An in-text citation is the brief form of the reference that you include in the body of your work. It gives enough information to uniquely identify the source in your reference list. The brief form usually consists of: family name of the author(s), and. year of publication.6
How to make an in text citation?
- On the References tab,in the Citations Bibliography group,click the arrow next to Style and click the style that you want to use for the citation and source.
- Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite.
- On the Reference tab,click Insert Citation and then do one of the following: To add the source information,click Add New Source,and then,in the Create Source dialog
- If you chose to add a source,enter the details for the source. To add more information about a source,click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.
- Click OK when finished. The source is added as a citation at the place you selected in your document.
- 1 What is an in-text citation example?
- 2 What do you call an in-text citation?
- 3 How do you write et al in APA?
- 4 How do you do an in-text citation for a website?
- 5 How is citation done?
- 6 How do you write in-text citations?
- 7 What is et al example?
- 8 How do you cite 3 authors in APA?
- 9 How do you in text cite with multiple authors?
- 10 How do you cite a website example?
- 11 LibGuides: Referencing: In-Text Citations
- 12 In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
- 13 APA Citation Basics
- 14 What Are In-Text Citations?
- 15 How to write an in-text citation
- 16 APA Format In-Text Citations
- 17 MLA and Chicago Formatting
- 18 Do’s and Don’ts of In-text Citations
- 19 Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation
- 20 What is an in-text citation?
- 21 Library: Citing Sources in APA Style 7th edition: In-Text Citations
- 21.1 Specific examples from a source
- 21.2 One author
- 21.3 Two authors
- 21.4 Three or more authors
- 21.5 Group authors
- 21.6 Works without authors
- 21.7 Works without a date
- 21.8 Different works with the same author and date
- 21.9 Citing multiple works
- 21.10 Citing a secondary source
- 21.11 Personal communication (in personelectronic)
- 22 What is an In-Text Citation? – APA Style Citations
- 23 Define What In-Text Citations Are for Academic Writing
- 24 What Are Citations?
- 25 Examples of In-Text Citations
- 26 How to Use Style Guides
- 27 Parenthetical versus narrative in-text citations
- 28 Parenthetical citations
- 29 Narrative citations
- 30 Research & Subject Guides: Citation Guides: In Text Citations
- 31 General Guidelines
- 32 In-Text Citations: Author-Page Style
- 33 In-text Citations for Print Sources with Known Author
- 34 In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author
- 35 Author-Page Citation for Classic and Literary Works with Multiple Editions
- 36 Citing Authors with Same Last Names
- 37 Citing a Work by Multiple Authors
- 38 Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author
- 39 Citing Multivolume Works
- 40 Citing the Bible
- 41 Citing Indirect Sources
- 42 Citing Non-Print or Sources from the Internet
- 43 Miscellaneous Non-Print Sources
- 44 Electronic Sources
- 45 Multiple Citations
- 46 When a Citation Is Not Needed
- 47 What is an in-text citation in APA Style?
- 48 CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations
What is an in-text citation example?
Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14).
What do you call an in-text citation?
When you refer to the words and ideas of others within your own research MLA style requires you to give credit by using an in-text citation (also known as “imbedded” or “parenthetical” citation ) within the text of your paper.
How do you write et al in APA?
The abbreviation “et al.” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten in-text citations with three or more authors. Here’s how it works: Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
How do you do an in-text citation for a website?
Luckily, writing the in-text citation for a website or webpage is easy: Simply include the author and year of publication. The URL goes in the corresponding reference list entry (and yes, you can leave the links live).
How is citation done?
Citations: When you cite the sources of information in the report, you give a number in brackets that corresponds to the number of the source listed in the order in which they appear in the report, the source listed first as , the next source , etc.
How do you write in-text citations?
In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.
What is et al example?
The phrase “et al.” is derived from the Latin phrase et alia, meaning and others. The most common way you’ll see et al. For example, you might see the phrase, “Horowitz et al. (2012) published ground-breaking research,” which means that Horowitz and others published the research.
NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author’s name followed by et al. and the year. References: Author Surname, First Initial.
Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses. In et al., et should not be followed by a period.
How do you cite a website example?
When citing a web page or online article in APA Style, the in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).
LibGuides: Referencing: In-Text Citations
You should provide information that would allow you to identify the exact section of a text within your in-text citation, in addition to the standard author-date citation, when citing that section of the text. Whether it’s a certain page range, a preface or chapter from an authored book, or the appendix of a report, you may choose any exact piece you’d like to draw attention to. Where there are no page numbers in a work, you will need to assist the reader in locating the appropriate portion of the referenced work by the use of an alternative approach, such as a paragraph number, a section name, a time stamp, or any combination of these.
See the following instances, as well as the APA website: No page numbers are used in direct quotations of material.
Additionally, you may use this technique to describe a piece of your work inside your writing.
(Wang, 2018, pages. 27-31) (Wang, 2018, pp. 27-31)
2020, para. 3; Vrajlal, 2020, para. 3).
(From Beyond Blue, n.d., part on Planning for the Future) If the section title is lengthy, you can condense it to the first few words of the section title. Place quote marks around the title of the abbreviated section. (From the World Health Organization’s “How to Cope” section in 2020.) Write the type of section (e.g., chapter or figure) out in full, beginning with a capital letter, if you want to refer to that specific sort of section. More examples may be found here. Thompson (2019, Slide 14) defines formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized (Thornton, 2019, Slide 14) Sheridan (2006) describes a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized (Sheridan, 2006, Chapter 2) (National Museum of the American Indian, 2016, Standard 5)
To quote from an audiovisual work, give a time stamp indicating the exact instant at which the quotation begins to be heard or shown. (Boisvert, 3:38 p.m., 2019) Some classic works (such as Shakespeare’s works or the Bible) employ a numbering system that is consistent across editions, and it can be more helpful to use that system rather than page numbers when citing specific portions, for example, citing lines in Act 5, Scene 1: (Shakespeare, 1623/1963, 5.1.38-43). For additional information on works having canonically numbered parts, visit the APA Style page.
In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
Note:This page contains the most recent edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (APA 7), which was issued in October 2019. You may find the similar material for the older APA 6 style in this section. The Publication Manual’s pages 261-268 provide guidance on how to use reference citations in text. Some general principles for citing other people’s work in your essay are provided below for your convenience. It is recommended on pages 117-118 of the Publication Manual that writers of research articles use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal words that appear in the literature review and technique descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) discovered or Jones (1998) has discovered.) Jones (1998) discovers that the simple present tense may be used in contexts other than those associated with typically organized research writing.
APA Citation Basics
When writing in APA format, the author-date technique of in-text citation should be used. This implies that the last name of the author, as well as the year of publication for the source, should be included in the text, such as, for example (Jones, 1998). The reference list at the conclusion of the document should contain one complete reference for each source cited throughout the study. If you are referring to an idea from another work but are not directly quoting the material, or if you are making reference to an entire book, article, or other work, you only need to include the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and do not need to include the page number in your reference.
- Before providing the page number, use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) to indicate that it is the first page (s).
- If you want to write (Jones, 1998, p.
- 199–201), for example, you might write This information is restated in the next section.
- Capitalization, quotations, and italics/underlining are all acceptable in-text citations.
- Proper nouns, including author names and initials, should always be capitalized: Jones, D.
- Jones, D. If you make reference to the title of a source inside your work, be sure to capitalize any terms that are four letters or longer in length within the title of a source, such as: The concepts of permanence and change are intertwined. Short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs are exempt from this rule. Examples include: There is nothing left to lose when it comes to new media writing.
(Please keep in mind that just the first word of a title will be capitalized in your References list: Writing new media.)
- Titles that contain a hyphenated compound word should be capitalized on both words: Cyborgs that were born naturally
- After a dash or a colon, capitalize the first word that follows: Hitchcock’s Vertigo serves as a case study in “Defining Film Rhetoric.” For works whose titles are italics in your reference list, italicize them in the text as well, and use title case capitalization in the text: Friends
- The Wizard of Oz
- The Closing of the American Mind
- The Closing of the American Mind If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even if the reference list is written in sentence case): “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
- ” “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds
- ” “The One in which Chandler is unable to cry.”
It is necessary to mention the author, publication year, and page number for a reference when directly quoting from a book (preceded by “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for a span of several pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash). Using a signal phrase that comprises the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you can introduce the quotation. Jones (1998) states that “students frequently had problems utilizing APA style, particularly when it was their first time” (p.
Jones (1998) discovered that “students frequently had trouble employing APA style” (p.
Wherever possible, omitting the author’s last name but including his or her year of publication and page number in the text of the sentence will be accepted as proper citation practice.
Whenever you are directly quoting from a book, you must give the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by “p.” for a single page, and “pp.” for a span of many pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash). Using a signal phrase that comprises the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parenthesis, you may bring the citation into your paper. In the words of Jones (1998), “students frequently had trouble utilizing APA style, particularly when it was their first time” (p.
“Students frequently have problems employing APA style,” according to Jones (1998) (p.
You should provide the author’s last name, the year of publication, and page number in parentheses following the quotation if it is not included in the sentence’s content.
In her 1998 paper, Jones (p. 199) said that “students frequently had trouble employing the APA style,” but she did not provide an explanation for why this is the case.
Quotations from sources without pages
It is not necessary to include a page number in direct quotations from sources that do not contain any pages. As an alternative, you may refer to another piece of logical identification, such as a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else entirely. Older works (such as religious writings) may additionally include particular location identifiers, such as verse numbers, to help readers find their way around. For the most part, choose a page number replacement that makes sense for your original material.
Summary or paraphrase
The author and year of publication are all that are required in your in-text reference if you are paraphrasing a concept from another book. The page numbers are not required in this case. According to APA rules, however, giving a page range for a summary or paraphrase where it will assist the reader in finding the material in a lengthier work is strongly encouraged. As Jones (1998) points out, the APA style is a tough citation format to master for first-time learners. For first-time learners, APA style is a tough citation system to master (Jones, 1998, p.
What Are In-Text Citations?
When a reference is made within the body of text of an academic essay, it is known as an in-text citation. The in-text reference directs the reader’s attention to a source that has influenced your own work and vice versa. The specific syntax of an in-text citation will vary depending on the style you are writing in, for example, APA or Chicago. Examine the in-text citations with your academic institution to confirm that you offer them in the manner that they require, and then use Cite This For Me’s citation generator to generate them for you instantly.
How to write an in-text citation
When citing a quotation or paraphrase, it is often sufficient to mention simply the author’s last name, date of publication, and page number from which the quotation or paraphrase was taken, with the entire reference appearing in your bibliography (or works cited) page at the conclusion of your essay. Because it is so obvious to the reader, the in-text citation should be placed in brackets immediately after the passage you have quoted or paraphrased, so that the reader may easily recognize it.
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APA Format In-Text Citations
APA style allows in-text citations to be used after a direct quotation or after paraphrased information. In the case of direct quotations, the in-text citation should be given shortly after. It is customary to include the author’s surname as well as the year of publication and the relevant page number or numbers in the in-text citation of a book. If you are citing a book, the in-text citation will typically include the author’s surname as well as the relevant page number or numbers, enclosed by parentheses.
- For example, Gandalf remarked, “All we have to determine is what we will accomplish with the time that has been granted to us” (Tolkien, 1954, p.
- If you make a direct reference to the author inside the text, you are not required to mention the author’s name in the in-text citation.
- Tolkien says, “All we have to determine is what to do with the time that is given us,” in the first book of the Lord of the Rings trilogy, The Fellowship of the Ring, in which the character Frodo Baggins is introduced.
- If you’re citing content that has been paraphrased, a page number is not usually required.
- Examples include the conflict between good and evil that runs through The Lord of the Rings and other films (Tolkien, 1954).
20). Don’t forget to provide standard citations for your sources in your bibliography at the conclusion of the paper as well as at the beginning of the document.
MLA and Chicago Formatting
In order to keep you on your toes, the different formats use varied requirements for in-text citations to keep things interesting. When using MLA format in-text citations, for example, the author’s last name or the first item contained in the entire citation if the author’s name is not included is commonly used instead of the publication date to avoid confusion. For example, let’s take the identical in-text citation example from earlier and convert it to MLA style for simplicity. “All we have to determine is what we will do with the time that has been granted to us,” Gandalf explained (Tolkien 20).
- A source’s identification information that is contained in the paragraph is unnecessary in the parenthetical citation.
- The parenthetical reference would not be necessary in this scenario, either the source did not offer page numbers or because it was not important to add the page number.
- Alternatively, some writers who adhere to the Chicago style opt to employ a notes and bibliography system, which eliminates the need for in-text citations entirely and instead relies on numbered footnotes or endnotes to provide additional information.
- You may discover helpful citation instructions for the APA, MLA, and Chicago styles on the Cite This For Me website, which can assist you in learning how to make in-text citations.
Do’s and Don’ts of In-text Citations
Make an effort to maintain consistency. One of the most crucial components of citation creation is to ensure that you select a citation style and adhere to it throughout the entirety of your document. Before you begin writing your paper, double-check the criteria for in-text citations in your chosen style, whether you’re using APA format or a different style. From the beginning to the conclusion, follow those regulations. DON’T BELIEVE EVERYTHING. In situations where you are including material from another source, it might be all too simple to think to yourself, “the reader will know where this originated from.” Citations should not be treated in this manner since failing to provide in-text references might result in you being accused of plagiarism and obtaining a negative score on your paper.
- Make your in-text citations as soon as possible.
- Last-minute paper tension might result from delaying your paper till the last minute.
- DON’T OVERUSE THIS FORMULA.
- It is sufficient to include a single in-text citation at the beginning or conclusion of a paragraph or group of sentences that incorporates material from a single source throughout the paragraph or group of statements.
- It is usually a good idea to double-check your in-text citations after you have finished writing your paper and before submitting it to your teacher for review.
- Make one last pass through your in-text citations before submitting your paper for grading to ensure that they are accurate.
- If you are unclear of how to begin creating your in-text citations for your paper, it is always a good idea to consult with your instructor for guidance.
- It is probable that the assignment instructions they offer will provide specifics on how to format citations in the manner in which they anticipate them to be formatted.
Cite This For Me is a tool that allows you to create a bibliography as well as format in-text citations. You will find hundreds of styles on the site, as well as a Harvard referencing generator and many different source kinds, when you visit it.
Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation
Make an effort to maintain consistency in your behavior. One of the most crucial components of citation production is to ensure that you select a citation style and adhere to it for the entirety of the article. Check the criteria for in-text citations in your chosen style before you begin writing your work, regardless of whether you’re using APA format or another style. From the beginning to the conclusion, follow these regulations. ASSUMPTIONS ARE NOT PERMITTED When you integrate material from a different source, it might be all too tempting to think to yourself, “the reader will know where this originated from.” Citations should not be treated in this manner since failing to provide in-text references may result in you being accused of plagiarism and obtaining a negative score for your paper.
- In-text citations should be completed as soon as you can.
- When you leave it till the last minute, you may find yourself stressed out about your paper.
- Don’t overdo it with the usage of this product.
- An in-text citation at the beginning or conclusion of a paragraph or group of sentences will suffice if the material included inside the paragraph or group of phrases is all taken from the same source.
- When writing a paper, it is usually a good idea to double-check your in-text citations after you have finished and before you turn it in to your professor.
- Before you submit in your work for grading, take one more glance at your in-text citations.
- If you are unclear of how to begin creating your in-text citations for your paper, it is always a good idea to consult with your instructor for clarification.
- If they give assignment instructions, it’s probable that they’ll include specifics on how to format citations in the manner in which they anticipate them to be.
A bibliography builder, as well as in-text citation formatting, are both included in Cite This For Me. You will find dozens of styles on the site, as well as a Harvard referencing generator and many more source kinds, so be sure to check it out!
What is an in-text citation?
Make an effort to remain consistent. If you are creating citations, it is critical that you establish a style and adhere to it throughout your work. Before you begin writing your paper, make sure you understand the requirements for in-text citations in your chosen style, whether you’re using APA format or a different style. From the beginning to the conclusion, follow these guidelines. DON’T BELIEVE ANYTHING. When you integrate material from another source, it might be all too tempting to think to yourself, “the reader will know where this originated from.” Citations should not be treated in this manner since failing to provide in-text references may result in you being accused of plagiarism and obtaining a negative score on your paper.
- Do your in-text citations as soon as possible.
- Waiting till the very last minute might result in last-minute paper tension and anxiety.
- BE CAREFUL NOT TO OVERUSE.
- An in-text citation at the beginning or conclusion of a paragraph or group of sentences will suffice if the material included inside the paragraph or group of phrases is taken from the same source.
- When writing a paper, it is usually a good idea to double-check your in-text citations after you have finished and before you turn it in to your instructor.
- Before you submit in your work for grading, take one more glance at your in-text references.
- Always consult with your instructor if you are unclear of how to begin creating your in-text citations for your work.
- It is probable that the assignment instructions they offer will provide specifics on how to format citations in the manner in which they expect them to be done.
- Cite This For Me is a tool that allows you to create a bibliography as well as format citations in-text.
|Types of Citations||Parenthetical citations||Narrative citations|
|In-text citationvariations||The researcher completed the study(Johnson, 2013).||Johnson (2013) completed theresearch study.|
|Direct quotationcitation variations||One source stated that “APA is incrediblyfun” (Johnson,2013, p. 222).||Johnson (2013) stated, “APA isincredibly fun”(p. 222).|
Citations should be placed in the appropriate places.
Following the information that it refers to, your citation should be placed exactly following it. Most of the time, citations may be discovered in one of two places:
- An introduction phrase appears at the start of the sentence:
According to Johnson (2013), students find the APA style to be enjoyable. According to one report, pupils prefer utilizing the APA style guide (Johnson, 2013). On the other hand, if your statement contains many quotations from different sources, you may find it necessary to insert a quotation in the midst of your phrase. For example, one source reported that APA was entertaining (Johnson, 2013), although another source disagreed (Johnson, 2013). (Smith, 2013). It is important to note that, because the first half of the statement is derived from a different source than the second, the citation of Johnson appears in the midst of the sentence, while the citation of Smith appears at the conclusion of the sentence.
- More information about in-text citations may be found here. See our citation guidelines for information on how and when to cite in your writing. The Writing Center’s self-paced APA modules are a great way to check your own citation skills. View previously recorded APA webinars on a variety of citation-related subjects
- Are you looking for assistance with a reference list? Examples of reference entries may be found on the Common Reference List Examples page. See What information is included in a reference citation? and What information is included in a reference citation?
Do you have any more questions? Interested in having a current or future assignment examined by the Writing Center? Please complete this form. For further information, please visit the Writing Center’s Paper Review Website and schedule an appointment. Do you have any additional questions about writing in general? To contact the Writing Center, send an email to [email protected] Do you have any other queries concerning your doctorate capstone or the Form and Style Review? Contact us.
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Library: Citing Sources in APA Style 7th edition: In-Text Citations
When you incorporate someone else’s ideas in your own work, whether as a direct quotation or as a paraphrase, you must include a reference to the original source somewhere in your writing. The in-text citation should include the author’s last name and the year the work was published, and it should relate to a reference included in the references section of your paper. An topic can be distorted through falsely balanced news coverage, which can lead to the public’s view of expert consensus being distorted (Koehler, 2016).
When Should Page Numbers Be Included?
It is not necessary to offer a page number for a paraphrase; however, you may do so if doing so will assist the reader in locating the relevant part in a lengthy or difficult text.
Specific examples from a source
If a passage in your work refers to a quotation, statistic, chart, or other similar particular example from a source, include the page (or paragraph, web page section, chapter, figure, or other such example) where the example may be located in the referenced source. Armstrong (2015) defines a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized The findings of Armstrong (2015) revealed a broad range of communication preferences across people of different ages (p.
172). Examples that do not appear on a page (Shadid, 2020, para. 8) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, section on Vaccine Benefits) (KovacicHorvat, 2017, Table 1)
This topic has already been raised and discussed (Tannen, 2012). orTannen (2012) has made a similar argument.
Salas and D’Agostino (2018), as well as Salas and D’Agostino (2018), found the same results.
Use the first author and et al. (Martin et al., 2013) instead of the last author. This is what Martin and colleagues (2013) discovered in their research:.
Stanford University published a paper in 2016 stating that Authors are grouped together using abbreviations. The first citation is as follows: (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020) Citations in the following paragraphs: (NIMH, 2020)
Use the title of the book as well as the year it was published. Make sure to italicize the title in the reference list and in the in-text citation if it is italics in the reference list. To indicate that the title is not emphasized in the reference list, surround the title with double quotation marks (double quotation quotes). No author for this book: (Interpersonal Competencies, 2019) An article in a magazine with no author: (“Understanding Sensory Memory,” 2018)
Works without a date
When the publishing date of a book is unknown or cannot be ascertained, the abbreviation “n.d.” should be used (which stands for “no date”). Gagnon (n.d.) or Gagnon et al. Gagnon created an idea that is comparable to this one (n.d.).
After the year, a lowercase letter should be used (in both the in-text citation and the reference entries). (2012) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012a) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012b) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012a) (JudgeKammeyer-Mueller, 2012b)
Citing multiple works
In order to properly reference numerous works parenthetically, arrange the citations in alphabetical order, with semicolons separating each one. (Adams and colleagues, 2019; Shumway and Shulman, 2015)
Citing a secondary source
If at all feasible, locate the original source and include it in your citation. If the original source is not available, include a reference item for the secondary source that you utilized instead of the original source. The in-text citation should include the primary source, followed by “as referenced in” and the secondary source you utilized to support your claim. The term “Rabbitt” refers to an author who published in 1982 and is mentioned in Lyon et al. (2014).
Personal communication (in personelectronic)
Give the initial(s) and last name of the communicator, the phrase “personal communication,” and as accurate a date as you can as a reference. The following was said by T. Nguyen in a personal communication on August 8, 2019: The author’s personal correspondence with me on August 8, 2019). Personal correspondence should not be included in the list of references.
What is an In-Text Citation? – APA Style Citations
Create an in-text reference if you wish to use material from a source in your article that you have already read and understood well. As previously stated, in-text citations make use of only a few facts about the source, which are sufficient to identify the source’s corresponding reference citation in the reference list.
For all in-text citations in APA style, regardless of whether you are referencing a book, a journal or trade piece, a website, or any other object, you must provide the following elements:
- When quoting directly from a source, provide the author’s family name(s) or the group name, the year, and the page number or other locator* if you are quoting word for word.
* Instructors may prefer that all in-text citations include the location of the source, so be sure to verify with your instructor. What is the best spot to put citations in my writing? The proper placement of in-text citations is critical since they inform your reader as to which ideas are your own and which ideas are the property of another author or authorship. When it comes to including in-text citations into your work, there are two methods to consider:
- In your final sentence, use an aparenthetical reference. as an anarrative citationas a component of a sentence
Examples 1. An example of an in-text citation for a paraphrase To find out more about the parenthetical and narrative citations used in these paraphrases, simply click on the symbol. 2. Examples of in-text citations for a brief quotation To learn more about how to provide in-text citations for brief quotes, please click on the icon (less than 40 words). Citation in the Narrative Citation in the Parentheses 3. Examples of in-text citations for a lengthy quote To learn more about how to provide in-text citations for long quotes, please click on the icon (more than 40 words).
- Because some sources do not contain page numbers, you should try to give some other identifier so that your reader can find the quotation more quickly if it is not on the page.
- The picture below illustrates various instances of location information and the abbreviations that are acceptable for them.
- What happens if there isn’t an author?
- What happens if there isn’t a date?
- Please refer to the APA Citation Handbook for answers to these and other issues, and if you want more assistance, please contact us.
- Image credit information: “Two Ways To Insert Your Citation” by the University of Alberta Library’sAPA Style Citation Tutorial is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
Define What In-Text Citations Are for Academic Writing
As you begin to write for your English and history studies, you will come across a variety of new terminology. However, you may not be aware of the requirement to acknowledge your research sources, and you may be unsure of the specific meaning of each phrase.
Being familiar with the phrases that are used in academic writing will help you better grasp the process. In order to define what in-text citations are for academic writing, we’ll first discuss what citations are in general and how they relate to citations in particular.
What Are Citations?
Regardless of the citation format your teacher requires, you must always provide the names of your sources. Your sources are the places where you gather the information that will be used in your study. Consider the following scenario: your instructor has assigned you to write an English assignment about great female poets. You might start by conducting a web search to identify websites that provide information on this issue. Then you’ll need to visit the library and look for biographies or poetry collections to finish your reading list.
Once you’ve decided on the sources you’ll be using, you’ll need to gather some basic information about them.
You could even want to put up a preliminary bibliography.
You’ll most likely utilize MLA 8 format for middle and high school English assignments.
Examples of In-Text Citations
It is possible that you may wish to include direct quotes or paraphrases from your sources when you begin writing. The use of an in-text citation indicates when you have cited or paraphrased someone else’s work. In order to avoid plagiarism, always give credit to the original author. In-text citations connect the reader to the complete source item in the bibliography, works cited list, or reference list, where the information is found. In-text citations in MLA 8 style are demonstrated in this example.
Writers and poets frequently use poetic language to describe objects, such as when they refer to the moon as “the sleeping son’s sister” (Anaya 107).
Every in-text reference corresponds to a source record in the database.
Justa Publications published this book in 1976.
How to Use Style Guides
Your teacher will instruct you on the proper writing style to utilize. MLA is a style of writing that is often utilized in high school courses, as you will discover. Chicago/Turabian is a citation style that is used in social sciences and history. The American Psychological Association (APA) style is utilized in areas like as psychology and other social sciences. In addition to following your teacher’s instructions, you should study these articles to discover more in-text citations for your academic writing courses.
Parenthetical versus narrative in-text citations
In-text citations can be presented in two different ways: in parentheses or in narrative style.
- Parenthetical citations are those in which the author’s name and the date of publication are included in parentheses. Whenever possible, the author’s name is inserted into the text as part of the phrase, and the year is included in parentheses after the name of the author
A parenthetical citation is one in which the author’s name and the date are both enclosed in parentheses and separated by a comma. A parenthetical reference can appear anywhere inside a sentence, or it might appear at the conclusion of a sentence. An topic can be distorted through falsely balanced news coverage, which can lead to the public’s view of expert consensus being distorted (Koehler, 2016). If the parenthetical reference is followed by additional content, place commas around the year of publication.
When text and a citation occur together in parentheses, use a semicolon to separate the citation from the text; do not use parenthesis inside parentheses to divide the citation from the rest of the paragraph.
(For example, erroneously balanced news coverage; Koehler, 2016) This instruction is unchanged from the previous iteration.
A narrative citation includes the author’s surname appearing in running text, and the date appearing in parentheses directly after the author’s name for a chronological citation. If it makes sense, the author’s name can be inserted in the sentence at any point within the sentence. Koehler (2016) made a point on the hazards of inaccurately balancing news reporting. In rare instances, the author’s name and the date of publication may both appear in the story. There is no need to use parenthesis in this situation.
The date of creation is February 2020.
Research & Subject Guides: Citation Guides: In Text Citations
The guidelines for citing other people’s works in your writing using MLA style are addressed in chapter six of theMLA Handbook and chapter seven of theMLA Style Manual, which are available online. In addition to providing thorough examples, both volumes are useful resources to consult if you’re looking for further information on MLA rules or have a specific reference query. In MLA style, citing other people’s works inside your own text is accomplished through the use of what is known as parenthetical citation.
- (1) The kind of source media (e.g., print, web, or DVD) needed in a parenthetical reference and (2) the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page
- Any source information that you offer in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited (bibliography) page
- And And to be even more exact, any signal word or phrase you use to direct your readers’ attention throughout your text must be the very first item that appears on the left-hand margin of corresponding entry in the Works Cited List
In-Text Citations: Author-Page Style
The author-page technique of in-text citation is followed by the MLA format. As a result, the author’s last name and page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is drawn must be included in the text, and a comprehensive citation should be included on your Works Cited page as well. It is acceptable to include the author’s name in the sentence or in parenthesis after the quotation or paraphrase; however, the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses rather than in the body of the statement.
Poetry written in the Romantic style is distinguished by the “spontaneous eruption of intense sentiments” (Wordsworth 263).
Wordsworth 263 and (263) are both citations that alert readers that the information in the sentence can be found on page 263 of a work written by an author called Wordsworth, respectively.
The Oxford University Press published a print edition of this book in 1967.
In-text Citations for Print Sources with Known Author
When citing print sources such as books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, include a signal word or phrase (typically the author’s last name) as well as the page number on which the source appears. The signal word/phrase does not need to be included in parenthetical citations if the signal word/phrase is included in the sentence itself. Kenneth Burke has referred to humans as “symbol-using animals” in his writings (3). Historically, humans have been referred to as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 3).
Burke, Kenneth.Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1966. Print.
In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author
When there is no known author for a source, an abbreviated title of the work should be used instead of the author’s name. Use quote marks around the title of a short work (for example, articles) or italicize the title of a larger work (for example, plays, books, television series or full websites) and provide a page number. Because North America has “more readily accessible meteorological data and more thorough systems to monitor and research environmental change.,” we are seeing so many global warming hotspots in this region.
- Because the reader is unfamiliar with the author of the article in this example, a shortened title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation, which corresponds to the full title of the article that comes first at the left-hand margin of its corresponding entry in the Works Cited.
- The following is the entry in the Works Cited section: “The Impact of Global Warming in North America.” Early Warning Signs of Global Warming.
Author-Page Citation for Classic and Literary Works with Multiple Editions
Page numbers are always essential, but extra citation information might be beneficial to literary scholars who may be working with a different edition of a famous book such as Marx and Engels’s The Communist Manifesto than the one being used. The page number of your edition (making certain that the edition is noted in your Works Cited page, of course) should be followed by a semicolon, and then the relevant acronyms for volume (vol. ), book (bk. ), part (pt. ), chapter (ch. ), section (sec. ), or paragraph should be used (par.).
Citing Authors with Same Last Names
It is often important to include additional information in order to identify the source from which a quotation was derived. As an example, if two or more writers have the same last name, include both authors’ first initials (or even the authors’ complete names if distinct authors share the same initials) in your citation. According to R. Miller 12, some medical ethicists believe that cloning would result in the creation of designer offspring; however, others believe that the benefits of medical research outweigh this concern (A.
Citing a Work by Multiple Authors
When citing a source with three or fewer authors, include the last names of the authors in the text or in the parenthetical citation as follows: Gun control advocates Smith, Yang, and Moore contend that more stringent legislation is not required in the United States (76). “Tighter gun restriction in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights,” the authors write (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76). When there are more than three authors on a source, you should utilize the bibliographic information from the work as a guide for your citation.
Jones and colleagues respond to Smith, Yang, and Moore’s thesis by stating that the present surge in gun violence in the United States requires lawmakers to revise gun regulations (4).
4). Or Using the current surge in gun violence in the United States as a counterpoint to Smith, Yang, and Moore’s thesis, Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell argue that lawmakers must modify gun regulations as a result of the present spike in violence (4).
Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author
If you are citing more than one work by the same author, you should add an abbreviated title for the particular work from which you are quoting in order to distinguish it from the rest of the works cited by the author. In his book “Too Soon,” Lightenor argues that computers are not good tools for young children (“Too Soon” 38), while he has admitted elsewhere that early exposure to computer games leads to improved minor motor skill development in a child’s second and third years of life (“Hand-Eye Development” 17).
Citing Multivolume Works
You must always add the volume number after the colon when citing from various volumes of a multivolume book. After the colon, provide the page number by placing a space after it (s). It is not necessary to provide the page number in parentheses if you are only citing from one volume. . as Quintilian wrote in his Institute of Oratoria (Institutio Oratoria) (1: 14-17).
Citing the Bible
In your first parenthetical reference, you want to make it clear which Bible you’re using (and underline or italicize the title), because each translation is different. Then you want to include the book (which should not be italicized or underlined), the chapter, and the verse. Take, for example, Ezekiel’s vision of “four living beings,” each possessing the face of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle, among other things (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10). The book, chapter, and verse of the Bible are all that should be included in the parenthetical citation if future references will be made from the same version that you are now using.
Citing Indirect Sources
It is possible that you will have to use an indirect source at times. A source that is quoted in another source is known as an indirect source. When using indirect quotes, include the phrase “qtd. in” to identify which source you actually used. For example, Ravitch says that high schools are under pressure to serve as “social service centers,” and that they are failing miserably in this endeavor (qtd. in Weisman 259). Consider the fact that, in the majority of circumstances, a good researcher will make every effort to locate the original source rather than referencing an indirect one.
Citing Non-Print or Sources from the Internet
Because more and more scholarly work is being published on the Internet, you may find yourself having to credit research that you have done in virtual settings in the future. While many sources on the Internet should not be utilized for academic work (see the OWL’sEvaluating Sites of Informationresource for more information), certain Web sources are entirely fine for research and are recommended. Always remember that whether you are establishing in-text citations for electronic, video, or Internet materials, your citation must include a reference to the source in your Works Cited section.
When using electronic and Internet sources, adhere to the following recommendations:
- Include the first thing that occurs in the Work in the body of the text. The entry in the citation that relates to the citation (for example, author name, article title, website title, film title)
- In order to take advantage of your Web browser’s print preview capability, you do not need to provide paragraph or page numbers. Unless you absolutely must include the website name in the signal phrase in order to direct the reader to the relevant entry, do not include URLs in the body of the text. Provide just partial URLs, such as when the site’s name includes a domain name, such as CNN.com or Forbes.com, rather than writing out the entire URL
Miscellaneous Non-Print Sources
Klaus Kinski, Werner Herzog’s long-time film collaborator, appears in his latest film, Fitzcarraldo. Despite the fact that Herzog and Kinski were frequently at odds during the filming of Fitzcarraldo, their volatile relationship resulted in a remarkable and significant picture. While delivering her presentation, Jane Yates noted that the fields of invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that require more attention. The words “Herzog” and “Yates” from the first and second entries, respectively, direct the reader to the first item of each citation’s corresponding entry on the Works cited page (see samples above).
- Klaus Kinski stars in this film, which was released by the Verlag der Autoren in 1982.
- Jane Yates is the author of this work.
- Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002.
- Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition
Ficarraldo, according to one online reviewer, is “a magnificent and horrific indictment of obsession and colonialism,” as described in Garcia’s biography of director Werner Herzog, “Herzog: a Life.” Every year, millions of people utilize the Purdue OWL, which is housed at Purdue University. One of the most often used resources is the “MLA Formatting and Style Guide,” which is available online (Stolley et al.). As seen in the first example, the author’s name is not included in the text, but two entries by the same author are included in the Works Cited section.
In the second example, the author name “Stolley et al.” in the parenthetical citation provides the reader with an author name followed by the abbreviation “et al.,” which means “and others,” for the article “MLA Formatting and Style Guide,” which is followed by the abbreviation “et al.,” which means “and others.” The following are the matching Works Cited listings for each other: “Herzog: A Life,” by Elizabeth Garcia, is available online.
- Film Critics’ Corner is a website dedicated to film criticism.
- The Internet Archive, 8 January 2009.
- Purdue University’s Online Learning Laboratory (OWL).
- Purdue University’s Writing Lab published an article on May 12th, 2006.
In order to mention numerous sources inside the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations with a semicolon:. as previously discussed (Burke 3; Dewey 21).
When a Citation Is Not Needed
The requirement for documentation sources should be determined by common sense and ethical considerations. It is not necessary to cite the origins of well-known proverbs, well-known phrases, or common knowledge in this section.
Keep in mind that this is a rhetorical decision dependent on the intended audience. Writers for scholarly journals, for example, will have different assumptions of what constitutes common knowledge than those writing for a general readership.
What is an in-text citation in APA Style?
APA Style (American Psychological Association) (7th ed.) An in-text citation in APA Style, together with a related reference entry, serves to identify the source of quoted or paraphrased language in a paper (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 253). In-text citations in APA Style can be broken down into the three sections below:
- The last name of the author, or the name of the organization that created the material
- And The year in which the resource was first made available
- Page number, paragraph number, or other identifying information that will help the reader to locate the precise material is required.
In-text citations for quoted material must include all three parts, and citations for paraphrases must always include the author’s name and the year the paraphrase was written. These three elements, the author’s name, the date, and the page or paragraph number, are typically combined in one of two ways: first, the author’s name and the date; second, the page or paragraph number and the author’s name and the date; and third, the page or paragraph number and the author’s name and the date.
- Lee (2019) indicated that the “quoted passage” (p. 1) was a quotation. Also discovered was the term “quotation” (Lee, 2019, p.1)
The first of them is referred to as a narrative citation since the author’s name appears outside of the parenthesis, while the second is referred to as aparenthetical citation because the parentheses contain the full in-text reference. It is important to note that when the author’s name appears in the sentence text, the year will appear after the author’s name, even if the page or paragraph number is put after the quotation or at the conclusion of the sentence (APA, 2020, p. 271). For further information, please check Where Should an In-Text Citation Be Placed (APA Style)?
- As an illustration: (Jones, 2006, “Recommendations”, para.
- If your quotation spans more than two pages, you may provide the page range in the citation as follows: (Government of Canada, 1968, pp.
- APA Style handbook page 272 has a graphic that compares the several fundamental citation formats, as well as the information supplied in the following section for more clarification.
- and Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers, both of which are resources provided by the American Psychological Association.
- When presenting information in a paragraph, it’s possible that you’ll find yourself quoting the same source over and over again.
- Please see I’m Quoting/Paraphrasing From the Same Author Several Times in a Paragraph for further information.
Is it permissible to include one citation at the end of a paragraph (APA)? in order to obtain knowledge and examples Reference Affiliation of the American Psychological Association (2020). The American Psychological Association’s publication handbook is available online (7th ed.).
CSSLibraryGuides: Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations
In APA Style, an in-text citation informs the reader about the source of any and all material that did not originate from your own brain or other sources. This is more clear when you are explicitly quoting from a source, but it is equally necessary when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source, and even when you have gotten an idea from someplace else, to cite sources properly. It is critical that you properly cite all of the words and ideas that you have borrowed from other sources in order to avoid being accused of plagiarism.
- If you are writing an APA Style paper, the author-date citation method is used to reference your sources.
- It is possible for readers to identify sources used in the article by looking for author and date information inside the paper’s text, and then simply locate the relevant reference in the alphabetical reference list, using this citation method.
- There are two sorts of in-text citations that can be used.
- A narrative citation is a sort of citation in which the author’s name appears inside the text of the sentence; on the other hand, a parenthetical citation is a type of reference in which the author’s name and the date appear in parentheses at the conclusion of the phrase.
How do I create narrative or parenthetical citations?
In APA Style, you should cite your sources by placing the information about the source in parentheses at the end of a sentence or in the text of your paper, rather than using a footnote, which places the source information at the bottom of the page, or an endnote, which places the information about the source at the end of the paper. There are subtle variances in appearance based on which style you choose.
- Include the last name of the author as well as the year of publication. Only use page numbers or paragraph numbers when quoting directly from a source. Check to ensure that the source information in parentheses corresponds to the source information in your reference list. The punctuation for the statement is placed AFTER the parenthesis
- Nonetheless, When quoting less than forty words, use quotation marks around the words that are being quoted. Sources with defined page numbers should be referenced in narrative citations where the author and date are presented in the sentence. The page number should be included in parentheses at the conclusion of each quote. Instead of using page numbers when the source doesn’t have any, you can use a paragraph number, heading, or a mix of heading and paragraph number. It is acceptable to add the author and date with the page or paragraph number if the author and date are not presented as part of the content itself. The period should appear after the parenthesis
- Otherwise, it is incorrect. If your quote is longer than forty words, set it off in a block text by starting the block quote on a new line, indenting 0.5 inches (one-half inch), and without using quotation marks around the block quote (see example). After the last word of the phrase, place a period after it, followed by the parenthesis, to mark the conclusion of the quote. More information may be found atBlock Quote
For further information on parenthetical and narrative citations, read pages 253-278 of the 7th edition of the American Psychological Association Manual for a detailed discussion and examples.