What Is A Text Structure?

  • Text Structure. The term “text structure” refers to how information is organized in a passage. The structure of a text can change many times in a work and even within a paragraph. Students are often asked to identify text structures or patterns of organization on state reading tests.


What is a text structure example?

Examples of text structures include: sequence/process, description, time order/chronology, proposition/support, compare/contrast, problem/solution, cause/effect, inductive/deductive, and investigation. The benefits of text structure instruction for reading comprehension have strong empirical support.

What are the 5 types of text structure?

Text structures Now we will talk about internal text structure – the way the text is written – to also help us get information from non-fiction text more easily. There are five types of text we are going to discuss: definition/description, problem-solution, sequence/time, comparison and contrast, and cause and effect.

How do you explain text structure to a child?

Text structure refers to the way a story is arranged when it’s written. The arrangement of the story depends on the information that’s being shared.

What are the 6 types of text structures?

Terms in this set (6)

  • Chronological. Goes in order of time/date.
  • Cause and effect. One thing happen that cause something else to happen.
  • Problem and solution. A proposed solution to a problem.
  • Compare and contrast. Similarities and differences.
  • Spatial. Describes how a space is arranged.
  • Descriptive.

What are the common types of text structure?

This lesson teaches five common text structures used in informational and nonfiction text: description, sequence, cause and effect, compare and contrast, and problem and solution.

What are the 4 types of structures?

There are four types of structures;

  • Frame: made of separate members (usually thin pieces) put together.
  • Shell: encloses or contains its contents.
  • Solid (mass): made almost entirely of matter.
  • liquid (fluid): braking fluid making the brakes.

What are the 4 text types?

There are many aspects to literary writing, and many ways to analyse it, but four basic categories are descriptive, narrative, expository, and argumentative.

What is text structure and why is it important?

Text structures refer to the way authors organize information in text. Recognizing the underlying structure of texts can help students focus attention on key concepts and relationships, anticipate what is to come, and monitor their comprehension as they read.

How do you identify text structure and form?

To put this simply, analyse:

  1. FORM – is the name of the text type that the writer uses. For example, scripts, sonnets, novels etc.
  2. STRUCTURE – is how the plot is ordered and put together for the reader.
  3. LANGUAGE – the words a writer uses and what impact they have.

How do you identify and analyze a text structure?

When you are analyzing the structure of any text, use these strategies:

  1. Identify the topic and purpose. Consider what the text is mostly about and why the writer might have written it.
  2. Locate signal words.
  3. Track the ideas.
  4. Evaluate text structure.

Why is text structure important in writing an essay?

Structure is important in academic writing becuase it helps to make your ideas clear, guides the reader’s comprehension and can strengthen your arguments.

Why is text structure important in gathering information?

Why is Text Structure Important? When readers identify and recognize the text structure of a text, this can significantly improve their comprehension and retention of information. Understanding the text structure can help students: Organize information and details they are learning in their minds while reading.

Text Structure

Text structure refers to the manner in which the information contained inside a written text is presented. This method assists students in comprehending that a book may convey a major concept and details; a cause and subsequently its effects; and/or diverse points of view on a subject matter. Students’ ability to detect typical text structures can be improved by teaching them to keep track of their own understanding.


This method can be used with the entire class, small groups, or individuals by the instructor. Learners develop the ability to recognize and understand text structures, which aids them in navigating the varied structures given in factual and fiction texts, respectively. Match-up activities such as having students compose paragraphs that follow common text patterns help students identify these text structures while they are reading.

Create and Use the Strategy

  1. Identify the prescribed reading and provide an introduction to the material to the students. Introduce the concept of text structures, which are patterns of arrangement for texts. Introduce the following typical text structures (for more complete information, please consult the chart below):
  • Description, sequencing, issue and solution, cause and effect, and comparison and contrast are all included.

In this section, you will introduce yourself and model the text structure using a visual organizer.

To use the text structure strategy teachers should:

  1. Examples of paragraphs that relate to each text structure should be provided. Examine topic phrases that provide hints to the reader about a certain structure
  2. And Model the writing of a paragraph that employs a certain text structure for your students. Assigning children the task of writing paragraphs that adhere to a specified text structure is recommended. Students should use a graphic organizer to draw a diagram of these structures.


Text Structure Definition /Example Organizer
Description This type of text structure features a detailed description of something to give the reader a mental picture.Example: A book may tell all about whales or describe what the geography is like in a particular region.
Cause and Effect This structure presents the causal relationship between a specific event, idea, or concept and the events, ideas, or concept that follow.Example:Weather patterns could be described that explain why a big snowstorm occurred.
Comparison / Contrast This type of text examines the similarities and differences between two or more people, events, concepts, ideas, etc.Example: A book about ancient Greece may explain how the Spartan women were different from the Athenian women.
Order / Sequence This text structure gives readers a chronological of events or a list of steps in a procedure.Example: A book about the American revolution might list the events leading to the war. In another book, steps involved in harvesting blue crabs might be told.
Problem–Solution This type of structure sets up a problem or problems, explains the solution, and then discusses the effects of the solution.


Sam V. Dickson, D. C. Simmons, and Emeenui E. J. Kameenui are all professors at the University of Hawaii at Mnoa (1995). This paper presents a summary of studies on text arrangement and its relationship to reading comprehension. The National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators is based in Eugene, Oregon. Dymock, S. (March 26, 2008) was the source of this information (2005). Teaching Expository Text Structure Awareness is a difficult task. The Reading Teacher, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 177-181.

  • Simonsen is a professor of sociology at the University of Minnesota (1996).
  • Lapp, J.
  • Farnan (Eds.
  • Allyn and Bacon, Needham Heights, Massachusetts.

Text Structure Lesson for Kids: Definition & Examples

When writing a novel, one text structure that authors may employ is the comparison and contrast framework. Comparing and contrasting two things is a way of expressing how two things are similar and how two things are distinct. You can use visual aids such as a Venn diagram to assist you in making a list of all the differences and similarities that you notice between two parts of a story that are being compared and contrasted – simply place the things that overlap, or the similarities, in the middle of the diagram and the differences on the outside of the diagram.

A Venn diagram can help you compare and contrast.

When a tale uses a comparison and contrast text structure, signal words such as alike, similar, and both are used to help the reader understand the plot. These terms express how the two items are in comparison to one another. Other signal words in this form of text structure, on the other hand, are distinct, and include, for example, while, and on the other hand. These terms convey the fact that the two objects are distinct from one another.


When authors recount stories in chronological sequence, they utilize a text structure called sequencing. They may employ transitional terms such as first, next, then, and ultimately, as well as ordinal words such as first, second, third, and fourth to convey their meaning. Using this text structure, passages can occasionally recount a tale in the chronological sequence in which an event occurred, describe the procedures necessary to manufacture something, or depict the life story of someone from birth to death.

Following that, we unpacked our belongings and had a siesta. After our sleep, we went out to supper, watched a movie, then went for a walk on the beach, which was wonderful. After that, we returned to our hotel, took a bath, and retired to our rooms.

Cause and Effect

Using cause and effect text structure while creating stories is another sort of text structure that authors employ. What is known as cause and effect discusses the reasons why something occurs. More exactly, the cause of anything is the reason for it to happen, and the impact is what really occurs as a result of the cause.

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Text: Text Structures

Text structure refers to the framework that a text’s beginning, middle, and end are built upon. Distinct narrative and expository genres serve different objectives and appeal to varied audiences, necessitating the use of different text structures in order to achieve those aims and appeal. Beginnings and ends aid in the construction of a cohesive whole from a collection of fragments.


For a writer, deciding where to begin is a critical decision. Similar to how a strong introduction might entice a reader to continue reading, a terrible introduction can turn off a reader from continuing to read further. It is also known as theleador thehook, and it serves to introduce readers to the objective of the writing by presenting characters or setting (in the case of narrative) or the topic, thesis, or argument (in the case of argumentative writing) (for expository writing). Moreover, a strong start establishes expectations about the piece’s purpose, style, and overall tone by setting expectations early on.


The manner in which the center of a piece of literature is organized varies depending on the genre. Organizational structures have been recognized by researchers in five main categories: sequence, description, cause and effect, comparison/contrast, and issue and solution. Sequence is an organizing structure that makes use of chronological, numerical, or geographical order. Personal narrative genres (memoir, autobiographical incident, autobiography), creative story genres (fairytales, folktales, fantasy, science fiction), and realistic fiction genres are examples of narrative structures that employ a chronological sequence structure.

  1. Many narratives also incorporate the protagonist’s objectives as well as the difficulties that must be faced in order to reach those objectives.
  2. Descriptive reports can be organized according to categories of related properties, going from broad categories of features to more detailed attributes as the report is written.
  3. Cause and effect are demonstrated in essays by providing arguments to support relationships, which are expressed with the term “because.” Additionally, signal words for cause and effect structures include if/then statements, “as a consequence of,” and “as a result of,” among others.
  4. Comparing and contrasting qualities across several categories may be accomplished using graphic organizers such as venn diagrams, compare/contrast organizers, and tables.

Authors are required to state an issue and come up with a solution for this assignment. Problem and Solution Although problem/solution structures are most commonly seen in factual writing, realistic fiction frequently employs a problem/solution structure as well as other patterns.


If you’ve ever seen a terrific movie for ninety minutes only to have it limp to a close with a poor conclusion, you know how important it is to have powerful ends in your stories, just as strong starts are for good writing. And anyone who has seen the director’s cut of a movie, which has all of the possible endings, understands that even great directors have difficulty coming up with satisfying endings for their films to be released. Authors must make the same decisions that directors do about how to bring their stories to a close, ending the conflict and wrapping up loose ends in a way that will satisfy their audience.

When the goal is to entertain, the conclusion may be happy or tragic, or it may be a surprise ending that provides a surprising twist.

Endings can be purposefully ambiguous or sardonic, with the intent of making the reader ponder, or they might plainly declare the moral of the narrative, instructing the reader on what to do with the information.

Teaching Text Structures

Written by| 1 on July 21, 2015| 0 Comments Students should learn about text structure, and this blog post is dedicated to encouraging instructors of all grades and subject areas to do so. It is a fantastic technique to improve your writing and reading comprehension abilities. When it comes to text structure, it is the organization of ideas as well as the links between those ideas; readers and authors who are familiar with text structure can tell when information is being revealed. The fifth Common Core Reading Standard (CCRS5) is concerned with teaching text structure.

Authors employ structural features to arrange information and ideas in their texts, as well as to draw attention to crucial sections of the text.

Click here to get a paper that demonstrates the relationship between understanding and writing structure.

The Elements of Structural Design

  • Text characteristics, such as the title and headers, aid in the identification of the topic and the general structure of ideas in a document. Using headings to break up a large piece of material into digestible “chunks” makes it simpler for readers to get through it. Images and captions draw attention to crucial aspects and provide an alternate representation of information to supplement the written depiction. Understanding the type of writing (e.g., persuasive, informational, narrative) and genre helps readers to obtain hints about how the text is arranged and presented, which may be quite useful. Introductions and conclusions assist readers in determining the topic and purpose of the writing
  • But, they are not required. It is also possible to improve comprehension and retention of information by recognizing certain patterns of organization (for example, sequence, comparison, and contrast) (Akhondi et al, 2011). Please see the attachment for a set of paragraph templates that may be used to assist pupils in learning how to write utilizing various organizational patterns
  • Transition words and phrases are essential structural elements, despite the fact that they are frequently disregarded. A transition is a link between two or more phrases, paragraphs, or longer sections of text. Transition words and phrases are frequently used to convey signals to the reader regarding the arrangement of a piece of writing. Here is a list of often used transition words: Writers can use their understanding of sentence and paragraph structure to develop the individual ideas contained within sentences (these ideas are often referred to as propositions) and combine them to build the primary concepts included within paragraphs.

Instructional strategies for teaching text structure are included in the professional development for both The Key Comprehension Routine andKeys to Content Writing.

Here are some extra resources to help you with your text structure lessons:

  • Text Structure Worksheets(E Reading Worksheets)
  • Patterns of Organization(E Reading Worksheets)
  • Teaching and Assessing Understanding of Text Structures Across Grades(Karin Hess, National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment)
  • Reading Mamablog’s post on 5 Days of Text Structure Instruction for Readers

Joan Sedita

Joan Sedita is the originator and author of the Keys to Literacy professional development seminars, as well as the author of the Keys to Literacy curriculum. She has extensive experience as an educator, as well as being a nationally known speaker and teacher training. She has worked in the literacy education sector for more than 35 years, and she has presented to thousands of teachers and associated professionals at schools, universities, clinics, and professional conferences throughout her career.

Teaching Text Structure (And What To Do When Students Struggle)

Informative text structure is a very effective reading skill that may greatly assist pupils in making sense of and analyzing informational content. Text structure teaching tactics are discussed in this post, which includes pre-requisite skills, all of the distinct text structure abilities, and strategies for when students struggle with text structure.

What is Text Structure?

In a text, text structure refers to the way in which the details and information in the text are arranged. There are five forms of text structure that are often used:

  • Description
  • Chronological order/sequence
  • Comparison and contrast
  • Problem and solution
  • Cause and effect
  • And conclusion.

When I present text structures, I introduce them all at once, and then we go into further depth on individual text structures over the course of several days. The following is the order in which I have traditionally presented my lessons.

Why is Text Structure Important?

Reading comprehension and retention of information can both be considerably improved when readers are able to identify and understand the text structure of a piece of writing. Students can benefit from understanding the text structure if they do the following:

  • While reading, kids should organize the information and facts they are acquiring in their thoughts. Identify and draw connections between the details that are offered in a text. Summarize the most relevant points that were discussed in a work

Pre-Requisite Standards Before Teaching Text Structure

Make certain that you have taught or that the students have a working grasp of the following before beginning to teach text structure:

  • That books and writers are written with certain goals in mind
  • That a text or section of text contains a central idea that the author wishes the reader to grasp (although students may not be able to adequately generate or select a central idea, they must recognize that texts contain such ideas)
  • That a text or section of text contains a subordinate idea that the author wishes the reader to grasp That diverse subjects or events can be connected in a variety of ways (cause and effect, compare and contrast relationships, etc.). In order to recognize these linkages at the sentence level, students need have a working understanding of how to do so.

Text Structure Skills Students Need to Master

Fourth and fifth graders have varying levels of text structure proficiency. Students in 5th grade are expected to go far more than simple identification when it comes to identifying objects. Increasing the difficulty for 4th grade children (who are ready) will sow the seeds of success that will carry them through to the 5th grade. 5th grade instructors, on the other hand, may be forced to teach all of the text structure skills in order to get our pupils up to the level of rigor that is required (even the ones required by 4th because we know that retention is not always something that goes in our favor.)

  • Make connections between details (Do they describe the same topic? Are they related to each other? Is there a comparison and contrast between the topics?)
  • Recognize the important terms that are used to demonstrate common links between information
  • Understand text structures and their functions (for example, to transmit information in an ordered manner that aids in the presentation of the central topic)
  • The text structure utilized in a paragraph should be identified. Proofread your work and tie it back to the primary concept and information offered in it to demonstrate text structure. Show that you understand the text’s structure by identifying the key terms or clue words that were employed. Locate and describe the general text structure that is employed by a text that has numerous paragraphs. Make use of the text structure of a text to assist you in summarizing it
  • Identification and understanding of the reasons why a text has different sorts of text structures Use a visual organizer that is tailored to the text structure to summarize the most important details offered in a text. It is important to recognize that texts on the same general topic may be produced utilizing a variety of text structures. Learn to compare and contrast text structures employed by numerous texts on the same topic, as well as to comprehend why the text structures vary. Provide an explanation for why a certain text structure was employed in a text (especially when evaluating texts on the same topic but with varying text structures)
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Keep this list in mind as you design your mini-lessons for the general group as well as your small group reading lessons. I spend two weeks with 5th graders teaching them about text organization (read more about my reading pacing here). If you don’t have the time to devote to this, I propose that you include the teaching of these skills into your small group reading sessions.

Tips for Students Who Struggle with Text Structure

If students have difficulty comprehending text structure, reteach them the following skills or have them review their comprehension: 1. Bring it down to the level of a phrase. Is it possible for the pupils to recognize a cause and effect link in a single statement? Repeat the process for the remaining text structures. If pupils are having difficulty at the sentence level, make sure they receive the essential teaching. Include key terms and/or clue words in the sorting and identification exercises to supplement the existing guidance (identifying them in texts).

  1. A large number of students confuse text structures with description, despite the fact that all text structures are, in essence, descriptions.
  2. When describing cats and dogs, for example, it is useful to compare and contrast both species’ characteristics.
  3. “Does the text describe the issue in terms of a certain connection (compare and contrast, cause and effect, etc.)?” I ask myself in this manner.
  4. Draw attention to, underline, or highlight the words in a text that clearly demonstrate relationships.
  5. 5.
  6. Students will have higher success identifying the text structure if they can picture the optimal method to organize details in a text before they begin to read the text.
  7. 6.
  8. One of the ways I assist my students learn text structure is by having them write using certain text structures.
  9. It is important to note that pupils must have a basic understanding of a book in order to comprehend the specifics and how they are related/connected.

One method of assisting with skill education is to use a lower lexile number. To see passages and writings written for 4th and 5th grade abilities but at a lexile level of 2nd/3rd grade, please visit the following link.

Download a Printable Version

Would you want a one-page printable version of the techniques and information for teaching text structure that I’ve offered in this post? Click here. To obtain it, simply click here on the image below.

Recommended Text Structure Resources

It is highly recommended that you visit myText Structures Resource if you are tired of scouring the internet for activities, resources, and passages to use in teaching text structure to your students. The number of resources for teaching and practicing text structure is so large that you will most likely not be able to use them all (which is not a bad problem to have!). There are educational posters, visual organizers, a plethora of texts to choose from (both individually and in pairs), and exercises for small groups.

This Post Is Available for Purchase

Text Structures ResourcesActivities

Everything you need to teach text structures is included, including posters, graphic organizers, texts (short texts, long texts, paired texts), and small group activities, such as task cards.

More Text Structure Blog Posts and Freebies

Text Structure Can Be Taught Through Read-Alouds Reading Arrangements– In this free collection of reading sorts, you may find a free text structure reading sort. They are an excellent re-teaching exercise or reading center for reviewing the fundamentals of text structures identification. Text Structure Activities and Resources that are completely free– On this page, you will find some free printable tools to assist your students in understanding text structure and applying it to their own works.

what is the meaning of text structure

Classification-division Text structure is a type of organizational structure in which authors group elements or ideas into categories based on their similarity to one another. It enables the author to take a broad concept and break it down into smaller sections for the aim of providing clarity and explanation to the reader. The primary components of a tale, such as the storyline, characters, setting, and theme, are controlled by the story’s structure. This section contains the introduction of the story, a crisis or problem, and a resolution.

What are the 5 text features?

Text features are all of the elements of a narrative or article that are not contained inside the primary body of the text. Table of contents, index, glossary, headers, bold words, sidebars, photos and captions, and labeled diagrams are some examples of what is included.

What are text types?

The four primary sorts of text types are narrative, descriptive, directed, and argumentative, amongst others. Text types, on the other hand, might contain a variety of distinct sorts of text; the borders between text types are not always evident. We are, according to some, increasingly being presented with texts that contain a diverse range of text kinds.

What is text structure in a novel?

The relationships that exist between distinct elements of a text and the text as a whole are called textual relationships.

It is possible to refer to the text’s structure in terms of the internal organization of ideas, such as in an argument or a tale, the development of parallel storylines in a novel or drama, or the overall framework of the text.

What is narrative text structure?

Resolution. Remember that narrative text structure is based on a story structure that contains aspects such as setting, characters, conflict, plot (including rising action, climax, and falling action), and resolution, among others. Identifying the text type by looking for signal words such as “first,” then,” or at the end of a sentence is another important technique.

What is the difference between structures and features of a text?

Text Organization Text Features are frameworks that authors employ to arrange information, trigger the reader’s attention, and explain content. Text characteristics and structures are sometimes undetectable to pupils until they are expressly pointed out or taught to them by the instructor. … The textual conventions (titles, headings, subheadings, legends, illustrations, etc.)

What text structure uses as a result?

To demonstrate causal linkages between occurrences, the cause and effect structure is utilized. Cause and effect are demonstrated in essays by providing arguments to support relationships, which are expressed with the term “because.” Additionally, signal words for cause and effect structures include if/then statements, “as a consequence of,” and “as a result of,” among others.

What is expository text structure?

Definitions: Expository text is a type of nonfictional text that provides information. It is not ordered in a storylike manner, but rather according to the author’s objectives and aims, or according to substance, as is the case with this kind. News stories, informational publications, instruction manuals, and textbooks are all examples of what is considered “informational.”

What does functional text mean?

Definition. The term “functional text” refers to text that is utilized for everyday information. It is referred to as functional since it is intended to assist you in your day-to-day activities. Examples from Everyday Life To prepare chocolate chip cookies, I would first read and follow a recipe, which I would find online.

How do you write text structure?

Examine subject sentences that provide clues to the reader about the text construction method before using it into lessons. Create a paragraph that follows a specified text structure by copying and pasting it into your document. Students should attempt to construct paragraphs that adhere to a specified text structure.

What are text structures in nonfiction?

Text structure refers to an author’s approach of structuring the material in a piece of writing (Figure 2). There are five types of text structures that are considered to be common: description, cause and effect, compare and contrast, issue and solution, and sequence (Meyer 1985).

Why do we have schools text structure?

Literature structure education has been shown to assist young pupils read text and learn new words. In conclusion, our research supports the usefulness of specific reading comprehension training for pupils in elementary school. It also illustrates that text organization may be a beneficial teaching tool when it comes to comprehension.

What is the overall text structure of the paragraph?

“Text structure” refers to the way in which information is ordered inside a passage of text.

The structure of a text might alter several times within a piece of writing, and even inside a single paragraph. On state reading tests, students are frequently required to identify text structures or patterns of organization in order to pass the test.

What is a problem and solution text structure?

Problem and Solution is a pattern of organization in which information in a passage is portrayed as a difficulty or concerned issue (a problem), and something that was, can be, or should be done to correct this dilemma or worrying issue (a solution) is discussed (solution or attempted solution). The aim of the author is furthered by the text’s structure. An instructive content is likely to be organized in a logical sequence of paragraphs. This aids in the comprehension of the material by the reader.

How does text structure helps completing a sentence?

Students can benefit from understanding the text structure if they do the following: While reading, kids should organize the information and facts they are acquiring in their thoughts. Connect the dots connecting the many information that are offered in a paragraph. Summarize the most essential points that were discussed in a text.

Why is structure important in a story?

The framework of a story operates in a similar manner. Writing style, such as voice and tone, as well as diction and use of figurative language, impacts how readers “hear” and appreciate a tale. But the internal structure of the piece—the arrangement of its parts—shapes it and makes it readable—and frequently defines its meaning.

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What do you understand by structure in English literature?

The overall form of a text is referred to as the text’s structure. This can refer to the sequence in which the events in a tale, novel, or play take place. Consider the way the structure functions in terms of the impacts it produces and how it does this. Look for linkages that connect the beginning of a text to the finish of the text. …

What are the components of text structure?

All well-structured academic works are divided into three sections: the introduction, the major body, and the conclusion.

How can text structure help you analyze an article?

When readers understand the structure of a selection, they may anticipate what information will be disclosed in that selection. Identifying the structure of the text assists readers in organizing thoughts for synthesizing and summarizing information. Questions to Consider: Look for titles, subtitles, headers, and important words throughout the piece.

Lesson: What is Text Structure?

Examples of text structure in definitions how many distinct text structures are there Text structure pdf sequence text structure example forms of text structure pdf text structure pdf Description of the text structure in pdf exactly what are the six different sorts of text structures See more entries in the FAQ category.

What is Text Structure?

As adults, we don’t tend to give much thought to the structure of a piece of writing. Because we are already proficient readers, we are able to assimilate the text’s structure as well as its content without any difficulty. However, even if we aren’t always aware of it, the structure of a book — particularly a nonfiction piece — contributes significantly to our understanding of the material being presented. The way information is ordered in a paragraph, chapter, or book assists our brains in determining which piece of information is the most significant and how to categorize the other information.

Identifying and understanding the purpose of typical text structures is a talent that is frequently specified in your language arts curriculum for the young readers in your classroom, and it is a skill that is often highlighted in your language arts curriculum.

One of the most essential aspects of teaching text structure is that it eventually leads to pupils becoming better writers.

So, what steps should you take to begin teaching text structure to your young readers? First and foremost, it aids in the comprehension of the most typical text structures used by non-fiction writers.

7 Common Text Structures

  1. Cause and Effect Writings: These texts explain something by spotlighting one occurrence and then explaining the consequences that followed. This format is frequently used in science and history texts. The terms “because,” “hence,” and “why” are important to search for in this type of writing
  2. Chronological: These texts organize events in the sequence in which they occurred. In current events, history, as well as works of fiction and memoir, this pattern is frequently used. Time markers such as “first,” “next,” “then,” and “eventually” are important to remember. The comparison and contrast writings are mostly descriptive, but they deal with two or more themes in order to draw attention to the similarities and contrasts that exist between them. This framework is applicable across all topics. In these writings, the key words are more, less, as, than, and however.
  3. Order of Importance: These texts convey facts or information in a hierarchy, with the most significant thing appearing first. A common application of this format is in news reports and science, although it may be applied to a variety of areas. The terms “most,” “least,” and “important” are among the most often used.
  4. Problem and Solution: These books begin by outlining a problem and then describe how to resolve or fix the problem. This pattern is prevalent in science, math, and social studies classes, as well as in a broad variety of educational publications on a variety of topics. Issue, problem, trouble, repair, solution, and how are some of the key phrases in this structure. Sequence / Process: This structure is similar to chronological texts in that it arranges information in chronological order, but with an emphasis on demonstrating how something should be done. This is a common occurrence in lab reports and how-to articles. These texts describe situations, generally arranging that information by position
  5. For example, describing a room by traveling from the entryway to the opposite wall is an example of spatial / descriptive writing. This structure may be found in both fiction and non-fiction works of literature. Prepositions such as “above,” “below,” “behind,” and other similar expressions are important. The use of adjectives is also a distinguishing feature of this text structure

Tips for Teaching Text Structure to Elementary School Students

Although the notion of text organization can be a bit dry, you can ensure that your pupils understand the core of the subject by following a few simple guidelines to make the subject simple for them to absorb.

1. Explain Why Text Structures Are Important

It is beneficial to explain to your pupils why they are studying this subject matter — just make sure you do so in a kid-friendly manner to ensure that they understand what you are saying. That means skipping over the section on state examinations and concentrating instead on how comprehending an author’s goal will help students grasp the readings they’re assigned to. Also, you might point out that it’s a smart method to structure text so that it can be reinforced in the future.

2. Use Age-Appropriate Examples

While discussing text structure, it is always preferable to use concrete examples than than simply talking about them in general terms. It’s ideal to keep your examples concise and to the point — and to make sure they’re appropriate for your children’s reading level. Even while you can use a paragraph from your classroom library, it may be more convenient to simply compose your own. Consider looking at this fantastic SlideShare for further inspiration.

3. Discuss and Dissect the Sample

Ask your pupils to read your example and identify sentences or words that demonstrate how the writer communicates his or her argument. As an example, which terms convey the idea that a comparison is being drawn? Once students have worked through an example or two, you may ask them to consolidate their understanding of the subject by producing a short piece that matches the framework you’re teaching.

4. Brainstorm Key Words

Another fantastic moment to have your kids develop key terms that they can use to search for – they’re certain to come up with many more examples than the ones we’ve provided above! Determine if your students can fill in the blanks on a sheet of chart paper with terms that will alert them to the text structure being used for each text structure. Using these posters to decorate your classroom and serve as a visual reminder of upcoming language arts classes is a fantastic idea!

5. Take It Slow

Attempting to cover all seven text structures in a single class would be quite dangerous. Doing one lesson at a time is recommended, with lessons spaced out over a week or longer period of time. As you read for educational purposes throughout the year, you’ll have lots of opportunities to review the content. It’s a natural method to reinforce the principles in a more meaningful way, so make sure to keep the reminders coming throughout the year! Visit our nonfiction text features posters for more information.

Teach Readers to Discern Text Structure

Fourth, utilize the visual of the dominoes to show one or more of the reasons why something occurred. The chicken foot motif is ideal for a single cause with a variety of consequences. Both versions of the matchingCause/Effect graphic organizers are available for download. Teach pupils to recognize the links between cause(s) and effect(s) by employing the ideas of before and after (s). Problem-Solution Structure: Use the puzzle image to expose a problem (the incomplete puzzle) and how to solve it (add the missing piece(s) to complete the puzzle.

  • The matchingProblem/Solution visual organizers are available in both English and Spanish.
  • They have been taught from an early age that they must compromise and collaborate with one another.
  • 6.
  • Both versions of the matchingProposition/Support graphic organizers are available for download.
  • The first paragraph establishes the author’s claim–what is the topic of the essay and what is his or her position on the topic?
  • It is someone’s suggestion on how to resolve a contentious topic for which there is no “correct” answer.
  • Comments from a fantastic teacher Faryl Smith, a fourth and fifth grade teacher at Valparaiso Community Schools (Valparaiso, IN), exposed her pupils to text structures as part of her current content-area curricular studies while they were in fourth and fifth grade.

With this knowledge, she moved on to educate about the characteristics of that particular sort of text by examining other information books and identifying their layouts.

This was accomplished easily in fifth grade, but it took more time in fourth grade since they were transferring from reading to learn to writing to learn.

They were unable to comprehend how to read informational literature and were unable to comprehend the structure of the text.

Given the variety of text structures available, she opted to concentrate on five primary ones: chronological-sequence, cause-and–effect, problem–solution, compare–contrast, and description.

She went on to teaching the core topic when they had a good grasp of recognizing these five (after a lot of practice!).

How did you get to that conclusion?

If it is a description, the following question would be, “Who, what, where, or what concept is being described?” If it is a person, place, thing, or idea, the next inquiry would be, “What is the person, place, thing, or idea that is being described?” The solution to this question is the central notion!

That is the central concept!

That is the central concept.

That is the central concept.

That is the central concept.

Faryl exclaimed with delight that she had observed light bulbs turning on.

As a result, Faryl considers it worthwhile to devote some time at the beginning of the year to learning about text features and structures.

They will be able to ask appropriate questions and make predictions about informational texts from that point forward because they will have learned how to use text features.

They will be able to go back and support their answers because they will know where to look for the information rather than having to reread the entire document.

This journey has been eye-opening for Faryl and her students, as they have assisted students in the intermediate grades in their transition from learning how to read to reading to learn.

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