agency
PSA Portsmouth Soccer Association
PSA Premier School Agendas Ltd(Canada)
PSA Pushdown Stack Automation
PSA Perfect Slot Allocation
PSA Planar Spaced Array
PSA Procedural Status Attribute
PSA Performance Specification Acquisition
PSA Pulse Stream Arithmetic
PSA Packaging Safety Assessment
PSA Professional Sports Authenticators/Authentication
PSA Phytochemical Society of Asia
PSA Prohibit Signaling Address(Bellcore)
PSA PSYOPS Support Activity
PSA Protection Switch Activated(Alcatel)
PSA Proposición Subordinada Adjetiva(Spanish grammar)
PSA Prolate Spheroidal Antenna
PSA Platform Services Agreement
PSA Post Shipment Advices(UK)
PSA Previous Service Agreement
PSA Prabhu Dasi Sisters of Ajmeer

What does PSA stand for?

It is an abbreviation for a public service advertisement that is made to enhance public awareness of a certain topic; it is most typically used to promote people’s health and safety and was first used during World War II in the United Kingdom and the United States of America.


“Did you notice the public service announcement against texting and driving? Scary!”

Related Slang

PBS Public Broadcasting Service
PR Public relations
BAA Broad agency announcement
DOC Drug of choice
meds Medications


The most recent update was made on April 9, 2014.

PSA definition

This article provides an explanation of what the abbreviation “PSA” stands for. The Slangit team has authored and collated the definition, example, and related words given above. If you have any questions, please contact us. We are regularly adding new slang phrases, acronyms, and abbreviations to our database to keep it up to date. Please let us know if you have any suggestions for new terms or updates to current ones.

Definition of PSA

  • Examples
  • British
  • Medical
  • Scientific
  • Top Definitions
  • Quiz
  • Examples

Acronym for prostate specific antigen: a protein generated by the prostate that has increased levels in the bloodstream and might signal the presence of cancer. QUIZ IS IT POSSIBLE FOR YOU TO BE A TRUE BLUE CHAMPION OF THESE “BLUE” SYNONYMS? Despite the fact that we could chat about this quiz until we’re blue in the face about the color “blue,” we believe that you should take the quiz and find out whether or not you’re a wiz at these colorful terminology. What one of the following adjectives best depicts the color “sky blue”?

Words nearbyPSA

Prataneum, Prythee, Przemyl, Przewalski’s horse, ps, PSA, Psalm, Psalmbook, Psalmist, Psalmody, Prytaneum, Prythee PsalmsDictionary.com The Random House Unabridged Dictionary was used to create this edition. 2021 Random House, Inc.

How to usePSAin a sentence

  • “PSA: That Bulge Is Not Actually Idris Elba’s Penis,” according to the Huffington Post
  • Another video that is less than a minute long and has a small PSA at the conclusion Based on the terminology used in this PSA, it is reasonable to assume that the intended audience for this PSA consists of people who really possess firearms. You can view the PSA here. It includes two young boys who are shown interacting with adult sex items.
  • Every episode concluded with a sincere public service announcement, every character was an archetype, and every scenario posed a fresh youthful predicament. I was immediately comforted by the words of this lovely scripture: “He will grant the wish of those who fear him,” as soon as it was completed. Some people have reported lying in bed doing nothing but singing psa’ms continuously, and still they have reported arriving to the same destination. However, “Increase” or “Increased” was the representative of this class of thanksgiving names, in clear allusion to LouisPsa(b. 1850), who has carved out a sphere of his own in his charming poems for and about children, des anym (“My dear Mother”)
  • “All kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him,” and “All nations shall serve him,” among other lines. Psa

British Dictionary definitions forPSA

Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) is an enzyme released by the prostate gland, and elevated levels of this enzyme have been identified in the blood of individuals with prostate cancer (in New Zealand) The Public Service Employees’ Union 2012 Digital Edition of the Collins English Dictionary – Complete Unabridged Edition (William Collins SonsCo. Ltd. 1979, 1986) In 1998, HarperCollinsPublishers published the following books: 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2012.

Medical definitions forPSA

Prostate-specific antigen (abbreviated as PSA) The Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, published by American Heritage® Houghton Mifflin Company owns the copyright for the years 2002, 2001, and 1995. Houghton Mifflin Company is the publisher of this book.

Scientific definitions forPSA

Prostatic-specific antigen is abbreviated as PSA.

The American Heritage® Science Dictionary is a resource for those interested in science. The year 2011 is the year of the copyright. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company is the publisher of this book. All intellectual property rights are retained.

PSA – Wikipedia

PSA, PsA, Psa, orpsa are all abbreviations for the following:

Biology and medicine

  • The posterior spinal artery
  • Primary systemic amyloidosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of aberrant proteins in the bloodstream
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), an enzyme that can be used as a blood marker to detect prostate cancer in men It is an inflammatory condition known as psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium that belongs to the genus Pseudomonas. Kiwifruit are infected by Pseudomonas syringaepv.actinidiae, which is a pathovar of a bacterium that infects the fruit.


  • Polar surface area, which is the sum of the surface areas of all polar atoms in a molecule
  • Pressure swing adsorption is a technique for separating or purifying gases that was developed in the 1960s.


  • Professional services automation, software for automating project and billing management for professional service firms
  • A security certification for the Internet of Things called PSA Certified (Platform Security Architecture) is available. PleskServer Administrator, a commercial web hosting automation program

Contracts, legislation, and government

  • The Passenger Vessel Services Act of 1886 (also known as the Passenger Services Act in the United States)
  • Primary statistical area, which includes metropolitan, micropolitan, and mixed statistical areas, is a collective designation for these areas. The problem-solution technique, which is used by the European Patent Office to determine whether or not an invention is innovative
  • A production sharing agreement is a contract between a government and a corporation that extracts natural resources. In Jammu and Kashmir, there is a statute called the Public Safety Act. Three-year objectives for a public service agreement set by the United Kingdom’s government department The following is a Public Service Announcement: Agreement for the purchase and sale of goods, which is made between two parties (buyer and seller)


  • Pacific Science Association
  • Pacific Sociological Association
  • Philosophy of Science Association
  • Professional Snowboarders Association
  • Professional Skaters Association
  • Professional Squash Association
  • Pacific Science Association
  • Pacific Soci

Specific to large English-speaking countries

  • The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, the Public Schools Association of Perth, the Public Service Association of NSW, a trade union, and The Salvation Army, Parramatta are all examples of charitable organizations.
  • Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care
  • Property Services Body (a previous government agency)
  • Phone-paid Services Authority
  • Political Studies Association (for academics)
  • Poultry Science Association, Photographic Society of America, Pi Sigma Alpha, collegiate honor society for political science, Partnership for a Secure America, and the American Red Cross are among the organizations represented.

Other country-specific organizations

  • PSA BPOL, a specialized police unit under the Federal Police of Germany
  • Parti Solidaire Africain (Democratic Republic of the Congo), a defunct political organization
  • The New Zealand Public Service Association, a trade union
  • Petroleo Safety Authority Norway, an independent governmental supervisory authority
  • Palestinian Scout Association
  • Philippine Statistics Authority
  • Philippine Support Association, which provides low-interest loans to the poor
  • Polish Society of Actuaries
  • PSA International (Singapore), formerly the Port of Singapore Authority
  • Public Servants Association of South Africa, a trade union
  • Partido Socialista de Andaluca (Spain), formerly the Andalusian Party
  • Socialist Party of Aragon (Partid In Argentina, the Authentic Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Auténtico) is a trade union
  • In Trinidad and Tobago, the Public Services Association (Public Services Association of Trinidad and Tobago) is a trade union.


  • A subsidiary of American Airlines Group
  • Pisa International Airport (IATA code PSA), located in Pisa, Italy
  • Pacific Southwest Airlines (ICAO code PSA), which operated in the United States from 1949 to 1988
  • Penn Station Access, a proposed rail upgrade in New York City
  • Groupe PSA, Peugeot Société Anonyme, a French multinational automobile manufacturer

Other uses

  • A Christian idea of atonement based on substitution of punishment for sin
  • In addition, the Professional Sports Authenticator (PSA), which is a division of Collectors Universe, authenticates sports and trading cards
  • Autonomous Socialist Party (disambiguation)
  • Autonomous Socialist Party (short form). Pisa languageor Asue Awyu, ISO 639-3 code psa
  • Pisa languageor Asue Awyu Piscis Austrinus (Southern Fish) constellation, abbreviated PsA by the International Astronomical Union. Stock ticker for public storage
  • A contemporary art museum in Shanghai, China, known as the Power Station of Art
  • Adhesive that responds to pressure “PSA,” the title of an early version of the R.E.M. song “Bad Day,” is a public service announcement.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

  • What is the PSA test
  • Is the PSA test advised for prostate cancer screening
  • What is the significance of the PSA test
  • What is a typical PSA test result
  • What should you do if your PSA level is raised as a result of a screening test? When it comes to prostate cancer screening, what are some of the limits and potential dangers of the PSA test
  • When it comes to prostate cancer screening, what kind of research has been done? The PSA test is used to determine whether or not a man has prostate cancer after he has been treated. An rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a man who has had prostate cancer treatment is concerning. What steps are being taken by researchers to enhance the PSA test

What is the PSA test?

PSA (prostate-specific antigen) is a protein generated by both normal and malignant cells of the prostate gland. It is a marker for prostate cancer. The PSA test is used to determine the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) present in a man’s blood. An anonymous blood sample is drawn and sent to a laboratory for examination in this procedure. PSA levels are often expressed as nanograms of PSA per milliliter of blood (ng/mL) in the literature. Men with prostate cancer frequently have increased PSA levels in their blood, and the PSA test was first approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1986 to monitor the course of prostate cancer in men who had previously been diagnosed with the condition, according to the FDA.

In order to assist doctors assess the nature of the disease, men who report prostate problems are frequently subjected to PSA testing (together with a DRE).

These disorders include: Prostatitis (prostate inflammation) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are the two most common benign prostate disorders that are associated with an increase in PSA levels (enlargement of the prostate).

Is the PSA test recommended for prostate cancer screening?

Until around 2008, several doctors and professional groups recommended that men begin having an annual PSA screening when they reach the age of 50. According to certain organizations, men who are at increased risk of prostate cancer, such as African-American males and men whose father or brother had prostate cancer, should begin screening around the age of 40 or 45, depending on their gender. However, as more information became available regarding both the advantages and risks of prostate cancer screening, a growing number of groups began to express concern about systematic population screening for the disease.

Currently, Medicare covers a yearly prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test for all Medicare-eligible males over the age of 50.

What is a normal PSA test result?

A man’s PSA levels may fluctuate over time, and there is no single normal or abnormal amount of PSA in the blood that can be determined. Prior to the advent of modern medicine, most doctors believed PSA values of 4.0 ng/mL or below to be normal. As a result, if a man’s PSA level was greater than 4.0 ng/mL, doctors would frequently urge a prostate biopsy in order to assess whether prostate cancer had developed. According to current research, some men with PSA levels below 4.0 ng/mL have prostate cancer, but many men with higher PSA levels do not (1).

For example, if a guy suffers from prostatitis or an infection of the urinary system, his PSA level is likely to rise.

In contrast, some medications, such as finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart), which are used to treat BPH, might cause a man’s PSA level to drop.

Another complicating element is that research to define the normal range of PSA levels have been undertaken predominantly in populations of White males, which makes determining the normal range of PSA levels more difficult.

Prostate cancer is more common among men who have high PSA levels, which means that they are more likely to have the disease than those who do not. Furthermore, a steady increase in a man’s prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level over time may be indicative of prostate cancer.

What if a screening test shows an elevated PSA level?

An increased PSA level may be detected in a man who does not have any signs or symptoms of prostate cancer during a prostate cancer screening test. If this result is confirmed, the doctor may order another PSA test to confirm the previous finding. If the PSA level remains high, the doctor may advise the man to continue with PSA tests and DREs at regular intervals in order to monitor for any changes during the course of the disease. Depending on whether or not a man’s PSA level continues to rise or if a suspicious lump is seen during a DRE, the doctor may suggest further testing to establish the source of the problem.

It is also possible that the doctor will suggest imaging tests such as a transrectal ultrasound, x-rays, or cystoscopy.

In this process, several samples of prostate tissue are obtained by the insertion of hollow needles into the prostate and the withdrawal of the needles from the prostate.

After that, a pathologist analyzes the tissue under a microscope to determine its condition.

What are some of the limitations and potential harms of the PSA test for prostate cancer screening?

Early detection of prostate cancer may not be associated with a lower risk of dying from prostate cancer. When performed in conjunction with other screening tests, the PSA test can aid in the detection of tiny cancers that do not produce symptoms. Although finding a tiny tumor may lessen a man’s risk of dying from prostate cancer, it does not definitely mean that he will live longer. Because many cancers discovered by PSA testing develop at such a sluggish rate, they are unlikely to pose a threat to a man’s life.

  • Overtreatment exposes men to the possible difficulties and dangerous side effects of therapies for early prostate cancer, such as surgery and radiation therapy, that they may not need to be exposed to.
  • It’s also possible that detecting cancer early will be ineffective for a guy who is suffering from a fast-growing or aggressive tumor that has spread to other regions of his body before being discovered.
  • A false-positive test result happens when a man’s prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is raised although no cancer is present.
  • Blood loss and bleeding are possible adverse effects of biopsies.
  • A prostate biopsy is recommended for men who have a high PSA level; however, only around 25% of men who have a prostate biopsy as a result of an elevated PSA level are discovered to have prostate cancer after the biopsy is performed (2).

It is possible that false-negative test results will provide a man, his family, and his doctor with false assurance that he does not have cancer while he may, in reality, have cancer that requires medical attention.

What research has been done to study prostate cancer screening?

Many randomized clinical trials for prostate cancer screening have been conducted in recent years. Another large study is the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), which was conducted by the National Cancer Institute to determine whether certain screening tests can help reduce the number of deaths from several common cancers. The PLCO trial is one of the largest cancer screening studies ever conducted. Men were tested for prostate cancer in the prostate component of the study, and the PSA test and DRE were evaluated for their potential to reduce the likelihood of dying from prostate cancer.

  1. Overall, the findings indicate that many men were treated for prostate cancers that would not have been found in their lifetimes if they had not had screening during their lives.
  2. Prostate cancer fatalities were compared in a second big study, the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), which randomly allocated men to PSA-based screening or to no screening.
  3. Men who were tested, in contrast to those who were not, had a reduced incidence of mortality from prostate cancer than those who were not (4,5).
  4. These findings indicated a similar degree of advantage between the PLCO and the ERSPC trials and that both trials were consistent with a reduction in prostate cancer death as a result of prostate cancer screening, according to the results of this research (6).
  5. More significantly, the model was unable to offer an assessment of the balance between the advantages and dangers of screening procedures.
  • One prostate cancer fatality would be prevented
  • 120 men would have a false-positive test result that leads to a biopsy
  • Some men who obtain a biopsy would feel at least moderately uncomfortable symptoms as a result of the biopsy
  • And 100 men would be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Eighty percent of individuals would be treated with surgery or radiation (either immediately or after a period of active observation), according to the plan. It is estimated that at least 60 of these men will experience a significant side effect as a result of their therapy, such as erectile dysfunction and/or urine incontinence.

How is the PSA test used in men who have been treated for prostate cancer?

It is common practice to utilize the PSA test to follow people who have a history of prostate cancer to determine whether or not their disease has returned (come back). Increasing PSA levels in males following prostate cancer therapy may be the earliest symptom of a return of the disease. Typically, a “biochemical relapse” manifests itself months or years before the onset of other clinical signs and symptoms of prostate cancer recurrence are observed. While a single increased PSA reading in a patient with a history of prostate cancer is concerning, it does not always indicate that the disease has returned.

It is possible that the doctor will prescribe that you retake the PSA test or that you undergo additional tests to check for signs of a recurrence. Instead of looking for a single elevated PSA level, the doctor may be looking for a trend of increased PSA levels over time.

What does an increase in PSA level mean for a man who has been treated for prostate cancer?

If a man’s PSA level rises following prostate cancer therapy, his doctor will take a variety of variables into consideration before prescribing further treatment. It is not suggested to pursue further therapy based on a single PSA result. The doctor may instead prescribe continued therapy when a man’s PSA level continues to rise over time in conjunction with other abnormalities such as an abnormal result on imaging testing.

How are researchers trying to improve the PSA test?

Scientists are looking for ways to enhance the PSA test so that doctors can distinguish between malignant and noncancerous diseases, as well as slow-growing tumors and fast-growing, potentially deadly tumours. There has been no evidence that any of these treatments can reduce the chance of dying from prostate cancer. Some of the approaches under investigation are as follows:

  • PSA for free versus total PSA The proportion of free PSA is defined as the difference between the quantity of PSA in the blood that is “free” (that is, not bound to other proteins) and the total amount of PSA (that is, free plus bound). A smaller proportion of free PSA may be related with more aggressive cancer
  • PSA density in the transition zone, according to some research. The ratio of the PSA level in the blood to the volume of the transition zone of the prostate is called the PSA index. The transition zone is the region of the prostate that is located within the interior of the prostate and surrounds the urethra. This metric may be more accurate in diagnosing prostate cancer than the usual PSA test, according to some data
  • Age-specific PSA reference ranges Men’s PSA levels tend to rise as they get older, and it has been suggested that using age-specific PSA reference ranges may help to improve the accuracy of PSA testing. Age-specific reference ranges, on the other hand, have not been widely accepted since their usage may delay the discovery of prostate cancer in many men
  • PSA velocity and PSA doubling time are two measures of prostate cancer risk. PSA velocity is defined as the pace at which a man’s PSA level changes over time, given in nanograms per milliliter per year. The duration of time during which a man’s PSA level doubles is referred to as the PSA doubling time. Some research shows that the pace at which a man’s PSA level rises may be useful in determining whether or not he has prostate cancer
  • This is referred to as Pro-PSA. Pro-PSA is a term that refers to various distinct inactive precursors of prostate-stimulating hormone (PSA). Several studies have found that pro-PSA is more significantly related with prostate cancer than with benign prostatic hyperplasia. One recently authorized test combines the measurement of a kind of pro-PSA known as proPSA with the measurement of PSA and free PSA in one convenient test. It is possible to utilize the generated “prostate health index” to assist a man with a PSA level between 4 and 10 ng/mL in deciding whether or not to proceed with a biopsy
  • IsoPSA. PSA can be found in the blood in a variety of structural forms (referred to as isoforms). In men with prostate cancer, the IsoPSA test, which assesses the complete spectrum of PSA isoforms rather than just the quantity of PSA in the blood, may aid in the selection of those who should undergo biopsy (8)
  • PSA in conjunction with other biomarkers. It is being investigated whether tests that combine measures of PSA in blood with measurements of other biomarkers associated to prostate cancer in blood or urine would be effective in differentiating high-risk illness from low-risk disease. In addition to kallikrein-related peptidase 2, prostatecancer antigen 3 (PCA3), and the TMPRSS2-ERGgene fusion, several biomarkers have been identified.

The Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood Test

The prostate gland produces prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which is a protein that may be detected. The presence of elevated PSA levels may indicate the presence of prostate cancer, a noncancerous disease such as prostatitis, or an enlargement of the prostategland

What Are Normal PSA Levels?

There is no such thing as a normal PSA for any man at any given age, but the majority of men with prostate cancer have a PSA that is higher than the usual amount for their age. In general: If your PSA values are in the borderline range (4 to 10), the percent free PSA can be beneficial in determining whether you have prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate) (BPH). When it comes to prostate cancer, the trend is the inverse of what is found with PSA, with a high percent free PSA (above 20%) indicating BPH, while a percent free PSA less than 10% predicts a larger probability of cancer.

How Is The PSA Screening Test Done?

The test requires drawing blood from your arm, which is generally the case. The sample will be sent to a laboratory by the doctor. The majority of the time, results are received within a few days.

When Should I Have My PSA Levels Tested?

The first step is to speak with your doctor about the advantages and disadvantages of prostatecancerscreening before deciding whether or not to have your prostate checked. Don’t take any tests until you’ve had that conversation. Different people have different ideas about when you should do this. The American Cancer Society recommends getting checked at the following ages:

  • You should aim for a 40 or 45 if you are at high risk
  • A 50 if you are at moderate risk.

The American Urological Association recommends the following:

  • No screening if you are under the age of 40
  • No screening between the age of 40 to 54 if you are at medium risk. If you’re at high risk, you and your doctor can make a decision together. 55 to 69 years old: If your doctor recommends it, you should be screened. No screening if you are above 70 or have a life expectancy of fewer than 10-15 years.

According to the United States Preventive Services Task Force:

  • Men between the ages of 55 and 69 who are at risk for prostate cancer should be tested.

The next step is a biopsy if your doctor suspects you have prostate cancer, which can be determined by your PSA level or a rectal examination. In this test, your doctor will remove a little piece of tissue from your prostate and send it to a laboratory for testing. It is the only technique to determine whether or not you have cancer.

What Does a High PSA Level Mean?

The presence of elevated PSA values might indicate the presence of prostate cancer or another ailment such as prostatitis or an enlarged prostate. Other factors can have an impact on your PSA level, including:

  • Age. Even if you do not have prostate issues, your PSA will often rise steadily as you become older
  • Medications. Some medications may have an effect on PSA levels in the blood. Do not hesitate to inform your doctor if you are taking dutasteride (Avodart) or finasteride (Propecia orProscar). These medications have the potential to erroneously decrease PSA values by half of what they should be.

If your PSA level is elevated, your doctor may recommend that you have a prostate biopsy in order to rule out cancer.

Alternative PSA Testing

Newer PSA testing may be able to assist your doctor in determining whether or not you require a biopsy. However, keep in mind that doctors are not always in agreement on how to utilize or interpret the findings of these tests.

  • PSA that is 100 percent free. PSA manifests itself in the blood in two distinct ways. One is connected to the proteins in the blood. The other person is free to roam about. The percent-free PSA test measures how much prostate-specific antigen (PSA) flows freely when compared to the overall PSA level. Men with prostate cancer had lower levels of free PSA than healthy men. If your PSA levels are in the borderline range (4 to 10), a low percent-free PSA (less than 10 percent) indicates that you have prostate cancer, with a 50 percent likelihood of developing the disease in the future. You should most likely have a biopsy performed. Biopsies are recommended by certain clinicians for males whose percent-free PSA is 20 or below
  • PSA velocity is also recommended by some doctors. The PSA velocity is not a distinct test from the others. Instead, it is a measure of the change in your PSA levels over the course of a given time period. Even if your overall PSA value is less than 4, a high PSA velocity (a increase of more than 0.75 ng/mL in one year) indicates that you may have prostate cancer and should consider having a biopsy
  • Urine PCA3 test. This urine test searches for a combination of genes that are present in 50% of men with prostate cancer who have been tested for PSA. It’s another another method for determining whether or not you require a biopsy.

Problems With the PSA Test

There are several reasons why doctors disagree on whether or not you require this test:

  • Finding prostate cancer early does not necessarily mean that you will be protected. Small, slow-growing cancers that are not life-threatening are frequently discovered by the PSA test. Treating them in any manner, whether by surgery or radiation, can put you at risk for serious side effects and consequences, so be cautious. Furthermore, if you have an aggressive tumor or if it has spread to other regions of your body before you were diagnosed, early detection may be ineffective
  • The findings are not always reliable. If you have a high level but do not have cancer, the findings of the test might cause a great deal of anxiety and may lead to medical procedures that are not necessary. If you are diagnosed with cancer, a negative test result may prevent you from receiving the therapy you require.

Using the PSA Blood Test After Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

Although the PSA test is primarily used to screen for prostate cancer, it can also be used to provide the following information to your doctor:

  • Select a course of therapy. The PSA test, in conjunction with an examination and the presence or absence of a tumor, can aid in determining the stage of prostate cancer. This may have an impact on treatment alternatives
  • Evaluate treatment outcomes. Following surgery or radiation, your doctor can monitor your PSA level to see whether or not the therapy was effective. If all of the cancer cells have been removed or eliminated, the PSA levels should decrease. It is possible that prostate cancer cells are present in your body and that your cancer has returned if your PSA level is increasing.

If you choose for a watchful waiting strategy to therapy, your PSA level might inform your doctor whether or not the illness is advancing in your case. If this is the case, you’ll need to consider active treatment options. During hormone therapy, the PSA level can be used to determine how effectively the treatment is working and whether it is appropriate to switch to a different type of medication.

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